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Li Ling - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and inflammation may play a decisive role in hypertensive end organ damage (EOD) including left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and vascular remodeling. It is not clear whether the local RAS and inflammatory factors are involved in hypertensive EOD, and which RAS or inflammatory factors (systematic or local) ...
Petersson Maria - - 2008
Postnatal oxytocin treatment decreases blood pressure and increases body weight in adult normotensive rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of postnatally administered oxytocin on blood pressure, heart rate and body weight in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). For this purpose SHR male pups were given ...
Gao Yu-Jing - - 2008
In Wistar rats, maternal exposure to nicotine was shown to impair the inhibitory function of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular contractility in the aorta of the offspring. It is not known whether an impairment of perivascular adipose tissue function occurs in smaller arteries, and whether the control of blood pressure ...
Jüllig Mia - - 2008
Hypertension now affects about 600 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of death in the Western world. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), provides a useful model to investigate hypertensive heart failure (HF). The SHR model replicates the clinical progression of hypertension in humans, wherein early development of hypertension ...
Jin Xian - - 2008
Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the main target organ damages of essential hypertension and predicts a poor prognosis of the disease. The molecules involved in this event, especially their posttranslational modifications, remain largely unknown to date. With a combination of phosphoprotein column enrichment and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis separation, here we ...
González José M - - 2008
The present study explores the contribution of alterations in resting tone to cerebral artery narrowing in SHRs (spontaneously hypertensive rats) and the role of hypertension development. Young pre-hypertensive and adult fully hypertensive SHRs and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rat controls were used. The contribution of basal vasoactive factors to resting tone was ...
Paton Julian F R JF Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Bristol Heart Institute, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2008
Angiotensin II (AngII) is a major culprit in essential hypertension. Based on a genetic rodent model of hypertension, we review here evidence that AngII may signal across the blood brain barrier to affect neuronal circuits within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the brainstem, a pivotal region regulating both the ...
Bacharova Ljuba - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: On the basis of our previous results of animal and human studies, we assume that the discrepancies between increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings not exceeding the upper normal limits in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are conditioned by the electrical remodeling of hypertrophied myocardium. ...
Yamamoto Masaki - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Glucosyl hesperidin (G-hesperidin), a water-soluble hesperidin derivative, has antihypertensive effects. A detailed understanding of the mechanism of the blood pressure-lowering effect, however, remains obscure. The aim of this work was to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the hypotensive effect of G-hesperidin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive ...
Sun Meng-Wei - - 2008
Our objective is to examine the effects of voluntary running at different intensity levels on blood pressure, endothelium-dependent vessel dysfunction and insulin resistance in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with severe hypertension. Ten-month-old male and female SHR with severe hypertension were assigned to voluntary running at either low intensity (30% ...
Jessup Jewell A JA Hypertension and Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC - - 2008
Fifty years since their introduction, thiazide diuretics are established as first-line therapy in the treatment of hypertension. Because the dosing profile for thiazide agents lessened, the mechanism responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect may lie outside their diuretic properties. We evaluated the mechanism driving blood pressure reductions in spontaneously ...
da Silva Alexandre A AA Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State St, Jackson, MS 39216-4505, USA. - - 2008
Previous studies suggest that activation of the CNS melanocortin system reduces appetite while increasing sympathetic activity and arterial pressure. The present study tested whether endogenous activity of the CNS melanocortin 3/4 receptors (MC3/4-R) contributes to elevated arterial pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a model of hypertension with increased ...
Mackie Alexander R AR Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. First Ave., Maywood, IL 60153, - - 2008
Pressor effects of the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), observed when systemic AVP concentrations are less than 100 pM, are important for the physiological maintenance of blood pressure, and they are also the basis for therapeutic use of vasopressin to restore blood pressure in hypotensive patients. However, the mechanisms by ...
Fulton, Benjamin L.
Each year, nearly 250,000 women will die of coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in America. A major contributing factor to coronary heart disease is the onset of hypertension, or high blood pressure. Hypertension is characterized as pertaining to a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or ...
Jackson Edwin K - - 2008
1. The aim of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) elevates arterial blood pressure and whether any such effect is dependent on genetic background, the sympathetic nervous system and Y(1) receptors. The rationale behind this study was that: (i) neuropeptide (NP) Y(1-36) ...
Oddo Elisabeth M - - 2008
AIMS: To test whether blood pressure is affected by potassium supplementation which modifies urinary kallikrein (UK) in SHR of either sex, and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. DESIGN: In SHR and WKY blood pressure, renal function and hormonal profile were studied after 1% oral potassium supplementation starting at 4 weeks ...
Suzuki Atsushi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Coffee is a rich source of antioxidative polyphenols, but epidemiological studies and interventional trials have failed to demonstrate any clear beneficial effects of coffee consumption on hypertension. The interaction between hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) was examined, in an attempt to understand the controversial effects of coffee on ...
Dlugosová K - - 2008
Genetic component represents an important factor in the development of hypertension, which is known to be associated with changes in expression of vascular gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43). The aim of the study was to examine the distribution and expression of Cx43 in the aortic endothelium of adult normotensive ...
Kishi Takuya - - 2008
Previously, we demonstrated that atorvastatin has sympatho-inhibitory effects with the upregulation of nitric oxide synthase in the brain in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP), and that reactive oxygen species in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where the vasomotor center is located, mediate the sympatho-excitatory effect. The aim of the present ...
Matsuo Tatsuhiro - - 2008
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has been reported to exhibit an antihypertensive effect. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) is also an antihypertensive agent. We evaluated the interaction between ALA-enriched oil (test oil) and ACEI concerning the decrease in blood pressure by administering test oil, ACEI, or test oil + ACEI to 7-week-old spontaneously ...
Zicha J - - 2008
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are characterized by enhanced nifedipine-sensitive component of sympathetic vasoconstriction. Our study tried to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for long-term reduction of blood pressure (BP) in SHR subjected to early transient captopril treatment. Adult untreated SHR aged 30-34 weeks were compared with animals subjected to chronic captopril ...
Mitasíková M - - 2008
Hypertension-induced myocardial metabolic, structural and electrophysiological remodeling deteriorates with aging and contributes to both heart failure and occurrence of malignant arrhythmias. It has been shown in clinical trials that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the cardioprotective effects ...
Berteotti Chiara - - 2008
Rapid-eye-movement sleep (REM sleep) physiologically entails arterial pressure surges. Pressure surges may lead to acute cardiovascular events in risk conditions such as arterial hypertension. We investigated whether arterial hypertension alters the rate of occurrence and the characteristics of the pressure surges during REM sleep. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were compared ...
Licursi de Alcântara Adriana Cristina - - 2008
The vagus nerve is an important component of the efferent arm of the baroreflex. Blood pressure levels as well as baroreflex control of circulation are significantly different in male and female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We proposed to investigate the morphometric differences between genders using the vagus nerve of SHR. ...
Nakamura Taishi - - 2008
The effect of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, on hypertensive cardiovascular injury is unknown. We examined the effect of pioglitazone on hypertensive cardiovascular injury and the significance of combination of pioglitazone with angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were orally given pioglitazone, candesartan, or ...
Wang, Xiaoxia
Methylglyoxal (MG), a metabolite of glucose, causes non-enzymatic glycation of proteins to form irreversible advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Increased MG production, which in turn gives rise to AGEs, has been linked to the development of complications in diabetes. However, the role of MG and AGEs in hypertension has not ...
Baumann Marcus - - 2008
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are associated with hypertension. Whether N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) contributes to the development of hypertension in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) remains to be established compared to WKY. We determined blood pressure, renal function, marker for oxidative stress (OS), and CML in young WKY rats and SHR. ...
Jazbutyte Virginija - - 2008
AIMS: The biological effects of oestrogens are mediated by two different oestrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, which might play different, redundant, or opposing roles in cardiovascular disease. Previously, we have shown that the selective ERalpha agonist 16alpha-LE2 improves vascular relaxation, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, and increases cardiac output without ...
Baumann Marcus - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that when the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is transiently blocked by an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), this results in a prolonged blood pressure decrease and protection against target organ damage. Aldosterone is an essential hormone in the RAS, and contributes to ...
Sonalker Prajakta A - - 2007
1. The renal bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (BSC-1) is expressed only in the thick ascending limb and selectively traffics from intracellular vesicles (IVs) to apical plasma membranes (PMs), where BSC-1 regulates sodium reabsorption. We showed previously that in kidneys from adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; model of essential hypertension) total protein ...
Akira Kazuki - - 2008
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their substrains are a useful model for studying essential hypertension which is a complex, polygenic, and multifactorial disorder. Their genetic and metabolic features are of great interest because they may provide insights into the mechanism of blood pressure regulation. We have compared urinary metabolic profiles ...
Chen Hong-juan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Connexin43 (Cx43) is the predominant gap junction protein in heart and is involved in the control of cell-to-cell communication to modulate the contractility and the electrical coupling of cardiac myocytes. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is accompanied by changes of Cx43 expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that statins reduced cardiac ...
Ling Gang - - 2007
AIM: To test the effects of atenolol and amlodipine, either alone or in combination, on blood pressure, blood pressure variability (BPV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and the prevalence of stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP). METHODS: In the first set of the study, 24 8-month-old, female SHR-SP rats were randomly ...
Gao Xing-Ya - - 2007
We previously reported that a closed-loop chip system was designed to decrease arterial pressure in normal rabbits and rats. In the present study, the depressor effects of the chip system were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The arterial pressure was recorded, sampled, operated and processed ...
Macarthur Heather - - 2008
Current evidence suggests that hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and endothelial dysfunction are important factors in the development and maintenance of hypertension. Under normal conditions the endothelial mediator nitric oxide (NO) negatively modulates the activity of the norepinephrine portion of sympathetic neurotransmission, thereby placing a "brake" on the vasoconstrictor ...
Hermes Sam M SM Neurological Sciences Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, - - 2008
AMPA-type glutamate receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) are necessary for the baroreceptor reflex, a primary mechanism for homeostatic regulation of blood pressure. Within NTS, the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA receptor is found primarily in dendritic spines. We previously showed that both GluR1 and dendritic spine density are ...
Berteotti Chiara - - 2008
In Spontaneously Hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) normotensive rats, we quantified the extent to which spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP) may be determined from arterial pressure based on linear baroreflex properties. We analyzed time series (30-s length) of low-frequency (<0.8 Hz) fluctuations of HP and mean arterial pressure obtained ...
Koeners, M.P.M.
The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the development of experimental hereditary hypertension and to persistently ameliorate the development of hypertension due brief interventions during early development (perinatal treatment). We used two different models of experimental hereditary hypertension, namely the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and ...
Mark Connie J - - 2007
Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene (RAL) and tamoxifen (TAM), acutely relax arteries, but the long-term effects of estrogens and SERMs on vascular reactivity in the mesenteric vasculature have not been well defined. In this study, we used an isolated, perfused mesenteric vascular bed technique to ...
MacDonnell Scott M - - 2007
Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-regulated protein phosphatase, links myocardial Ca(2+) signaling with hypertrophic gene transcription. Calcineurin abundance increases in pressure-overload hypertrophy and may reduce agonist-mediated phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation to underlie blunted beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) responsiveness in hypertension. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the effects of calcineurin inhibition on changes in cardiac ...
Chang Chuen-Chau - - 2007
Epidemiological studies have suggested that cardiovascular mortality and morbidity increased during Asian dust events. The findings were still inconclusive though. We have shown an increased pulmonary toxicity in diseased animals during a dust storm event. However, the toxicity nature of dust storm particles remains unclear. It is our objective in ...
Sullivan Jennifer C JC Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, 1459 Laney Walker Blvd, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. - - 2007
There is a sex difference in hypertensive renal injury, with men experiencing greater severity and a more rapid progression of renal disease than women; however, the molecular mechanisms protecting against renal injury in women are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine whether sex hormones modulate blood pressure ...
Farah Vera de Moura Azevedo Vde - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), evaluating baroreflex sensitivity and arterial pressure and heart rate variability. METHODS: Male SHR were divided in control (SHR) and diabetic (SHR+DM, 5 days after STZ) ...
Felix Jorge Vinicius Cestari - - 2007
Knowing that exercise training reduces arterial pressure in hypertensive individuals and that pressure fall is accompanied by blockade of brain renin-angiotensin system, we sought to investigate whether training (T) affects central renin-angiotensin system. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto controls (WKY) were submitted to training or kept sedentary (S) ...
Paton Julian F R - - 2007
Paracrine signaling by nitric oxide (NO) released from microvasculature within the brain affects multiple neuronal functions. Reviewed here is a role in central cardiovascular control. Within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), a major regulatory region for arterial pressure, angiotensin II stimulates NO generation from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). This ...
Koeners M P - - 2007
AIM: Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide are considered to be regulatory in renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation, and hence may contribute to development of hypertension. To extend our previous observations that dynamic NO release is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) we investigated, firstly, if superoxide dependency of RBF ...
Nozoe Masatsugu - - 2007
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain are thought to contribute to the neuropathogenesis of hypertension by enhancing sympathetic nervous system activity. The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which receives afferent input from baroreceptors, has an important role in cardiovascular regulation. reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase is thought to be a ...
Kang Lan - - 2007
Abnormal intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the myocardium has been suggested as the cause of cardiac hypertrophy, and this process can be prevented by the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, statins. In the present study, the effect of atorvastatin on left ventricular hypertrophy was investigated, and then whether the underlying mechanism was related ...
Wesseling, S.
The renal transcriptome in experimental hypertension The kidneys importantly determine blood pressure. Kidney dysfunction can result in hypertension, which in turn leads to renal damage. In primary hypertension the cause is unknown. The condition is polygenic, however, which genetic defects cause elevated blood pressure remains obscure. Models of secondary hypertension ...
Dunkelgrun Martin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing exercise testing a hypotensive response is associated with a poor prognosis. There is limited information regarding the prognostic significance of hypotension during dobutamine stress test. This study investigates the association between a severe hypotensive response during DSE and long-term prognosis. METHODS: Patients (3381) underwent dobutamine stress ...
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