Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1524
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Potas J R - - 2004
Severe hypotensive haemorrhage results in a biphasic response, characterized by an initial increase in heart rate and sympathetic vasomotor activity (phase I) followed by a life-threatening hypotension, accompanied by profound sympathoinhibition and bradycardia (phase II). The phase II response is believed to be dependent on inputs from cardiopulmonary receptors, and ...
Wu Lin - - 2004
Prolongation of the QT interval of the ECG is associated with increased risk of torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. Ranolazine, a novel antianginal agent, is reported to decrease the delayed rectifier potassium current, I(Kr), and to increase action potential duration (APD) and the QT interval. However, ranolazine is also reported ...
Forhead A J - - 2004
Glucocorticoids increase blood pressure in utero, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. This study investigated the hypothesis that the hypertensive effects of cortisol depend upon a functional renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The study examined, in the sheep fetus, whether blockade of the Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) specific receptor prevented the ...
Daneshtalab Noriko - - 2004
Inflammatory conditions decrease the cardiovascular response to calcium channel and beta-adrenergics blockers due, likely, to down-regulation of the receptors mediated by pro-inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether down-regulation is also evident in angiotensin ...
Virdis Agostino - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Angiotensin (Ang) II stimulates vascular reactive oxygen species generation via NAD(P)H oxidase activation. We investigated whether vascular NAD(P)H oxidase influences structure and function of resistance arteries from Ang II-infused mice. METHODS: Mice received Ang II alone (400 ng/kg per min, subcutaneously), Ang II + apocynin (NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, 2.5 ...
Mori Takefumi - - 2004
Renal perfusion pressure was servo-controlled chronically in rats to quantify the relative contribution of elevated arterial pressure versus angiotensin II (Ang II) on the induction of renal injury in Ang II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 4% salt diet were administered Ang II for 14 days (25 ng/kg per minute ...
Maytin Melanie - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may mediate pressure overload-induced myocardial hypertrophy. NADPH oxidase may be involved in this process, because its expression and activity are upregulated by pressure overload and because myocardial hypertrophy caused by a subpressor infusion of angiotensin is attenuated in mice deficient in the gp91phox catalytic subunit ...
Behm David J - - 2004
Urotensin-II, a potent mammalian vasoconstrictor, may play a role in the etiology of essential hypertension. However, a species suitable for assessing such a role, one where a "classical" systemic hypertensive response (increase in mean blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance) is observed following bolus i.v. urotensin-II administration, has yet to ...
Luodonpää Marja - - 2004
We examined whether adrenomedullin, a vasoactive peptide expressed in the heart, modulates the increase in blood pressure, changes in systolic and diastolic function, and left ventricular hypertrophy produced by long-term administration of ANG II or norepinephrine in rats. Subcutaneous administration of adrenomedullin (1.5 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)) for 1 wk inhibited the ANG ...
Watson Anna M D - - 2004
Central actions of angiotensin play an important role in cardiovascular control and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and heart failure. One feature of centrally or peripherally administered angiotensin is that the bradycardia in response to an acute pressor effect is blunted. It is unknown whether after central ...
Sangaleti Carine T - - 2004
In the coarctation hypertension model, we showed both dissociation of plasma renin activity from cardiovascular-induced effects and the reversal of hypertension-induced responses by losartan. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypertension on the expression of brain renin-angiotensin system components and the simultaneous functional responses and effects of long-term ...
Francois Helene - - 2004
To evaluate the role of thromboxane in hypertension and its complications, we studied mice with targeted disruption of the TXA2 receptor gene in an angiotensin-II-dependent model of hypertension. To determine whether genetic background might alter the physiological actions of the TP receptor, we studied two lines of TP knockout (Tp-/-) ...
Simon Geza - - 2004
The pathogenic role of angiotensin II (ANG II), dietary sodium chloride, sympathetic activation, obesity and aldosterone in the development of structural vascular changes (SVCs) in hypertension is considered from three perspectives (criteria): their utility in predicting hypertension and its complications (predictability); the effect of their inhibition or removal on the ...
Charles Christopher J - - 2004
Co-localization of urocortin (Ucn) and its putative receptor (CRF-R2beta) in peripheral tissues, including the heart and vasculature, suggests an important role for the peptide as a regulator of cardiovascular function. Indeed, Ucn gene expression and/or immunoreactivity are increased in the ventricles of patients with failing hearts. Hemodynamic effects of Ucn ...
Lottermoser Katja - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have provided evidence for a direct functional link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the fibrinolytic system. Angiotensin II has been suggested to mediate this interrelationship because this peptide was shown to stimulate plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in experimental settings. However, evidence from studies in man regarding effects ...
Xiao Hong D - - 2004
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a central player in blood pressure control. Its effector peptide, angiotensin II, regulates blood pressure through coordinated actions in multiple tissues. The RAS is generally considered to be an endocrine system, and angiotensin II to be a circulating hormone. In recent years, however, a ...
Makris T K - - 2004
Essential hypertension is often accompanied by abnormalities of the coagulation/fibrinolytic system predisposing to a procoagulant state. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative efficacy of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists eprosartan and losartan on plasma levels of hemostatic/fibrinolytic and endothelial function markers in a ...
Shi L - - 2004
Fetal brain c-fos and cardiovascular responses after i.v. or i.c.v. angiotensin II administrations was determined in the near-term ovine fetuses. Both routes of angiotensin II markedly increased fetal mean arterial pressure. The latency of pressor responses by i.v. angiotensin II administration was shorter than by the i.c.v. route. The increased ...
Skurk T - - 2004
Impaired fibrinolysis is frequently observed in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Aim of the study was to examine the short-term effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on the fibrinolytic system. Seventy-four patients with mild hypertension were randomly assigned to a 7-day treatment period with either 16 mg candesartan cilexetil or ...
Xu Zhice - - 2004
The central renin-angiotensin system is important in the control of blood pressure in the adult. However, few data exist about the in utero development of central angiotensin-mediated pressor responses. Our recent studies have shown that the application of ANG II into the fetal brain can increase blood pressure at near ...
Kinugawa Shintaro - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the effect of acute pressure overload on endothelial function in the coronary microcirculation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In instrumented conscious dogs with heart rate held constant, veratrine caused a cholinergic nitric oxide (NO)-dependent increase in coronary blood flow by 23+/-3 mL/min (Bezold-Jarisch reflex). Ten minutes after ...
Kakishita Mikio - - 2003
Oxidative stress is known to contribute to numerous cardiac disease processes. However, the contribution of reactive oxygen species to cardiac hypertrophy has not yet been fully investigated. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether levels of reactive oxygen species were increased in angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. ...
Vingerhoedt Noreen M NM Department of Clinical Pharmacology, St. George Hospital, Kogarah, 2217, - - 2003
This study investigated the central haemodynamic, blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave responses to progressively increasing infusion rates of intravenous angiotensin II (Ang II) in normal volunteers during chronic therapy with telmisartan or placebo. Ten normal volunteers, aged 21 33 years, completed a randomised, double-blind crossover study. Ang II was ...
Modesti Pietro Amedeo - - 2004
Mechanical factors play a key role in activation of cardiac growth factor response in hemodynamic overload, and both cooperate in myocardial remodeling. The present study was performed to investigate whether a different growth factor response is activated in the right and left ventricles in aortocaval fistula and its effects on ...
Xu Zhice - - 2003
Central renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is as important as the peripheral RAS in the control of the cardiovascular homeostasis in the adult. However, previous fetal studies on angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cardiovascular responses focused exclusively on the peripheral side. Thus, few data exist characterizing the in utero development of central angiotensin-mediated ...
Kocks Menno J A - - 2003
High sodium intake blunts the efficacy of angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi), but the underlying mechanism is incompletely characterized. High sodium has been reported to increase vascular expression and vascular activity of ACE. To investigate whether high-dietary sodium-induced effects on vascular conversion of Ang I might be involved in ...
Gormus Niyazi - - 2003
A 19-year-old female was admitted to our department because of a hypertrophic palmaris digitalis II of the left hand displaying color changes. A thrill was easily palpated over the medial part of the finger. A review of her history revealed that this hypertrophy occurred after a blunt trauma to the ...
Aranda Juan M JM - - 2003
Evidence now exists suggesting a pathologic role for angiotensin II in patients with cardiovascular disease and those with risk factors. Clinical trials such as the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study (LIFE), the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study (HOPE), the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension ...
BartuĊ› Joanna B JB Chair of Pharmacology, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Grzegórzecka 16, PL 31-531 Kraków, - - 2003
It is suggested that vasoconstriction mediated by angiotensin II cleaved from angiotensin I by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is counterbalanced by concomitant formation of vasodilator angiotensin (1-7) by neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here, we tested this hypothesis using as a bioassay the isolated rat lung perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (KH) solution and ...
Jackson Edwin K - - 2003
Angiotensin II regulates many aspects of renal function and thereby influences long-term blood pressure. The effects of angiotensin II on the kidney have been exhaustively studied; however, the converse (i.e., effects of the kidney on angiotensin II) has received little attention. Accordingly, the focus of this study was to determine ...
Chilman-Blair Kim - - 2003
Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. Angiotensin II is an important hormonal effector and end-product of the renin-angiotensin system. When it binds to its endogenous receptor sites, it causes widespread vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure. Olmesartan works by selectively ...
Zisman Lawrence S - - 2003
Several enzymes that hydrolyze angiotensin I (Ang I) and Ang II to Ang-(1-7) have been identified, but their relative importance in the intact human heart is not known. Intracoronary (IC) 123I-Ang I was administered to 4 heart transplantation recipients. Arterial and coronary sinus (CS) samples were taken before and after ...
Macefield Vaughan G - - 2003
The human finger pad is highly vascularized so it might be expected that the on-going cardiac pulsations in the vicinity of a cutaneous mechanoreceptor would be reflected in its spontaneous or evoked discharge. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of this potential cardiac rhythmicity in a ...
Arima Shuji - - 2003
The balance of vascular tone between afferent (Af-) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Arts) is a crucial determinant of glomerular hemodynamics. Thus, to understand renal physiology and pathophysiology it is important to study the mechanisms that control their vascular resistance. In order to directly study these mechanisms, we have developed several in ...
Koga Takafumi - - 2003
A number of in vitro studies have suggested potential pathophysiological roles of human (h-) chymase. However, the lack of an appropriate animal model has left the in vivo roles of chymase unclear. To approach this problem, a transgenic mouse (TGM) model carrying the h-chymase gene was established. The h-chymase cDNA ...
Huggins Catherine E - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce cardiac growth and modulate myocardial contractility. It has been reported that elevated levels of endogenous Ang II contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensives. However, the long-term functional effects of cardiac exposure to Ang II in normotensives is unclear. ...
Chrysant Steven G - - 2003
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Monotherapy of hypertension is often ineffective, since it controls approximately 50% of the blood pressure of hypertensive patients. For lowering blood pressure to less than 140/90 mmHg (or <130/80 mmHg among people with diabetes or chronic renal disease) according ...
Dohi Yasuaki - - 2003
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that blockade of angiotensin II type-1 receptors reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with essential hypertension. The study population comprised 132 hypertensive patients, some receiving and others not receiving medical treatment. At enrollment their systolic and/or diastolic blood pressures were ...
Mimassi Nagi - - 2003
The cardiovascular effects of centrally and peripherally administered synthetic salmon corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH), a member of a family of stress-related neuropeptides, were investigated in the unanesthetized trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. In group 1, trout bearing a cannula in the dorsal aorta, neither intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) nor intra-arterial (i.a.) injections of CRH produced any ...
Heusser Karsten - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by ACE inhibitors has been demonstrated to reduce total mortality in cardiovascular diseases. This advantage was attributed in part to changes of autonomic cardiovascular control, exemplified by an increase of heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex gain (BRG). We sought to assess the ...
Saigusa Takeshi - - 2003
The present study examined the role of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in mediating the pressor and renal sympathetic baroreflex effects of intraventricularly administered angiotensin II (Ang II) in urethane anaesthetised rabbits. Microinjection of Ang II over a wide range of medullary sites showed that pressor responses were observed only ...
Jung Oliver - - 2003
The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) within the vascular wall is limited by superoxide anions (O2.-). The relevance of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) for the detoxification of vascular O2.- is unknown. We determined the involvement of ecSOD in the control of blood pressure and endothelium-dependent responses in angiotensin II-induced hypertension ...
Montanari Alberto - - 2003
To investigate whether endothelin-A receptors mediate hemodynamic changes caused by exogenous Angiotensin II in humans, 7 healthy volunteers on a 250-mmol sodium diet underwent 3 separate p-aminohippurate and inulin-based renal hemodynamic studies. In 2 studies, Angiotensin II (increasing rates of 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 ng/kg per minute, each for 30 ...
Gomez-Alamillo Carlos - - 2003
We examined whether interactions between angiotensin II (Ang II), endothelin (ET), nitric oxide (NO), and prostaglandins (PGs) differentially regulate perfusion to distinct vascular beds. For this, we blocked either angiotensin AT1 or ET receptors or both and then sequentially inhibited NO and PG synthesis in anesthetized dogs. Blocking Ang II ...
Kazama Ken - - 2003
We investigated whether angiotensin II (ANG II), a peptide that plays a central role in the genesis of hypertension, alters the coupling between synaptic activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF), a critical homeostatic mechanism that assures adequate cerebral perfusion to active brain regions. The somatosensory cortex was activated by stroking ...
Sawathiparnich Pairunyar - - 2003
Aldosterone enhances angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 expression in vitro. This study tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) and aldosterone receptor antagonism interact to decrease PAI-1 in humans. Effects of candesartan (16 mg/d), spironolactone (25 mg/d), or combined candesartan/spironolactone on mean arterial pressure (MAP), ...
Pelaez Laura I - - 2003
Subpressor doses of angiotensin II (SP-Ang II) cause a slow increase in blood pressure in rats as assessed by tail cuff plethysmography (TCP), reflecting either sustained hypertension or an exaggerated pressor response to diverse stimuli. We examined whether subpressor doses of Ang II enhance blood pressure responses to simple stress ...
Chappell Mark C - - 2003
The influence of estrogen on the regulation of cardiovascular function remains a controversial and complex area of investigation. We assessed the effects of estrogen depletion in the congenic mRen(2). Lewis rat, established from the back-cross of the original (mRen2)-27 transgenic onto the Lewis inbred strain. Ovariectomy of heterozygous mRen(2). Lewis ...
Hennig L - - 2003
The clinical value of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) in heart failure has clearly been documented for the ACE-inhibitors as well as for the angiotensin-I-receptor blocker (AT1) by extensive intervention studies (AIRE, CONSENSUS, SAVE, ELITE II, ValHeFT and others). The additional specific vascular and renal protection, acting beyond the lowering ...
Takai Shinji - - 2003
In vascular tissues, angiotensin II is potentially cleaved from angiotensin I by chymase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). In the normal state, ACE regulates angiotensin II formation and plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure, whereas chymase is stored in mast cells and has no angiotensin II-forming ...
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