Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1530
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Gupta Sanjaya - - 2005
We describe an animal laboratory using anesthetized swine to demonstrate the regulation of arterial blood pressure to second-year medical students at Saint Louis University School of Medicine (St. Louis, MO). The laboratory is designed to illustrate basic pharmacological and physiological concepts learned in the classroom. The specific learning objectives covered ...
Roberts Jack C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: According to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard 0101.04, the maximum deformation a soft armor vest can undergo without penetration is 44 mm. However, this does not take into account the effect of the pressure wave or energy transferred to the organs within the torso due to behind ...
Bönner Gerd - - 2005
Candesartan cilexetil is a highly potent and long-acting angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor antagonist. This short review summarises results of clinical studies focusing on the duration of action of candesartan cilexetil. Results of previous clinical studies indicate that candesartan has the property to maintain a sustained blood pressure reduction ...
Barrett Carolyn J - - 2005
Arterial baroreflexes are well established to provide the basis for short-term control of arterial pressure; however, their role in long-term pressure control is more controversial. We proposed that if the sustained decrease in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) we observed previously in response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension is baroreflex mediated, ...
Velaphi Sithembiso C - - 2005
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases after birth, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Systemic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusions increase MAP in newborn sheep, but the direct effects of ANG II on peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) are minimal. Thus, its systemic pressor effects may reflect release of other pressor agents, e.g. ...
Wang Li-jun - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that chronic administration of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in rats in vivo. METHODS: Coarctation of the suprarenal abdominal aorta was performed in 41 8-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty-four hours after the operation, osmotic minipumps were surgically implanted subcutaneously in the rats, which were ...
Schmieder Roland E - - 2005
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates sodium balance, fluid volume, and blood pressure (BP). It is also implicated in the progression of heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease; this is mediated by the binding of angiotensin II (ang II) to the ang II type 1 but not the ang II type ...
Schlaich Markus P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin (Ang) II may enhance the influence of the sympathetic nervous system at various levels by facilitating norepinephrine (NE) release. We investigated whether such an interaction is evident in the human heart and whether it has an impact on left ventricular (LV) structure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ang I and ...
Onitsuka H - - 2005
Adrenomedullin is a potent hypotensive peptide that may act on myocytes to inhibit hypertrophy and on fibroblasts to inhibit growth in vitro induced by mechanical stretching and angiotensin II. Adrenomedullin is processed from the inactive intermediate adrenomedullin precursor with a glycine extension, which is subsequently converted to biologically active mature ...
Knuepfer Mark M - - 2005
Cocaine produces characteristic behavioral and autonomic responses due to its unique pharmacological properties. Many of the autonomic responses resemble those to acute behavioral stress. Both cocaine and behavioral stress have been shown to evoke an increase in sympathetic nerve activity that is primarily responsible for the peripheral cardiovascular responses. We ...
Stöllberger Claudia - - 2005
A 40-year-old male with Becker muscular dystrophy and cardiac involvement was stable in New York Heart Association class II for 7 years. He then had arthralgia caused by bilateral gonarthrosis. He received diclofenac 100 mg/d and 500 mg/d mephenamine acid. Six weeks later, he was hospitalized because of heart failure ...
Uzu Takashi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether thiazide diuretics could restore nocturnal blood pressure (BP) decline and reduce urinary protein excretion in patients with glomerulopathy treated with angiotensin II modulators (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers). METHODS: Twenty-five Japanese outpatients (11 men, 14 women; mean age 43 +/- 12 years) with ...
Utsunomiya Hirotoshi - - 2005
In contrast to well-established physiological roles of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), the significance of the type 2 receptor (AT2) remains largely unclear. AT2-knockout (AT2KO) mice have a phenotype associated with mild hypertension. This implies that AT2 has a role for the regulation of blood pressure. To gain ...
Bivol Liliana Monica - - 2005
The ANG II receptor 1 (AT(1)R) level in the nonclipped kidney of two-kidney, one-clip hypertension (2K1C) has shown to be unchanged despite a high circulating angiotensin (ANG) II level. To examine the vasoreactive response to ANG II in this kidney, injections of ANG II into renal artery were performed 6 ...
Touyz Rhian M - - 2005
The gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase is the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cardiovascular system and inactivation of gp91phox has been reported to blunt hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy seen in angiotensin (Ang) II-infused animals. In the current study, we sought to determine the role of gp91phox-derived ROS on ...
Touyz Rhian M - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging evidence indicates that hypertension is a vascular disease associated with inflammation, induced through redox-sensitive mechanisms that are regulated by angiotensin II. This review focuses on the role of inflammation, oxidative stress and angiotensin II in vascular injury and discusses implications of these processes in hypertension. RECENT ...
Cholewa B C - - 2005
AIM: The present experiments were designed to determine the mechanism(s) for increased sensitivity to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in mice in comparison with rats. METHODS: Mice and rats, with indwelling femoral arterial and venous catheters, were chronically administered angiotensin II or pharmacological inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system as sodium ...
Anning Peter B - - 2005
12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays a pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. To characterize whether 12/15-LOX also contributes to endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, regulation of vessel tone and angiotensin II (ang II) responses were characterized in mice deficient in 12/15-LOX. There was a twofold increase in the magnitude of l-nitroarginine-methyl ester-inhibitable, acetylcholine-dependent relaxation or ...
Jung Oliver - - 2005
The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their di-hydroxy derivatives. We hypothesized that the metabolism of EETs by the sEH contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and tested the effects of a water-soluble sEH inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) on blood pressure. AUDA (130 microg/mL in drinking ...
Harvey Paula J - - 2005
Postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is reported to increase angiotensin II under resting conditions. To determine the implications of this increase for cardiovascular regulation during simulated orthostasis, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured at rest and during lower body negative pressure (LBNP; ...
Xiao Hong D - - 2005
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) acts to regulate blood volume and arterial pressure, and has direct effects on the heart. Renin, released by the kidney, circulates and acts-in the rate-limiting step of angiotensin II (Ang II) production-to convert angiotensinogen to inactive angiotensin I (Ang I). Ang II constricts vessels, leading to ...
Shionyu-Mitsuyama Clara - - 2005
The thermostability of the conger eel galectin, congerin II, was improved by in vitro evolutionary protein engineering. Two rounds of random PCR mutagenesis and selection experiments increased the congerin II thermostability to a level comparative to its naturally thermostable isoform, congerin I. The crystal structures of the most thermostable double ...
Mousa Tarek M - - 2005
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is known to activate central sympathetic neurons. In this study we determined the effects of ANG II on the autonomic components of the cardiovascular responses to stimulation of nasopharyngeal receptors with cigarette smoke. Experiments were carried out in conscious New Zealand White rabbits instrumented to record ...
Waeber B - - 2005
Treatment of hypertension remains a difficult task despite the availability of different types of medications lowering blood pressure by different mechanisms. In order to reach the target blood pressures recommended today combination therapy is required in most patients. The co-administration of two drugs with different impacts on the cardiovascular system ...
Brown J Anne - - 2005
This study describes the first investigations of the physiological signals involved in activating the newly discovered cyclostome renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its role in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis. Experimental manipulation showed that volume depletion (removal of 40% blood volume) rapidly activated the RAS of lampreys acclimated to water at ...
Gosse P - - 2005
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which describes pathological changes in cardiac structure, is a powerful and reversible predictor of cardiovascular risk. There is a continuous relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM) and the likelihood of cardiovascular events, with no cut-off between the absence of such events and heightened risk. A correlation ...
Gerbaulet Stephan P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure-independent (BP) effects of angiotensin (Ang) II and endothelin (ET) on coronaries (remodeling) in high renin hypertension are incompletely understood. METHODS: We studied the effects of subdepressor doses of Ang II receptor (AT1) blockade with losartan (10 mg/kg/day gavage) and endothelin A receptor (ETA) blockade with LU135252 (30 ...
Unger Thomas - - 2005
The principal aim in the treatment of patients with high blood pressure is to ensure a maximum reduction in the total risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in volume homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. The angiotensin receptor blockers control high blood pressure by ...
Kimura Shoji - - 2004
The candidate mechanisms for maintaining hypertension in a chronically angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused state include direct vasoconstriction of the vasculature, disturbance of renal water/sodium handling, and central/peripheral sympathetic nerve regulation of hemodynamics. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been studied in these proposed mechanisms and the importance of ...
Horita Yoshio - - 2004
This study investigates the ability of low doses of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, in combination with angiotensin II receptor blockers, to exert antiproteinuric effects in normotensive and proteinuric outpatients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy confirmed by biopsy. We performed a prospective, randomized, 6-month study of the effects of temocapril 1 mg (n=10), ...
Willemsen J M - - 2004
Generation of angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Owing to the existence of high levels of Ang II within the kidney, blockade of the intrarenal Ang II levels may be important since long term outcome seems not only to be related to blood pressure per ...
Lucchesi Pamela A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation is a mediator of angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from large arteries. The present study used mouse mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs) to investigate the role of EGFR transactivation under pressure-induced myogenic tone (MT). METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Wu Feng - - 2004
Compromised microvascular responsiveness is one of the key factors associated with mortality of septic patients. The present study addresses the mechanism of protection by ascorbate against impaired vasoconstriction in septic mice. Sepsis (i.e., cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model) elevated both plasma protein carbonyl (i.e., an index of oxidative stress) ...
Ytrebø L M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized haemodynamically by a progressive hyperdynamic circulation. The pathophysiological mechanism is unknown, but impaired contractility of vascular smooth muscle may play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vascular response to stimulation with norepinephrine and angiotensin II in endothelium-denuded ...
Broomé M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent vasoconstrictor with an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Earlier results have shown a positive acute inotropic effect of Ang II in anaesthetized pigs together with significant vasoconstriction. This investigation was designed to study cardiac effects of Ang II, when ...
Watson Anna M D - - 2004
Urotensin II (UII) is a peptide that was originally isolated and characterized in fish. Interest in its effects in mammals increased with the identification of its receptor, G-protein coupled receptor 14, and its localization in humans. UII and its receptor have a wide distribution, including brain and spinal cord as ...
Gao Lie - - 2004
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is often associated with excitation of the sympathetic nervous system. This event is thought to be a negative predictor of survival in CHF. Sympathoexcitation and central angiotensin II (Ang II) have been causally linked. Recent studies have shown that NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxidant species (ROS) are ...
Van Huysse James W - - 2004
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of sodium in rats increases cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [Na], mimicking the effects of a high salt diet in salt-sensitive strains and causing sympathetic hyperactivity and a pressor response that are mediated via both an endogenous brain ouabainlike substance (OLS) and the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS). However, the ...
Shi Lijun - - 2004
AVP not only influences renal water excretion but also has profound cardiovascular effects in adults. Our recent studies have demonstrated that central angiotensin induced fetal pressor responses accompanied with AVP release. However, little is known of hormonal mechanisms in angiotensin-mediated fetal blood pressure (BP) changes. The present study determined AVP ...
Neutel J M - - 2004
Plasma renin activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence correlate closely in people with hypertension. The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on blood pressure (BP) are important in hypertensive patients; accumulating data suggest that the growth effects of Ang II in the cardiovascular system play a critical role in the ...
Unger Thomas - - 2004
Activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is increased in patients with heart failure, and its maladaptive mechanisms may lead to adverse effects such as cardiac remodelling and sympathetic activation. Elevated renin activity has been demonstrated in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (Third- generation synthetic non-peptide renin inhibitors, with more favourable properties ...
Simões E Silva Ana C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We examined the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in normotensive and hypertensive children. STUDY DESIGN: Hypertensive patients (12 with renovascular hypertension and 15 with essential hypertension) and 32 normotensive subjects were evaluated at a Pediatric Nephrology Center. Blood samples for plasma renin activity (PRA) and angiotensin peptides measurements ...
Li Ming - - 2004
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are thought to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients, mainly by decreasing angiotensin II (Ang II) formation. Chymase, a human mast cell protease, has recently been proposed to play a role in blood pressure regulation because of its Ang II-forming activity. Here we show that ...
Walther Thomas - - 2004
To explore the role of angiotensin II, we assessed hemodynamics and cardiac function in angiotensinogen-deficient mice in comparison to wild-type animals. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and wall thickness were evaluated by echocardiography and systolic and diastolic left ventricular function by pressure-volume relations using a micro-conductance catheter. Compared to wild-type animals, ...
Denton Kate M - - 2004
We have shown previously that a moderate reflex increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) elevated glomerular capillary pressure, whereas a more severe increase in RSNA decreased glomerular capillary pressure. This suggested that the nerves innervating the glomerular afferent and efferent arterioles could be selectively activated, allowing differential control of ...
Zimmerman Matthew C - - 2004
Hypertension caused by angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion is associated with oxidative stress in the peripheral vasculature and kidney. The role of redox mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS), a tissue known to be pivotal in Ang II-dependent hypertension, has not been investigated. We recently identified superoxide (O2*-) in ...
Sim Justein S N - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Losartan improves stimulated endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular disease, but there are no data to establish whether losartan has this effect in normal man. Furthermore, whether losartan improves basal nitric oxide (NO) activity is controversial. We therefore examined whether treatment with losartan improved basal NO activity in normal, ...
Fournier Albert - - 2004
Most of the deleterious effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on blood pressure (BP), cardiovascular remodeling, and atherosclerosis are mediated by Ang II type 1 (AT1)-receptor activation. This explains why Ang-II-decreasing or blocking drugs have been successful in decreasing global cardiovascular morbimortality in patients with cardiac complications. However, in primary ...
Hubloue Ives - - 2004
The role played by several vasoactive mediators that are synthesized and released by the pulmonary vascular endothelium in the regulation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) remains unclear. As a potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II could be involved. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by enalaprilat and type 1 angiotensin ...
Neves Mario F - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with cardiovascular disease, although a causal relationship is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mild hyperhomocysteinemia (H-Hcy) may increase vascular stiffness of small arteries. METHODS: Wild-type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/-) methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) knockout mice, a new model of ...
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