Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1517
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Shimizu Miki - - 2006
Cardiac remodeling and angiotensin II-forming enzyme activity of the left ventricle on chronic pressure overload were studied in male Syrian hamsters, whose chymase activity is similar to that of dogs. Pressure overload was achieved by banding at the ascending aorta (aortic stenosis). Echocardiography, histological analysis, and analysis of cardiac angiotensin-converting ...
Mancia Giuseppe - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure, as well as blood volume homeostasis, depends to a large extent on humoral influences stemming from the renin-angiotensin axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Evidence has been provided that a large part of this homeostatic modulation is effected by the complex interactions between the two systems. OBJECTIVES: ...
Leite-Moreira Adelino F - - 2006
Acute effects of angiotensin II (AngII) on diastolic properties of the myocardium were investigated. Increasing concentrations of AngII (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) were added to rabbit papillary muscles in the absence (n=11) or presence of: (i) AT1 receptor antagonists, losartan (10(-6) M; n=7) or ZD-7155 (10(-7) M; n=8); (ii) ZD-7155 ...
Butler David G - - 2006
Discovery of the chemical structure of alligator (Alligator mississipiensis) [Asp(1), Val(5), Ala(9)]-Angiotensin I (ANG I) has permitted the investigation of cardiovascular responses to this peptide and its analogs in spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus), close relatives of alligators. ANG I and [Asp(1), Val(5)]- Angiotensin II (ANG II) i.v. gave dose-dependent increases ...
Zhao Wenyuan - - 2006
Chronic elevation of circulating ANG II is associated with cardiac remodeling in patients with hypertension and heart failure. The underlying mechanisms, however, are not completely defined. Herein, we studied ANG II-induced molecular and cellular events in the rat heart as well as their links to the redox state. We also ...
van der Wegen-Franken Karin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Medical elastic compression stockings (MECSs) are currently classified according to the pressure they exert at the ankle at the point of its minimum girth (B level). Despite this classification, there are considerable differences between MECSs belonging to the same compression class from the same manufacturers and between different manufacturers. ...
Dodic M - - 2006
Prenatal exposure to elevated maternal glucocorticoids (dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol (CORT)) for 2 days early in pregnancy can 'programme' alterations in adult offspring of sheep, including elevated arterial pressure. DEX treatment also results in greater angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor expression in the medulla oblongata in late gestation fetuses ...
Boos Christopher J - - 2006
The risk factors for hypertension are only partly known, and accounts for the some of the deficiencies in current primary prevention strategies and in the design of new drugs for the management of this common condition. Recently, chronic low grade low-grade inflammation has been identified as an integral part in ...
Rostoker Guy - - 2006
It has been postulated that hypertension and interdialytic weight gain in hemodialysis patients are related to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin II type 1 (ATI) receptor antagonists are new anti-hypertensive agents and are currently the most specific means of blocking the renin-angiotensin enzymatic cascade. Recent studies show that ...
Gavazzi Gaetan - - 2006
To understand the role of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase NOX1 in the vascular system, we have generated NOX1-deficient mice. NOX1-deficient mice had a moderately decreased basal blood pressure. In response to angiotensin II they showed an almost complete loss of the sustained blood pressure response, while the initial increase was ...
Zhou Ming-Sheng - - 2006
Endothelial dysfunction (ED) complicates hypertension and is a precursor of atherosclerosis. Reduced NO bioactivity, because of increased reduced NAD(P)H oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a critical role in ED. gp91phox, predominantly expressed in the endothelium and adventitia, is a subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase important for its activation in response ...
Jackson Graham - - 2005
Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors have modest nitrate-like hemodynamic effects, lowering wedge pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. At rest, decreases in arterial pressure averaging 9/8 mm Hg may increase to 12/5 mm Hg as a result of the vasodilatory response, but no clinical adverse effects have ...
Manabe Seiko - - 2005
Chronic inflammation is common in hypertension and acts as an independent determinant of arterial blood pressure. Hypertensive patients are reported to have high circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Recently, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to ...
Alzamora Andréia C - - 2006
We determined the effect of microinjection of ANG-(1-7) and ANG II into two key regions of the medulla that control the circulation [rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively)] on baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in anesthetized rats. Reflex bradycardia and tachycardia were induced by increases and ...
Escobales N - - 2006
Recent studies indicate the presence of vascular alterations in 2-month-old Syrian cardiomyopathic hamsters (SCH). These alterations include enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the aorta, increased contractile response to angiotensin II and impaired vasorelaxation to acetylcholine in norepinephrine-precontracted aortic rings. The mechanisms leading to these vascular alterations are not known ...
Chen Peng-min - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of dual angiotensin II forming pathways during heart failure. In the present study, the changes of chymase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) expressions in the failing hearts of hamsters were analysed. METHODS: Heart failure was induced by ligation of left anterior descending branch ...
Hidaka Tatewaki - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the direct contractile effects of angiotensin II (AII) and vasopressin (VP), and the effects of combinations of these agonists, in human isolated gastroepiploic arteries in vitro. DESIGN: Laboratory and clinical investigation. SETTING: University laboratory and hospital. SUBJECTS: Ring segments were prepared from gastroepiploic arteries obtained from 57 ...
Neves Mario Fritsch - - 2005
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with increased extracellular matrix and inflammatory markers in the cardiovascular system. We evaluated the effects of aldosterone antagonism on cardiovascular structure, collagen deposition, and expression of inflammatory markers in 2-week angiotensin (Ang) II-infused rats (120 ng.kg-1.min-1, s.c.)+/-spironolactone or hydralazine (25 mg.kg-1.d-1). Aortic and ...
- - 2005
Angiotensin II, the principal effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), has potent vasoconstrictive and other effects that can lead to cardiac and renal complications. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which block the effects of angiotensin II at the receptor level, antagonize angiotensin II's vasoconstrictive and prooxidant effects, decrease aldosterone secretion, ...
Matsuno Kuniharu - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) by angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases. NADPH oxidase is a major source of superoxide generated in vascular tissues. Although Nox1 has been identified in vascular smooth muscle cells as a new homolog of ...
Lohmeier Thomas E - - 2005
Despite recent evidence indicating sustained activation of the baroreflex during chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), sinoaortic denervation does not exacerbate the severity of the hypertension. Therefore, to determine whether Ang II hypertension is relatively resistant to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the baroreflex, the carotid baroreflex was electrically ...
Munzenmaier Diane H - - 2006
Angiotensin II is known to stimulate angiogenesis in the peripheral circulation through activation of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor. This study investigated the effect of angiotensin receptor blockade on cerebral cortical microvessel density. Rats (6-7 wk old, n = 5-17) were instrumented with femoral arterial and venous indwelling ...
Benson James D - - 2005
Electronic particle counters have gained widespread acceptance as a means to measure osmotic properties of cell membranes. Because most current instruments do not allow for the collection of true volume as a function of time data, investigators use older models such as the MultiSizer II sampling stand. A significant drawback ...
Mitchell Gary F - - 2006
Abnormal large artery function and increased pulsatile load are exacerbated by excess angiotensin-II acting through the AT1 receptor and contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). To evaluate effects of the AT1 receptor blocker candesartan (N = 30) or placebo (N = 34) on pulsatile hemodynamics ...
Takemori Kumiko - - 2005
To investigate the short-term blockade of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor at the prehypertensive stage and its effects on hypertensive sequelae after maturation, we administered AT1 receptor blocker (ARB, 1 mg/kg/day) to male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Although blood pressure in ...
Gao Lie - - 2005
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we showed that simvastatin (SIM) therapy normalized sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular reflex regulation in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the precise neural and cellular pathways for these effects are unknown. We hypothesized that SIM exerts its beneficial effect on autonomic function in CHF by downregulating ...
Han Ying - - 2005
Our previous studies showed that angiotensin II (Ang II) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) potentiated the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) in rats. This study investigated whether the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the PVN modulated the CSAR and contributed to the effect of Ang II on the CSAR in ...
Hagiwara Yukihiko - - 2005
It has been suggested that neurons in the hypothalamus respond to baroreflex activation and deactivation. In this study, we examined whether angiotensin II-sensitive neurons in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) respond to baroreflex activation and deactivation, and which neurotransmitters are involved in mediating the baroreflex responses. Male Wistar rats were ...
Faria-Silva Raphael - - 2005
In this study we evaluated the effect of angiotensin(1-7) and its nonpeptide analog, AVE 0991, on the endothelial function in vivo. The experiments were performed in conscious adult male Wistar rats, with polyethylene catheters implanted into the descending aorta (through left carotid artery), for injection of acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside, ...
Schulman Ivonne Hernandez - - 2005
Endothelial dysfunction complicates hypertension and is a precursor of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide (NO), and an increase in the activity of vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin (Ang) II and reactive oxygen species (ROS). To the extent that cardiovascular disease is characterized ...
Takeuchi Kazuma - - 2005
Although evidence from basic research suggests the involvement of angiotensin II (Ang II) in the progression of arteriosclerosis, the clinical data are limited. In the present study, hypertensive outpatients who were well controlled with antihypertensive medication and had similar blood pressure levels were studied, and arterial elasticity was compared between ...
Fernandes Liliam - - 2005
The venoconstrictor effect of Angiotensin II (Ang II) was investigated in the rat mesenteric venules and portal vein. Mesenteric venules were perfused at a constant rate and reactivity to Ang II (0.1 nmol) was evaluated as changes in the perfusion pressure. Rings of portal vein were mounted in organ baths ...
Pladys P - - 2005
In hypertension, increased peripheral vascular resistance results from vascular dysfunction with or without structural changes (vessel wall remodeling and/or microvascular rarefaction). Humans with lower birth weight exhibit evidence of vascular dysfunction. The current studies were undertaken to investigate whether in utero programming of hypertension is associated with in vivo altered ...
Graiani Gallia - - 2005
Angiotensin II (Ang II), acting through its G protein-coupled AT1 receptor (AT1), contributes to the precocious heart senescence typical of patients with hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. AT1 was suggested to transactivate an intracellular signaling controlled by growth factors and their tyrosin-kinase receptors. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, this downstream ...
Matsui Reiko - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) regulates production of the reduced form of NADPH through the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD may therefore affect superoxide anion production via vascular NADPH oxidase, which is key in mediating the vascular response to angiotensin II (Ang II). We determined the hypertensive and vascular hypertrophic response to ...
Domenighetti Andrea A - - 2005
Chronic elevation of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) is detrimental to the heart. In addition to its hemodynamic effects, Ang II exerts cardiotrophic actions that contribute to cardiomyocyte remodeling. However, it remains to be clarified whether these direct actions of Ang II are sufficient to cause contractile dysfunction and heart ...
Stejskal David - - 2005
Myosin light chains-1 (MLC-1) have been recently associated with the markers of heart function (NYHA, LVEF, NT-proBNP). Verification of the relationship between markers of heart function (New York Heart Association classification (NYHA), left ventricle ejection fraction determination (LVEF), N terminal prohormone of natriuretic peptide B type BNP (NT-proBNP) and concentrations ...
Gupta Sanjaya - - 2005
We describe an animal laboratory using anesthetized swine to demonstrate the regulation of arterial blood pressure to second-year medical students at Saint Louis University School of Medicine (St. Louis, MO). The laboratory is designed to illustrate basic pharmacological and physiological concepts learned in the classroom. The specific learning objectives covered ...
Roberts Jack C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: According to the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Standard 0101.04, the maximum deformation a soft armor vest can undergo without penetration is 44 mm. However, this does not take into account the effect of the pressure wave or energy transferred to the organs within the torso due to behind ...
Bönner Gerd - - 2005
Candesartan cilexetil is a highly potent and long-acting angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor antagonist. This short review summarises results of clinical studies focusing on the duration of action of candesartan cilexetil. Results of previous clinical studies indicate that candesartan has the property to maintain a sustained blood pressure reduction ...
Barrett Carolyn J - - 2005
Arterial baroreflexes are well established to provide the basis for short-term control of arterial pressure; however, their role in long-term pressure control is more controversial. We proposed that if the sustained decrease in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) we observed previously in response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension is baroreflex mediated, ...
Velaphi Sithembiso C - - 2005
Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases after birth, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Systemic angiotensin II (ANG II) infusions increase MAP in newborn sheep, but the direct effects of ANG II on peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) are minimal. Thus, its systemic pressor effects may reflect release of other pressor agents, e.g. ...
Wang Li-jun - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that chronic administration of angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] attenuates cardiac hypertrophy in rats in vivo. METHODS: Coarctation of the suprarenal abdominal aorta was performed in 41 8-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty-four hours after the operation, osmotic minipumps were surgically implanted subcutaneously in the rats, which were ...
Schmieder Roland E - - 2005
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) regulates sodium balance, fluid volume, and blood pressure (BP). It is also implicated in the progression of heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease; this is mediated by the binding of angiotensin II (ang II) to the ang II type 1 but not the ang II type ...
Schlaich Markus P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin (Ang) II may enhance the influence of the sympathetic nervous system at various levels by facilitating norepinephrine (NE) release. We investigated whether such an interaction is evident in the human heart and whether it has an impact on left ventricular (LV) structure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ang I and ...
Onitsuka H - - 2005
Adrenomedullin is a potent hypotensive peptide that may act on myocytes to inhibit hypertrophy and on fibroblasts to inhibit growth in vitro induced by mechanical stretching and angiotensin II. Adrenomedullin is processed from the inactive intermediate adrenomedullin precursor with a glycine extension, which is subsequently converted to biologically active mature ...
Knuepfer Mark M - - 2005
Cocaine produces characteristic behavioral and autonomic responses due to its unique pharmacological properties. Many of the autonomic responses resemble those to acute behavioral stress. Both cocaine and behavioral stress have been shown to evoke an increase in sympathetic nerve activity that is primarily responsible for the peripheral cardiovascular responses. We ...
Stöllberger Claudia - - 2005
A 40-year-old male with Becker muscular dystrophy and cardiac involvement was stable in New York Heart Association class II for 7 years. He then had arthralgia caused by bilateral gonarthrosis. He received diclofenac 100 mg/d and 500 mg/d mephenamine acid. Six weeks later, he was hospitalized because of heart failure ...
Uzu Takashi - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether thiazide diuretics could restore nocturnal blood pressure (BP) decline and reduce urinary protein excretion in patients with glomerulopathy treated with angiotensin II modulators (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers). METHODS: Twenty-five Japanese outpatients (11 men, 14 women; mean age 43 +/- 12 years) with ...
Utsunomiya Hirotoshi - - 2005
In contrast to well-established physiological roles of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), the significance of the type 2 receptor (AT2) remains largely unclear. AT2-knockout (AT2KO) mice have a phenotype associated with mild hypertension. This implies that AT2 has a role for the regulation of blood pressure. To gain ...
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