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Results 551 - 600 of 1057
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Fattinger K - - 1997
Tolerance is an important determinant of addiction as well as therapeutic and/or toxic effects of drugs. The development of acute tolerance to various effects of nicotine was studied in nine healthy smokers who were abstaining from tobacco. Nicotine was infused rapidly to reach a concentration of about 25 ng/ml, followed ...
Rashotte A M - - 1997
Quantification of the epicuticular wax from the stems of 40 ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana showed a two-fold range in total wax load that was not correlated to known abiotic characteristics of the ecotype's origin of collection. Chemical analysis of these ecotypes revealed similar epicuticular wax profiles for all ecotypes except ...
Jain A C - - 1997
The independent effects of caffeine and nicotine on cardiodynamics are well documented, but combined effects of both are not reported. Initially, in phase I, 18 experiments were performed to study the dose-response curve of both the drugs. In phases II and III, 13 mongrel dogs were subjected to 30 experiments. ...
Friberg S E - - 1997
The vapour pressure of two fragrance raw materials, phenethyl alcohol and phenethyl acetate, in a microemulsion system is discussed against their participation in the different phases of the system. The results are used to evaluate the change of the fragrance vapour pressure during water evaporation from a typical emulsion system.
Howes J B - - 1997
One-thousand-four-hundred-and-fifty-three patients admitted to a teaching hospital, haemodynamically stable and not severely ill nor in significant pain, were interviewed within 48 h of admission and demographic data and a detailed drinking history were obtained. Supine blood pressures (BP) were recorded on the day following admission. The mean age of the ...
Stefanadis C - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because previous studies have shown that smoking affects vasomotor response, we hypothesized that smoking may also acutely alter aortic elastic properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 40 male current and long-term smokers who underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization for ...
Zakhari S - - 1997
Alcohol can be beneficial or harmful to the cardiovascular system, depending on the amount consumed and the characteristics of the consumer. Of the numerous cellular and molecular mechanisms that are thought to explain the beneficial effects of moderate drinking, this article discusses four, involving (1) high density lipoproteins, (2) cellular ...
Anand A - - 1996
To determine the role of aortic chemoreceptors in the rise of systemic blood pressure (BP) seen with smoking cigarettes, their responses to injecting various doses of nicotine (Nic) into the left atrium and to a puff of cigarette smoke were studied in 31 cats. The activity of 71% (n = ...
Kawano Y - - 1996
To compare the influences of alcohol and salt intake on 24-h blood pressure (BP), we studied short-term effects of repeated alcohol ingestion and dietary salt intake in hypertensive patients. Thirty-two Japanese men with mild to moderate essential hypertension (54 +/- 1 years old, mean +/- SE) were examined. Sixteen patients ...
Chung J H - - 1996
Aloe contains abundant aloin, a C-glycoside derivative of anthraquinone. Based on recent reports indicating that the water extract of Aloe enhances the ethanol oxidation rate and also that quinones, in general, have a functional role in elevating the alcohol oxidation rate in vivo, we have attempted to identify the quinone ...
Kochar M S - - 1996
Although the link between cigarette smoking and its cardiovascular effects is well established, the mechanisms through which smoking raises blood pressure remain to be clarified. Possible mechanisms include nicotine-induced peripheral and central sympathetic nervous system stimulation, persisting levels of nicotine in blood because of incomplete metabolism, release of vasopressin, and ...
Breimer M E ME Departments of Surgery, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg, SwedenDepartments of Nephrology, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg, SwedenDepartments of Pathology, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg, SwedenDepartments of Anesthesiology, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg, SwedenDepartments of Clinical Chemistry/Transfusion Medicine, Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg, - - 1996
The pioneering experiment by Welsh et al. (Immunological Lett 1991:29:167-170) connecting a pig kidney to the human circulation has been repeated in a modified manner. Two volunteer dialysis patients were pretreated by daily plasmapheresis on days -2,-1, and 0 to remove the naturally occurring anti-pig xenoantibodies. The anti-pig lymphocytotoxic liters ...
Palatini P - - 1996
To study the relationship between plasma renin activity (PRA) and coffee consumption, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity habits. Setting: The multicentre HARVEST trial, involving 17 Hospital Centres in Northeast Italy. Subjects: 351 borderline to mild hypertensive men (mean age +/- SEM 22.7 +/- 0.47 years), never treated for ...
Bonham A C - - 1996
We determined the effect of sidestream tobacco smoke (SS) exposure on responses of lung rapidly adapting receptors (RARs), peak tracheal pressure (Ptr), and arterial blood pressure (ABP) to substance P in young guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were exposed to SS or filtered air from day 8 to days 41-45 of ...
Staessen J A - - 1996
In Belgium, an affluent Western European country, participation in sports, alcohol intake, and living in a working class area were identified as the life style factors with the closest associations with the blood pressure level. Obesity was another important blood pressure correlate. Sodium intake, determined from the 24 h urinary ...
King A C - - 1996
Alcoholic patients are often transiently hypertensive (tHT) during days 1-3 of withdrawal but become normotensive thereafter. However, at 3-4 weeks postwithdrawal these tHT patients may still show exaggerated blood pressure rises to isometric handgrip exercise. We examined the hemodynamic mechanisms associated with persistent altered pressure response. Forty-two alcoholic inpatients were ...
Navah U - - 1996
The effect of lead exposure on blood pressure in the modern industrial setting is controversial. In this study, we followed 67 workers in a lead-battery plant for 6-10 y, and blood pressure and blood lead levels were measured every 6 mo. Weight, height, alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and age were ...
York J L - - 1996
Although research in population studies has indicated that recent alcohol intake is positively correlated with blood pressure, there is a need to study the relationship of blood pressure to measures of lifetime alcohol intake in alcoholics. To this end, we assessed systolic and diastolic pressures and lifetime alcohol intake through ...
Rossinen J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of acute alcohol ingestion on myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary heart disease and stable angina. DESIGN: Randomised crossover study using fruit juice with and without ethanol. SETTING: Division of cardiology in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 20 patients with stable exertional angina and > or ...
Harrison L I - - 1996
A 28-day double-blind parallel group study has been conducted to compare the safety and tolerability of HFA-134a, a chlorofluorocarbon-free propellant in a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (MDI A), with a chlorofluorocarbon propellant (MDI C). Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to receive one of the two MDIs, either four inhalations four times ...
Dallet S - - 1996
A comparison between the pressure effects on the catalysis of Thermoanaerobium brockii alcohol dehydrogenase (TBADH: a thermostable tetrameric enzyme) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH: a mesostable tetrameric enzyme) revealed a different behaviour. YADH activity is continuously inhibited by an increase of pressure, whereas YADH affinity seems less sensitive to pressure. ...
Jones-Webb R - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: We examined cross-sectional relationships among depressive symptoms, anxiety, alcohol intake, and blood pressure. Test hypotheses were that: (1) alcohol intake, depressive symptoms, and anxiety would be positively related to blood pressure; (2) depressive symptoms and anxiety would have a stronger association with alcohol intake in Blacks than in Whites; ...
Ascherio A - - 1996
We examined prospectively the relation of nutritional factors with hypertension and blood pressure levels among 41,541 predominantly white US female nurses, aged 38 to 63 years, who completed a detailed semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1984 and were without diagnosed hypertension, cancer, or cardiovascular disease. During 4 years of follow-up, ...
Stern A H - - 1996
The increase in systolic blood pressure in males appears to be the most sensitive adult endpoint appropriate for deriving a health risk-based target level of lead (Pb) in soil. Because the response of blood pressure to blood Pb concentration (PbB) has no apparent threshold, traditional approaches based on the application ...
Green P J - - 1996
The present study examined the effects of caffeine, as typically ingested through coffee, on ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and mood. Normotensive coffee drinkers wore a BP monitor for two 24-hr periods, consuming decaffeinated coffee. Each cup was supplemented with 125 mg caffeine or cornstarch. Systolic ...
Aguilar X - - 1996
The variation of maximal respiratory pressures (Pimax and Pemax) in healthy subjects were studied on the same day in 16 non-smoking healthy men (age 26.2 +/- 3.2 years). The Pimax and Pemax were obtained on three occasions (8 a.m., 2 p.m. and 9 p.m.) within the same day. There were ...
Klatsky A L - - 1996
Epidemiologic studies in the past two decades have firmly established a relationship between regular, heavier alcohol consumption and hypertension. This association has been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. It is found in both sexes and several races and is independent of the type of alcoholic beverage, adiposity, education, ...
Criqui M H - - 1996
The relationship between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) in various epidemiologic study designs is consistent, showing protection at < or = 2 drinks per day, with an increase in risk of CHD in several studies at higher alcohol consumption levels. Studies of potential mediators of the effects of ...
Omvik P - - 1996
The addictive effects of smoking are only partly known, but it is likely that hemodynamic effects of tobacco smoking may contribute to the habituation. It has since long been known that blood pressure and heart rate increase during smoking. These effects are specifically associated with nicotine while the other components ...
Preuss H G - - 1996
Hypertension, a major public health problem, becomes more prevalent during aging. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors such as nutrition may play a major role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. It is generally accepted that obesity and sodium/alcohol consumption are important factors, and many believe that calcium, magnesium and potassium ...
Seppä K - - 1996
The present study evaluates the relationship of different alcohol consumption levels to blood pressure among women. Blood pressure values were compared between four groups of women consuming different amounts of alcohol. Three groups were formed from the middle-aged female population participating in a health survey (n = 219): 15 consecutive ...
Mukhopadhyay B - - 1996
We evaluate the blood pressure profile in relation to selected biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors among the Lepchas, a tribal population of Asian origin inhabiting the Dzongu area of northern Sikkim. The results show that mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of Lepcha adults (aged 19 years and older), engaged ...
Schindler C W - - 1996
Over the past 10 years a great deal has been learned about the cardiovascular effects of cocaine. In particular, the acute effects of cocaine have been studied extensively. Upon acute administration cocaine increases blood pressure and heart rate, primarily through an action on the sympathetic nervous system. Cocaine also suppresses ...
Olubodun J O - - 1996
Sixty hypertensives (30 with and 30 without heart failure, matched for age and sex) were studied and their alcohol consumption and its possible role in heart failure were assessed. The majority in each group belonged to the low socioeconomic class. On presentation, the mean systolic blood pressures were 176.7 +/- ...
Robin S S - - 1996
This research uses the concept of cross pressures, a concept created to explain political behavior, to predict the frequency of adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. Using a population of eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders from 207 Michigan public school districts, respondents reported their frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and drug ...
Lotshaw S C - - 1996
Caffeine consumption, a ubiquitous cultural phenomenon with significant health implications may be governed by some of the same principles which affect other drug use [1]. We hypothesized that pharmacological and expectancy effects may be two of those principles. A balanced placebo design was used with 100 male undergraduates to separate ...
Howard B V - - 1996
Using National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) protocols, researchers measured blood pressure in 4549 American Indians ages 45 to 74 from 13 communities. The prevalence of hypertension ranged from 27% to 56%. More than 70% were aware of the diagnosis, more than 50% were receiving treatment, and 30% controlled ...
La Vecchia L L - - 1996
The aim of the study is to describe the hemodynamic and morphometric characteristics of patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) and to evaluate whether these parameters can identify the subgroup of patients in whom recovery of cardiac function after abstinence will occur. Nineteen male patients (mean age 52.4 years, range 39-64 ...
Harris A - - 1996
PURPOSE: Because the protean biological effects of ethanol include acute alterations in both cortical function and circulatory control, we investigated the effect of acute alcohol consumption on retrobulbar hemodynamics and contrast sensitivity in healthy human volunteers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve young adults received orange juice with and without ethanol in ...
Suter P M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of alcohol-associated hypertension are not known. We tested the hypothesis that the alcohol-associated increase in blood pressure may be caused in part by an alcohol-induced accumulation of abdominal fat. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 842 non-smoking men (mean +/- SD age 52 +/- 16 years) attending ...
Yamada Y - - 1995
A significant association between elevations of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) levels and those of blood pressure and hypertension has been reported separately in drinkers and nondrinkers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether the relationship between serum gamma-GTP and the prevalence of hypertension is the same or ...
Debrah K - - 1995
1. The effects of acute and chronic caffeine ingestion on supine- and tilt- (60 min at 70 degrees) induced changes in middle cerebral artery velocity (Vmca), heart rate, blood pressure and counter-regulatory hormone levels (catecholamines, growth hormone and cortisol) were studied in nine healthy volunteers. A double-blind, placebo-controlled design was ...
Sun W M - - 1995
There is little information on the motor mechanisms underlying the effects of meal temperature on gastric emptying. The effects on antropyloric pressures and the surface electrogastrogram of ingesting drinks at 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C, and 50 degrees C (350 ml normal saline and 50 ml low calorie (7 ...
Narkiewicz K - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that moderate smoking (fewer than 20 cigarettes/day) and coffee consumption have an interactive effect on ambulatory blood pressure. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: Patients in the multicentre Hypertension Ambulatory Venetia Study, northeastern Italy. SUBJECTS: Six hundred and forty-three men and 244 women with borderline-to-mild status ...
Zeichner A - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to compare the stress-response-dampening (SRD) effect of alcohol in hostile and nonhostile men based on a combined score of four subscales of the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Subjects were 72 male social drinkers. Subjects' cardiac interbeat-interval, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactivity to a ...
Vawda F - - 1995
Effects of increased hydrostatic pressure (range 0.1-10 MPa) on isometric twitch and tetanic contractions of single intact muscle fibres, isolated from frog tibialis anterior muscle, were examined at 4-12 degrees C. The tension changes produced on exposure to steady high pressures are compared with those produced on exposure to low ...
Hsieh S T - - 1995
It is known that moderation of alcohol intake reduces blood pressure, although the exact mechanism has not yet been established. To clarify the hypotensive mechanism of alcohol reduction, we evaluated the change in cellular magnesium and sodium metabolism during alcohol reduction in mild hypertensive patients. We measured intraerythrocyte sodium and ...
Elmer P J - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Questions regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacologic approaches for the treatment of stage 1 hypertension were addressed as part of the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS), a 4-year, randomized clinical trial (N = 902). This report describes the lifestyle intervention program used in TOMHS, presents data on the lifestyle ...
Rabbia F - - 1995
To evaluate the importance of alcohol and other environmental factors in essential hypertensives, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 627 patients (322 women, 305 men) subdivided in four subgroups according to sex and presence or absence of drug therapy, to evaluate differences due to drugs and changes in life style. ...
Allen S S - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Studies show sustained levels of nicotine among young males using smokeless tobacco, causing concern for subsequent cardiovascular risk. Also, there is little information on effects of nicotine replacement on cardiovascular risk in cessation programs. This study investigates the effects of nicotine gum replacement in smokeless tobacco cessation on cardiovascular ...
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