Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1057
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Randin D - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension and stroke, but the triggering mechanisms are unclear. In animals, alcohol causes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and also stimulates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which has sympatho-excitatory effects when administered centrally. METHODS: To determine whether alcohol ...
Roeggla G - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of alcohol on acute adaptation to mild hypoxia at moderate altitude. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. SETTING: University clinic and mountaineering resort at altitudes of 171 m and 3000 m, respectively, in the Austrian Alps. PARTICIPANTS: 10 healthy male alpinists, 22 to 24 years ...
Wolf C - - 1995
To determine if low-level exposure to lead has an effect on arterial blood pressure, demographic and clinical data of a group of 507 males without any occupational exposure to lead were analyzed in a retrospective study. The following variables were included in the analysis: age, height, weight, nicotine consumption, alcohol ...
O'Callaghan C J - - 1995
Office blood pressure (OBP), ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), and vascular reactivity were measured in 12 normotensive 'social' drinkers (mean alcohol consumption of 9.7 +/- 3.1 g/day) after 4 days of alcohol consumption (1 g/kg/day) and compared with the effects of an isocaloric substitute (sucrose, 1.75 g/kg/day) or no intervention. Alcohol ...
Bunout D - - 1995
We measured suprahepatic vein and arterial partial oxygen pressure in 35 alcoholics with severe (N = 7) or mild (N = 28) histological liver damage and without evidence of clinical liver failure. The suprahepatic vein was punctured with a fine needle, using a percutaneous approach. Suprahepatic vein partial oxygen pressure ...
Choudhury S R - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the relationships between blood pressure and alcohol, nutrients and electrolytes intakes in Japanese men. DESIGN AND METHOD: A dietary survey was conducted in a rural population of Japan by the 2-day dietary record method, and blood pressure was measured with a standard sphygmomanometer. Blood pressure levels, nutrients ...
Gillman M W - - 1995
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of usual current alcohol intake with systolic and diastolic pressures among young adults. Participants were 316 men and women, aged 18 to 26 years, from East Boston, Mass. At each of three weekly visits we obtained three blood pressure measurements ...
Mendelson J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Methamphetamine and ethanol are commonly used together. We examined the effects of intravenous methamphetamine (30 mg), oral ethanol (1 gm/kg), and the combination of methamphetamine (30 mg) and ethanol (1 gm/kg). METHODS: Eight methamphetamine and ethanol users were studied in a double-blind, double-placebo, within-subject, balanced Latin-square design. Ethanol was ...
Foltin R W - - 1995
Studies in which healthy, carefully screened, experienced cocaine users receive cocaine under controlled laboratory conditions, although often overlooked by the medical community, are an excellent source of data on the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. Cocaine is generally self-administered in repeated-dose 'binges', and studies simulating this pattern provide interesting cardiovascular information, ...
Lip G Y - - 1995
1. The association between alcohol and hypertension has been recognized for several years. 2. However, it remains a paradox that if alcohol does cause hypertension there is little convincing evidence that alcohol is related to the cardiovascular complications of hypertension such as strokes and heart attacks. The relationship between alcohol ...
Freestone S - - 1995
There is a strong association between cigarette smoking and accelerated hypertension. In mild hypertension smoking cigarettes has a distinct pressor effect and caffeine a small but more prolonged pressor action. Coffee and cigarette smoking together have an additive effect on blood pressure (BP). We have examined the interaction of cigarette ...
Barber J G - - 1995
The 'Pressures to Change' approach to working with the partners of drinkers is a structured procedure for promoting change in resistant drinkers. In this study 22 women and one man were randomly allocated to two treatment conditions and one no-treatment waiting list control condition in an experimental evaluation of the ...
Luoma P V - - 1995
The association of cadmium exposure with area of residence, blood pressure, and arterial hypertensive disease was examined in 230 reindeer herders in northernmost arctic Finland. Blood cadmium concentration averaged 10.0 nmol/l, and was three times higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (16.7 vs. 5.5 nmol/l). Concentrations increased from the southwestern ...
Maiorano G - - 1995
The aim of this study was to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 15 male alcoholic normotensive subjects during alcohol consumption and following an abstinence phase and the effects of alcohol consumption compared with a period of 1 week of abstinence. The average 24-h BP was not different, but ...
Monforte R - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess autonomic and peripheral nervous system function in patients with chronic alcoholism. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: A consecutive sample of 107 alcoholic patients and 61 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: For autonomic assessment, heart rate variations during deep breathing and Valsalva maneuver and on standing were measured. Blood ...
van Leer E M - - 1994
The positive association between alcohol consumption and blood pressure is well known. Little is known, however, about effect modification by age, gender, and smoking on the alcohol-blood pressure association. We used data of a cross-sectional study conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and blood pressure. ...
Ishizaki M - - 1994
Erythrocyte Na+/K(+)-pump activities have been measured in hypertensives, alcohol consumers and obese persons, but the results have been variously reported as decreased, increased or unchanged. We analyzed the relationships between erythrocyte Na+/K(+)-ATPase activities and the membrane and serum lipid profiles in 83 middle-aged men, to clarify the reasons for these ...
Hammarström A - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Youth unemployment is of increasing importance, not only as a social but also as a clinical problem. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted during a five-year period in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden, where the youth unemployment rate was between 6% and 8%. All 1,083 pupils ...
King A C - - 1994
We have previously demonstrated that alcoholics with transitory (< 72 hr) elevations in blood pressure (BP) during withdrawal continue to show residual cardiovascular dysregulation up to 4 weeks of abstinence. The present study replicates and extends these findings. Alcoholic inpatients were divided into three subgroups (ns = 14) based on ...
Cushman W C - - 1994
Alcohol consumption has been recognized as an important correlate of blood pressure in many epidemiologic studies, but few interventional studies have been conducted to examine the effect of a reduction in alcohol intake on blood pressure. Because these studies have usually included few subjects and been of short duration, the ...
James J E - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty continues to surround the role of habitual caffeine consumption as a cardiovascular risk factor. The present study examined the effects of moderate caffeine intake on 24h blood pressure and heart rate in normotensive men and women. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design with counterbalancing was used, in which ...
Touho H - - 1994
Spinal arteriovenous malformations (spinal AVMs) are now treated using microcatheters and various embolic materials. Interventional techniques of this type are thought to be the first choice for treatment of spinal AVMs. In this study, we used the Tracker vascular access system and MAGIC catheter for intravascular treatment of spinal AVMs ...
Höfer I - - 1994
The effects of continuous and intermittent caffeine abstinence and their time course were investigated under field conditions. After 3 days with habitual coffee, subjects were switched for 9 days to regular instant coffee (n = 40), decaffeinated coffee (n = 40), or an intermittent regime (2 days decaff, 1 day ...
Koskinen P - - 1994
1. The acute effects of a moderate dose of ethanol (1g/kg body weight) on heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity were studied in 12 healthy male subjects in a juice-controlled experiment. Electrocardiographic and finger blood pressure data were recorded and stored in a minicomputer during 5 min ...
Abe H - - 1994
BACKGROUND: The association between alcohol and blood pressure (BP) may be related to the temporal sequencing of alcohol use and BP measurement. We investigated the effects of single and repeated intakes of alcohol on 24-hour BP. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen male habitual drinkers with essential hypertension were placed sequentially on ...
Giannattasio C - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether the acute and marked increase in blood pressure associated with smoking is accompanied by an alteration in arterial compliance. DESIGN: Arterial compliance was measured in 13 subjects before and after smoking a cigarette with a nicotine content of 1.2 mg, or before and after sham smoking. ...
Barton B - - 1994
Caffeine has been shown to increase mean blood pressure, but studies documenting the effect of caffeine on digits are lacking. We evaluated the effect of caffeine on digital blood pressure and pulse volume in normal volunteers. In the first part of the study, 24 subjects were given water containing either ...
Marmot M G - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relation between alcohol intake and blood pressure in men and women and in men at younger and older ages; to examine the influence of amount and pattern of alcohol consumption, as well as of acute effects, taking into account body mass index, smoking, and urinary sodium ...
Baker B - - 1994
The association between perceived interpersonal attitudes and psychiatric complaints in a group of hypertensives (N = 37) was evaluated. The Influential Relationships Questionnaire (IRQ), which measures perceived care, overprotection, and criticism, was administered to all patients. Hypertensives with psychiatric complaints (n = 14) were not different in terms of age, ...
Buraphacheep V - - 1994
A variable long path gas cell was used to measure the sorption of organic vapors by a polymer slab. Unfilled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slabs were cast and used to study the sorption of a series of aliphatic alcohols. The PDMS slab was suspended in the gas cell and exposed to low ...
Wakabayashi K - - 1994
BACKGROUND: It remains controversial whether the relation between alcohol intake and blood pressure is linear or non-linear. METHODS: The relation between alcohol intake and blood pressure was investigated in 2341 male self-defence officials who received a preretirement health examination at the Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka Hospital between October 1986 and December ...
Seppä K - - 1994
Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge ...
Schilling J - - 1994
We wanted to determine whether the production of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) is affected by cigarette smoking and various pathological conditions. Endogenously produced NO was measured by chemiluminescence in the exhaled air of 81 healthy volunteers (21 nonsmoking females (NSF), 12 smoking females (SF), 24 nonsmoking males (NSM) and 24 ...
Ward M M - - 1994
This study was designed to investigate the effect of smoking cessation on heart rate, blood pressure, and finger temperature absolute levels and reactivity to a range of laboratory challenges. The 148 quitters (mean age = 43.3 years, mean amount smoked = 24.9 cigarettes per day, mean years smoked = 25.2) ...
Grogan J R - - 1994
The link between alcohol and hypertension is well established, yet the mechanism through which alcohol raises blood pressure remains elusive. Possible mechanisms include an imbalance of the central nervous system, impairment of the baroreceptors, an increase of sympathetic activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an increase in cortisol levels, an ...
Jacober A - - 1994
In a field study, 24-h heart rate, physical activity, and cigarette consumption were continuously recorded, whereas resting heart rate, blood pressure, dietary intake, and subjective parameters were assessed six times per day. Smoking habitual and ultralight cigarettes for two days each was compared in a sample of 48 smokers, consisting ...
Sommers M S - - 1994
Young adults are a subgroup particularly susceptible to traumatic injury; alcohol intoxication is a major risk factor for trauma in young adults. During the first hours following multiple trauma, however, little is known about the specific effects of alcohol intoxication on the circulatory response of critically injured young adults. The ...
Hense H W - - 1994
Hypothetically, blood lead may be involved in blood pressure elevations owing to a facilitation of vascular adrenergic stimulation by extrinsic factors like alcohol. We therefore investigated whether self-reported alcohol consumption was a modifier of the blood lead-blood pressure relation in 3,664 men and women, age 28-67 years, from the MONICA ...
Stephens R S - - 1994
It has been proposed that internal, stable, and global attributions for the cause of a lapse following a period of abstinence and concomitant feelings of guilt and loss of control increased the probability of a return to regular substance use. The Abstinence Violation Effect (AVE) hypotheses were tested in a ...
Beilin L J - - 1993
Regular alcohol consumption raises blood pressure and in drinking populations contributes significantly to the prevalence of hypertension. The effect of alcohol is additive to that of obesity. Reduction in alcohol intake leads to a lowering of blood pressure over 1-4 weeks. Acute alcohol ingestion in the evening may lower blood ...
Das G - - 1993
Cocaine abuse is widespread in North America. It is estimated that almost one in every four Americans has used cocaine at least once in his/her lifetime. In the past two decades, cocaine related cardiovascular complications have mushroomed because cocaine has become cheaper and more readily available. The fundamental effects of ...
Preston K L - - 1993
Mazindol is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor that blocks binding of cocaine at the dopamine reuptake site. This study was conducted to determine whether the acute administration of mazindol modulates the pharmacological effects of intravenous cocaine in humans. In a crossover study, twelve acute drug conditions were tested in randomized order ...
Stamler R - - 1993
In INTERSALT, the International Cooperative Study on Electrolytes and Blood Pressure, three centres located in the People's Republic of China (PRC) had distinctive patterns of BP and of life style variables that, in INTERSALT overall, were found to relate to BP. The PRC centres had low body mass index (BMI) ...
Elias M F - - 1993
It was hypothesized that blood pressure would be inversely related to cognitive functioning, if unconfounded with antihypertensive medication and measured over many occasions prior to neuropsychological testing. For stroke-free Framingham Study participants aged 55-88 years (n = 1,702), blood pressure levels were averaged over five biennial examinations (1956-1964) when few ...
Brown W A - - 1993
In a series of three exploratory studies, we examined the endocrine correlates of elation and sadness produced by the Velten Mood Induction Procedure (VMIP). In Study 1, 10 college females participated in elation and sadness mood inductions on separate days. In Study 2, 12 college females participated in a neutral ...
Farré M - - 1993
The effects of 100 mg of intranasal cocaine (COC) in acute alcohol intoxication (1 g/kg) was assessed in nine experienced and non-dependent healthy volunteers in a double-blind, controlled, randomized, cross-over clinical trial. Alcohol alone impaired psychomotor performance, whereas COC alone produced subjective effects related to euphoria and well-being, improved the ...
Klag M J - - 1993
Alcohol intake has been associated with higher blood pressure in acculturated populations but not in unacculturated societies. We performed a cross-sectional survey of a random community sample of 5023 male Yi rural farmers and 1656 Yi and 2173 Han men living in an urban setting. Average alcohol intake among drinkers ...
Smits P - - 1993
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized design, we investigated the cardiovascular interaction between caffeine (250 mg intravenously) and nicotine (4 mg chewing gum) in 10 healthy volunteers, both under baseline conditions and during physical and mental stress (standing up and mental arithmetic). Caffeine alone induced a significant increase in blood pressure ...
Melina D - - 1993
In order to assess left ventricular structure and diastolic function, 50 hypertensive male subjects, 25 with and 25 without a history of alcohol abuse, and 20 normotensive male controls underwent Doppler echocardiographic examination followed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for 24 hours. Left ventricular mass was significantly higher in alcoholic ...
Centonze V - - 1993
The case reported here concerns a 40-year-old woman who has suffered from severe migraine without aura since she was 23. The patient has been taking 1-3 suppositories of Virdex (2 mg of ergotamine tartrate, 250 mg of aminophenazone, caffeine) every day for the past three years. In addition to headache, ...
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