Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1057
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Zierold Kristina M - - 2004
Inorganic arsenic is naturally occurring in groundwaters throughout the United States. This study investigated arsenic exposure and self-report of 9 chronic diseases. We received private well-water samples and questionnaires from 1185 people who reported drinking their water for 20 or more years. Respondents with arsenic levels of 2 microg/L or ...
James Jack E - - 2004
This study examined the separate and interactive effects of caffeine, sleep restriction, and task-induced laboratory stress in 96 healthy male and female volunteers. Participants alternated weekly between ingesting placebo and caffeine (1.75 mg/kg) three times daily for 4 consecutive weeks, while being either rested or sleep restricted. Finapres measurements of ...
Heuberger Eva - - 2004
Essential lavender oil has a long tradition as a mild sedative in herbal medicine. Relaxing effects after inhalation have also been demonstrated for one of its main constituents, (-)-linalool. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effects of this monoterpenoid alcohol on human physiological parameters (blood oxygen ...
Tong Wenjing - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Only limited studies have been done on the effects of long-term cocaine use on the human heart, and the results remain controversial. In this study, we examined and compared the diastolic function of non-cocaine users and chronic cocaine users to reveal the impact of long-term cocaine use on the ...
Leslie Stephen J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the hemodynamic interaction between sildenafil and red wine. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra), a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is an effective treatment for male erectile dysfunction that potentiates nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation. Alcohol is a commonly used recreational substance with complex vascular effects, which may, in part, ...
Kähkönen Seppo - - 2004
Alcohol withdrawal (AW) is often accompanied by functional cardiovascular abnormalities which return to normal in few days. However, in some patients, they can predict future alterations in the cardiovascular system, even if they remain in abstinence. These changes are mediated by several central and peripheral mechanisms closely related to AW. ...
Shey Wiysonge C U CU Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaounde I, - - 2004
To determine the risk factors and complications of hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in Yaounde. Between January and September 1998 we examined 813 consecutive adult patients (46.5% men) in the Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, with special focus on risk factors of hypertension and clinical findings ...
Guthrie Sally K - - 2004
Although the relationship between nicotine and changes in heart rate and blood pressure has been demonstrated, the relationship between nicotine and subjective effects such as decreased craving, relaxation, sickness, and decreased nervousness, is less well delineated. In this study, arterial nicotine levels were drawn in 21 smokers who smoked two ...
Kitabayashi Tamotsu - - 2004
This study aimed to examine gender differences in 4 body-sway factors of the center of foot pressure (CFP) during a static upright posture and the influence of alcohol intake on them. Four body-sway factors were interpreted in previous studies using factor analysis (the principal factor method and oblique solution by ...
Molina Patricia E - - 2004
Acute alcohol intoxication is a frequent underlying condition associated with traumatic injury. Studies from our laboratory have been designed to examine the early hemodynamic, proinflammatory, and neuroendocrine alterations in responses to hemorrhagic shock in surgically catheterized, conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats during acute alcohol intoxication (1.75-g/kg bolus, followed by a ...
Moolchan Eric T - - 2004
Ethnic differences in both physiological response to and health consequences of tobacco smoking-some of which have been attributed to ethnic preferences for menthol cigarettes-have been described in the literature. We compared acute physiological responses to smoking in African-American and European-American adolescent menthol cigarette smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. One-hundred- twenty-eight ...
Mathias Charles W - - 2004
Previous research suggests that the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Task (PASAT) alters mood states, which may induce performance changes and complicate interpretation test scores. In the current design, we examined arousal as one mechanism moderating PASAT performance. It was expected that arousal level would increase during the test, and performance ...
Noda Masahiro - - 2004
To examine the influence of alcohol intake on various parameters evaluating the change in body center of foot pressure during a static upright posture, 11 healthy young males and females gave measures of blood pressure, heart rate, whole body reaction time, standing on one leg with eyes closed, and body ...
Davies Daryl L - - 2004
The current study used an ethanol antagonist, increased atmospheric pressure, to test the hypothesis that ethanol acts on multiple sites in glycine receptors (GlyRs). The effects of 12 times normal atmospheric pressure of helium-oxygen gas (pressure) on ethanol-induced potentiation of GlyR function in Xenopus oocytes expressing human alpha1, alpha2 or ...
Onyesom, I; Department of ...
Changes in blood pressure (BP) and plasma urate produced by the bio-transformation of a moderate dose (0.75ml(20%) ethanol/kg body weight) of alcohol were determined after 1h, 6h (oxidation phase) and 12h (post oxidation phase) of consuming the alcohol dose. Twenty healthy Nigerians (ten males and ten females) were randomly selected ...
Savoca Margaret R - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the consumption of caffeinated beverages and blood pressure in African American and white adolescents. DESIGN: This study was part of ongoing research examining stress-induced hemodynamic responses in adolescents. African American and white adolescents (n = 159) selected foods and beverages for a 3-day sodium-controlled ...
Telisman Spomenka - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The effect of lead (Pb) and potential confounding variables on blood pressure was examined in healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. METHODS: In 100 Pb workers and 51 reference subjects, the following variables were measured: blood Pb (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), ...
Haller Christine A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Herbal weight loss and athletic performance-enhancing supplements that contain ephedrine and caffeine have been associated with serious adverse health events. We sought to determine whether ephedrine and caffeine have clinically significant pharmacologic interactions that explain these toxicities. METHODS: Sixteen healthy adults ingested 25 mg ephedrine, 200 mg caffeine, or ...
Granfors Marika T - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study the effect of fluvoxamine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tizanidine, a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took 100 mg fluvoxamine or placebo orally once daily for 4 days. On day 4, each ...
Kawano Yuhei - - 2004
Alcohol consumption causes biphasic changes in blood pressure (BP) in Asians. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated alcohol intake on BP and sodium metabolism. Fourteen Japanese males with hypertension (37-67 years old) were examined under standardized conditions (Na intake 120 mmol/day). After 1 ...
Singh K - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Smoking may predispose to ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death by altering ventricular recovery time dispersion indices. However, effect of acute smoking on QT interval and QT dispersion in chronic smokers has not been studied so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: Effect of cigarette smoking on ventricular recovery time dispersion ...
Okubo Yasushi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: There are few studies on the effects of smoking on blood pressure (BP) that consider confounding factors such as age, obesity, lifestyle and blood chemistry. As such, we conducted a 5-year follow-up study to clarify the effects of smoking habits on blood pressure in normotensive Japanese men. METHODS: The ...
Rajzer Marek - - 2004
The study population consisted of 248 patients with at least five-year (mean 8.7+/-4.2 yrs.) history of drinking, mean age (48+/-4.2 years), including 132 subjects with arterial hypertension (mild or moderate according to WHO/ISH guidelines) and 116 normotensives. A group of 48 patients with essential arterial hypertension not consuming alcohol served ...
Okamura T - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of popular Japanese alcoholic beverages on blood pressure. We performed a cross-sectional study on 4335 Japanese male workers using baseline data from an intervention study. We defined six groups according to the type of alcoholic beverage that provided two-thirds of ...
Sirivarasai J - - 2004
In this study, the effects of low level exposure to lead and cadmium on blood pressure among 212 men have been examined. The mean age was 41 years (range 34-53). The means of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 126 (range 94-159) and 78 (range 58-117) mmHg, respectively. Blood lead ...
Hofstee C - - 2003
A common aspect of innovative remediation techniques is that they tend to reduce the interfacial tension between the aqueous and non-aqueous phase liquids, resulting in mobilization of the organic contaminant. This complicates the remediation of aquifers, contaminated with Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs), as they are likely to migrate downwards, ...
Estruch Ramón - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Although epidemiologic studies have reported an association between alcohol intake and high blood pressure (BP), the results of intervention studies have shown inconsistent results. We embarked on a study to determine whether different subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients may be identified in relation to the effect of alcohol on BP. ...
Zywiak William H - - 2003
Marlatt and Gordon's (1985) relapse prevention therapy has received widespread interest and application. The categorization of relapse precipitants was one of the original central features of this model. In more recent iterations of this therapy, increasing emphasis has been placed on coping strategies. In the present article, exploratory findings from ...
Suka Machi - - 2003
Insomnia is one of the most common complaints at worksites, as well as in the general population. This study aims to assess the effect of insomnia on the development of hypertension in Japanese male workers. Using the annual health examination database of a Japanese telecommunication company, eligible middle-aged male participants ...
Fromageau Jérémie - - 2003
The present study characterizes the mechanical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel in order to show its utility for intravascular elastography. PVA cryogel becomes harder with an increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles, and Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are measured for seven samples. Mechanical tests were performed on cylindrical samples ...
Hicks Alissa R - - 2003
Cocaine use is often characterized by a repeated pattern of frequent administrations (binge) followed by periods of abstinence. The repeated binge administration of methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) alters cardiovascular function and the arterial pressure and heart rate responses elicited by these drugs. Whether repeated binges of cocaine similarly affect cardiovascular ...
Chang Luna - - 2003
In exploring the mechanisms of behavioral change for hypertension control, a study based on the transtheoretical model was carried out in Taiwan in 2000, with a sample of 350 hypertensive adults living in Taipei urban and rural areas. The relationships among stages of change, processes of change, and demographic factors ...
Corwin Elizabeth J - - 2003
Cigarette smokers frequently fail multiple attempts to quit smoking, often because of the unpleasant symptoms that accompany quitting. Similar unpleasant symptoms accompany inflammatory responses during infection and autoimmune disease. The hypothesis that smoking abstinence induces inflammation was tested. Eighteen smokers (n = 18) were evaluated while smoking freely and after ...
Kennedy Brian P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Elevations in plasma homocysteine occur in both smokers and hypertensives, but the combined effect of smoking and hypertension on homocysteine is unknown. METHODS: Resting plasma homocysteine levels and blood pressure were determined in 56 normotensives (12 smokers) and 20 ...
Al-Kandari Yagoub Yousif - - 2003
This study examines the relationship between blood pressure and the religious practices of Kuwaitis as members of a Muslim society. Religious variables were measured via a sociocultural questionnaire. Blood pressure measurements were taken with a sphygmomanometer. Non-opportunistic samples were taken from 223 Kuwaitis. The difference in religious commitment between Muslim ...
Elliott Brenda M - - 2003
The adverse effects of tobacco smoking on the cardiovascular system are well established. Effects of nicotine on the heart, in contrast, are not well characterized. Understanding specific effects of nicotine on the heart and on blood volume is relevant to (a) elucidating the mechanisms by which nicotine may contribute to ...
Steptoe Andrew - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The influence of low socioeconomic status on cardiovascular disease may be mediated in part by sustained activation of stress-related autonomic and neuroendocrine processes. We hypothesized that low socioeconomic status would be associated with heightened ambulatory blood pressure and cortisol output over the working day. METHODS: One hundred eight men ...
Ijzerman Richard G - - 2003
An effect on microvascular function has been proposed as a possible mechanism explaining the association of acute smoking with increased blood pressure and decreased insulin sensitivity. However, the effects of smoking on microvascular function have not been studied. We have investigated the acute effects of smoking on microvascular function in ...
Chausmer A L - - 2003
The effects of ecopipam (a D(1) selective antagonist) or triazolam pretreatment on the subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered nicotine were examined in 10 cigarette-smoking cocaine abusers. Under double-blind, randomized conditions, subjects received oral capsule pretreatment (0, 30 or 100 mg ecopipam, or 0.25 mg/70 kg triazolam), followed 120 ...
Ambler Gareth - - 2003
It is generally accepted that moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is not clear however whether this benefit is derived through the consumption of a specific beverage type, for example, wine. In this paper the associations between known CHD risk ...
Papadelis Christos - - 2003
Caffeine is characterised as a central nervous system stimulant, also affecting metabolic and cardiovascular functions. A number of studies have demonstrated an effect of caffeine on the excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites. Urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine have been shown to increase after caffeine administration. Similar trends were observed in ...
Klatsky Arthur L - - 2003
Observational studies and clinical experiments solidly establish an empiric relationship between heavy drinking (>/= 3 standard drinks/day) and higher blood pressure. A biologic mechanism for this link remains unclear. It has been difficult to study the incidence of usual hypertension sequelae in alcohol-associated hypertension because of complex interactions of alcohol, ...
Kilburn Kaye H - - 2003
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was rare a century ago and was diagnosed in few living patients prior to 1925. By 1950, it was the most common heart problem seen by clinicians. Thought at first to have been overlooked, there were many explanations offered for its neglect. Smoking, hypertension, and elevated ...
Malson Jennifer L - - 2003
Alternative tobacco products such as clove (kreteks) and bidi cigarettes have become increasingly popular among US smokers. The nicotine content of a popular clove cigarette (Djarum Special) filler averaged 7.4 mg; conventional cigarettes contained 13.0 mg. However, smoke yields from standardized machine-smoking analysis indicated it delivered more nicotine, carbon monoxide ...
Kang Wonku - - 2003
Idarubicin (IDA) is a member of an important class of anticancer agents, the anthracycline antibiotics. Although the clinical efficacy of anthracyclines is limited by a high incidence of severe cardiac toxicity, our understanding of IDA transport into the heart is still limited. In a previous study, we demonstrated that IDA ...
Hodgson J M - - 2003
Background - Tea is rich in polyphenols, which have activities consistent with blood pressure lowering potential. The effects of long-term regular ingestion of tea on blood pressure remain uncertain. Objective - To investigate the relationships of tea intake and a biomarker of exposure to tea-derived polyphenols (4-O-methylgallic acid) with blood ...
Oida Koji - - 2003
The vascular endothelial function of smokers is known to be impaired. This study investigated whether cilostazol could improve the vasodilatory response of the brachial artery to ischemia, an indicator of endothelial function, in ten male smokers. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and endothelium-independent vasodilatation of the brachial artery were measured in 11 male ...
Andueza S - - 2002
Water pressure is one of the most important factors which influence the final quality of espresso coffee (EC). However, few studies dealing with this issue have been found. The aim of this work was to study the effect of water pressure on the final quality of Arabica ECs as well ...
Corti Roberto - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Coffee is the most abundantly consumed stimulant worldwide. However, its cardiovascular safety remains controversial. Possible health hazards have been related to its main ingredient, caffeine. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system by coffee may enhance cardiovascular risk; however, it is unclear whether this effect of coffee is related to ...
Van Valkenburg Michael E - - 2002
Two-dimensional chamber studies were conducted to determine qualitative and quantitative performance of cosolvents targeted at pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) (perchlorethylene, PCE) residing above a fine-grain capillary barrier. Downward mobilization of DNAPL, up gradient along an overriding cosolvent front, was observed. This produced significant pooling above a fine-grain layer ...
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