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Results 51 - 100 of 1354
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Van Steenkiste Christophe - - 2009
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Portal hypertension is responsible for the major complications associated with cirrhosis. Angiogenesis has been associated with the pathophysiology of portal hypertension. We investigated the role of placental growth factor (PlGF) and tested the effects of monoclonal antibodies against PlGF (alphaPlGF) in a mouse model of portal hypertension. ...
Sgouros S N SN Department of Gastroenterology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, - - 2009
Invasive measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is regarded as the gold standard for risk stratification and the evaluation of pharmaceutical agents in patients with portal hypertension. To review the techniques for endoscopic and imaging-based assessment of portal haemodynamics, with particular emphasis on trials where the results were ...
Bosch Jaime - - 2009
Portal hypertension is a severe, almost unavoidable complication of chronic liver diseases and is responsible for the main clinical consequences of cirrhosis. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is currently the best available method to evaluate the presence and severity of portal hypertension. Clinically significant portal hypertension is ...
Vegesna Anil K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is no simple method to measure intravariceal pressure in patients with esophageal varices. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to develop a new noninvasive technique to measure resting intravariceal pressure and wall tension. DESIGN: A model was developed. A long balloon (varix) was fitted inside an airtight cylinder (esophagus). Fluid ...
Singal Ashwani K - - 2010
PURPOSE: Measurement of portal venous pressure in patients with portal hypertension is important to assess efficacy of beta blockers in patients with esophageal varices. Currently, the gold standard for measurement of portal venous pressure is the estimation of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). Being an invasive technique, serial measurements of ...
Dray Xavier - - 2009
We report on the efficacy of octreotide acetate in two patients with intestinal phlebectasia and no evidence of portal hypertension or mesenteric thrombosis. Patient 1 was a 46-year-old woman with primary pulmonary arterial hypertension. She required repeated transfusions for recurrent episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). Intraoperative enteroscopy revealed wide-spread small ...
Zhang Zong-Qi - - 2009
Portal hypertension is a hemodynamic syndrome due to pathological increase in portal flow and portal pressure. These pathological changes in external flow loads will inevitably cause vascular remodeling in the portal vein, which is usually measured by an opening angle. The present study showed that carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced portal hypertension ...
Kong D-R - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Measuring the variceal pressure is important in predicting esophageal variceal bleeding. However, current noninvasive methods of measuring variceal pressure have not gained wide popularity. We have developed a computerized endoscopic balloon manometry (CEBM) system to detect variceal pressure. The aims of the study were to test ...
Mejias Marc - - 2009
Portal hypertension, the most important complication in patients with cirrhosis of the liver, is a serious and life-threatening disease for which there are few therapeutic options. Because angiogenesis is a pathological hallmark of portal hypertension, the goal of this study was to determine the effects of sorafenib-a potent inhibitor of ...
Owen Richard J - - 2009
The distribution of radiolabeled polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (PVAMs) when infused into the portal vein of domestic swine was investigated, with the purpose of assessing implications for pancreatic islet cell transplantation. PVAMs measuring 100-300 microm (Contour SE) and labeled with (99m)Tc were infused into the main portal vein of 12 swine, ...
Azmaiparashvili E - - 2009
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between biliary pressure dynamics and proliferative activity of cholangiocytes and hepatocytes in BDL setting. 30 white Wistar male rats, weighting 200-220 gr. were involved in the modelled biliary hypertension setting induced by common bile duct ligation (CBD). The pressure in ...
Poordad Fred F - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension is a potentially life-threatening complication of cirrhosis, resulting from increased intrahepatic resistance and portal inflow. OBJECTIVE: Given the complex nature of this disorder, a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology of portal hypertension is necessary to develop new therapies that target specific pathways that regulate portal pressure. ...
Chen Yunzhi - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of portal hypertension with hypersplenism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five dogs were used randomly divided into three groups: group I (control group, n = 5), group II (PVS, n = 10) and group III (PVS + ...
Pozzi Massimo - - 2009
A Caucasian male aged 54 year was referred to our liver centre for the management of HBV-related cirrhosis. Prior treatment with recombinant alpha-interferon followed by lymphoblastoid interferon was only temporarily effective and the patient refused antiviral treatment with lamivudine. When admitted to our unit, the patient had a Child-Pugh score ...
Ong Marcus Eng Hock - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative to conventional intravenous access. The proximal tibia and proximal humerus have been proposed as suitable sites for IO access. METHODS: A nonrandomized, prospective, observational study comparing flow rates and insertion success with tibial and humeral IO access in adults using the EZ-IO-powered drill ...
Laleman Wim - - 2009
In the last decade, knowledge regarding mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension has taken unprecedented levels. However, many aspects still remain to be elucidated. Portal hypertension is primarily caused by an increase in resistance to portal outflow and secondly by an increase in splanchnic blood flow. In a ...
Iwamoto Takuya - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) on radiofrequency (RF) ablation volume and compare portal vein (PV) flow and liver parenchymal pressure before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy female swine were divided into four groups to be treated with RF ablation alone (RF-only group), ...
Wagener Gebhard - - 2008
Vasodilation due to impaired vascular tone is common in liver failure. Vasoconstrictor drugs are almost always required during the anhepatic phase of a liver transplant to maintain blood pressure unless venovenous bypass is employed. Arginine-vasopressin can be used as a vasoconstrictor instead of or in addition to norepinephrine for this ...
Miskol Jamie M - - 2008
A 17-year-old girl presented to a fire station complaining of severe abdominal pain one afternoon. The patient appeared acutely ill and had an initial blood pressure of 62 mmHg by palpation and a heart rate of 110 beats per minute. A flight crew was summoned to the scene. History obtained ...
Parikh Sameer - - 2009
Portal hypertension is one of the most important complications of chronic liver disease and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a simple, invasive, and reproducible method of assessing portal venous pressure. Measurement of HVPG provides the clinician an estimate of the ...
Laviña B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Increased intrahepatic vascular tone in cirrhosis has been attributed to a decrease of hepatic nitric oxide (NO) secondary to disturbances in the post-translational regulation of the enzyme eNOS. NO scavenging by superoxide (O(2)(-)) further contributes to a reduction of NO bioavailability in cirrhotic livers. AIM: To investigate whether removing ...
Doran Ivan P - - 2008
To investigate the relationship between preoperative liver size, bodyweight, and tolerance to shunt occlusion in dogs with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt(s) (CPSS). Longitudinal cohort study. Dogs with CPSS (n=35). Ultrasonography was used to measure preoperative maximum transverse dimension of the liver (TS) of each dog. Intraoperative portal pressures were measured, ...
Chuang Ming-Tung - - 2008
Aerosol is frequently transported by a southward high-pressure system from the Asian Continent to Taiwan and had been recorded a 100% increase in mass level compared to non-event days from 2002 to 2005. During this time period, PM2.5 sulfate was found to increase as high as 155% on event days ...
Scoffoni Christine - - 2008
Previous studies have shown a rapid enhancement in leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)) from low to high irradiance (from <10 to >1000 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)), using the high-pressure flow meter (HPFM), for 7 of 14 tested woody species. However, theoretical suggestions have been made that this response might arise as ...
Vizzutti F - - 2008
The measure of disease progression in chronic liver disease represents a key challenge in any of the different stages of evolution. Indeed, a correct and reliable measure of the stage of the disease has relevant implications for assessing the effectiveness of the current therapeutic regimens and for predicting the occurrence ...
Chin Kelly M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia develops in some patients with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) while receiving IV epoprostenol therapy. In this study, we evaluate whether epoprostenol use, other PAH medication use, hemodynamics, or PAH etiology are associated with thrombocytopenia in PAH. METHODS: Platelet counts were evaluated in 47 PAH patients receiving IV ...
Hayashi Hironori - - 2009
Aim: Several surgical procedures have been developed for reducing portal vein pressure to prevent postoperative liver injury. Nitric oxide synthase expression (NOS) induced by elevation of portal vein pressure is thought to play an important role in liver regeneration, but the details are not well understood. Methods: Rats in the ...
Wei Jian Qin - - 2008
Acetyltransferase p300 is essential for cardiac development and is thought to be involved in cardiac myocyte growth through MEF2- and GATA4-dependent transcription. However, the importance of p300 in the modulation of cardiac growth in vivo is unknown. Pressure overload induced by transverse aortic coarctation, postnatal physiological growth, and human heart ...
Kishi Yoji Y Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009, - - 2008
Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is increasingly used as a preparation for major hepatectomy in patients with inadequate liver remnant volume or function. However, whether segment 4 (S4) portal veins should be embolized is controversial. The effect of S4 PVE on the volume gain of segments 2 and 3 (S2+3) ...
Cichoz-Lach H - - 2008
In last years significant progress in recognizing mechanisms of portal hypertension pathophysiology was done. However, some unclear topics in this disease still exist. Portal hypertension is primarily caused by the increase in resistance to portal outflow and secondly by an increase in splanchnic blood flow. Portal hypertension is associated with ...
Chawla Yogesh - - 2008
Intrahepatic portal venopathy leads to various entities that are important causes of portal hypertension. Noncirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) occurs in the Indian subcontinent, whereas idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) occurs in Japan although the pathogenesis and presentation of both are similar. NCPF presents mainly with upper gastrointestinal bleeding; IPH presents with ...
El-Saadany M - - 2008
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has significantly improved our understanding of the complex vascular structural changes that occur in portal hypertension and their clinical and prognostic significance. EUS in combination with color Doppler technique enables us to study the hemodynamic changes in the portal venous system noninvasively, and to determine objectively the ...
Tsai Li-Yu - - 2008
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Accumulating literature has documented that there exists a distinct difference in nitro blue tetrazolium reduction capacity by the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from patients with different types of leukemia. The underlying mechanism associated with this observed phenomenon remains to be clarified. METHODS: The production of O2-, monitored by a validated ...
Garthwaite Alaina J - - 2008
The subapical regions of wetland plant roots can develop a barrier to radial O2 loss (ROL), but barrier resistance has rarely been quantified in terms of its O2 diffusivity. Barrier resistance in adventitious roots of the waterlogging-tolerant Hordeum marinum was assessed from measurements of ROL using cylindrical platinum electrodes while ...
Petersson Magnus - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) often require higher doses of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) than patients with normal cardiac function to achieve a given haemodynamic goal. Two pathways leading to biotransformation of GTN have been characterized; a high-affinity pathway operative in nanomolar concentration ranges yielding predominantly 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate ...
Ravnefjord A - - 2008
Pregabalin, which binds to the alpha2-delta subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels, increased the threshold for pain during colorectal distension (CRD) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. We tested the effects of oral pregabalin on the visceral pain-related viscerosomatic and autonomic cardiovascular responses to CRD and colonic compliance in rats. The ...
Buscaglia J M - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Changes in portal pressure during endoscopy have not been previously evaluated. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) on portal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), and systemic pressures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five acute experiments ...
Shike Moshe - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Sightline ColonoSight (CS) colonoscopy system presents 3 technologic advances: (1) disposable components protect the reusable parts from contact with colonic contents, eliminating the need for disinfection between procedures, (2) an air-pressure-powered engine assists in colonoscope advancement, (3) light emitting diode (LED) illumination eliminates the need for fiber optics ...
de Laurentiis Guglielmo - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. A very recent statement has suggested FeNO as potential outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, a new hand-held FeNO analyzer (NIOX MINO) has been developed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have evaluated the NIOX ...
Toubia Nagib - - 2008
Portal hypertension, a major hallmark of cirrhosis, is defined as a portal pressure gradient exceeding 5 mm Hg. In portal hypertension, porto-systemic collaterals decompress the portal circulation and give rise to varices. Successful management of portal hypertension and its complications requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology, the pertinent anatomy, and ...
Hennenberg M - - 2008
In liver cirrhosis, abnormal persistent extrahepatic vasodilation leads to hyperdynamic circulatory dysfunction which essentially contributes to portal hypertension. Since portal hypertension is a major factor in the development of complications in cirrhosis, the mechanisms underlying this vasodilation are of paramount interest. Extensive studies performed in cirrhotic patients and animals revealed ...
Irimia Andrei - - 2008
Although cardiac arrhythmias have been studied extensively, little is known about arrhythmic phenomena in the gastrointestinal (GI) system. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the onset of GI arrhythmias is associated with statistically significant fluctuations in the information dimension of the associated systems. We induced gastric ...
Schepke Michael - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists have been shown to moderately lower portal pressure in some patients with cirrhosis but may have adverse effects on kidney function. This study aimed at comparing the effects of a combined treatment using irbesartan plus propranolol with propranolol monotherapy on portal pressure and kidney function ...
Yoshimatsu Masako - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells during orthodontic tooth movement in a mouse model. An orthodontic appliance was set between the upper incisors and the upper left first ...
Edwards Claire - - 2008
Reduced sinusoidal endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production contributes to increased intrahepatic resistance and portal hypertension after liver injury. We hypothesized that V-PYRRO/NO, an NO donor prodrug metabolized "specifically" in the liver, would reduce portal venous pressure (PVP) without affecting the systemic vasculature. Liver injury was induced in male BALB/c mice ...
Tiani C - - 2008
In liver cirrhosis, variceal bleeding is the last in a chain of events initiated by the increase in portal pressure (estimated in clinical practice by the hepatic venous pressure gradient). When hepatic venous pressure gradient goes above 10 mmHg the patient is at risk of developing varices, and when hepatic ...
Tuijthof G J M - - 2008
The view during arthroscopic operations is kept clear by means of irrigation. The purpose was to determine dominant parameters on irrigation performance from which design considerations were formulated for optimization of joint irrigation. An experimental approach was chosen. The set up consisted of a human joint phantom with normal operative ...
Bosch Jaime - - 2008
Variceal bleeding is one of the most serious complications of portal hypertension. The driving force for the development of varices is an increase in portal pressure. As portal hypertension progresses, varices dilate until they finally rupture and bleed. This sequence of events might be prevented by achieving a sufficient decrease ...
Giday Samuel A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Portal vein (PV) pressure measurements can provide valuable information for the management of patients with liver disease and portal hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and the safety of EUS-guided PV catheterization and pressure measurements in a porcine model. SETTING: Acute and survival experiments on five 50-kg pigs. DESIGN ...
Kawchuk Gregory N - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The vertebral artery is made up of four segments, one of which (V3) is connected to highly mobile cervical vertebrae. This connection underlies the common assumption that persons with pre-event histories of mechanical neck movements, such as cervical spine manipulation (cSMT), should experience increased V3 dissection. METHODS: ...
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