Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1524
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Mimura T - - 2008
Cardiovascular diseases constitute major cause of death in chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). We examined the effects of angiotensin inhibition either with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or with angiotensin receptor blocker on patient prognosis and heart-ankle pulse wave velocity (haPWV) in CKDs. Randomized controlled study was performed on 102 patients with non-diabetic ...
Hercule Hantz C - - 2007
Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates signalling pathways predominantly through the G-protein-coupled Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R). The regulator of G protein signalling 2 (RGS2) is a negative G protein regulator. We hypothesized that RGS2 deletion changes blood pressure regulation by increasing the response to Ang II. To address this ...
Frithiof Robert - - 2007
Acute NaCl loading as resuscitation in haemorrhagic hypovolaemia is known to induce rapid cardiovascular recovery. Besides an osmotically induced increase in plasma volume the physiological mechanisms of action are unknown. We hypothesized that a CNS mechanism, elicited by increased periventricular [Na(+)] and mediated by angiotensin II type 1 receptors (AT(1)), ...
Bivol Liliana Monica - - 2007
The tetradecythioacetic acid (TTA) is a modified fatty acid known to exhibit pleiotropic effects. First, we compared the effect of TTA on the blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C)-hypertensive rats. Second, we examined mechanisms involved in the blood pressure reduction. TTA had minor effect on ...
Boesen Erika I - - 2007
Interleukin (IL)-6 has been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension, although the mechanisms involved are unclear. Studies conducted in vitro suggest that IL-6 may have a direct effect on vascular tone and may modulate constrictor responses to agonists. Whether this effect can be observed in vivo ...
Ebrahimian Talin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that downregulation of the antioxidant thioredoxin system contributes to oxidative stress in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. As oestrogen may protect against oxidative stress, we also evaluated whether the thioredoxin system, particularly in the heart, is differentially regulated between females and males. RESULTS: C57Bl/6 male and intact or ovariectomized ...
Kang Misuk - - 2007
Catecholamines, endothelin-1 and angiotensin II are among a diverse group of diffusible extracellular signals that regulate pump function of the heart by binding to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). When the body demands a temporary boost of power output or if temporary budgeting of resources is required, these signals can adjust ...
Velaphi Sithembiso C - - 2007
The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulating newborn mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and tissue blood flow remains unclear. Although postnatal MAP increases, vascular responsiveness to infused angiotensin II (ANG II) is unchanged, possibly reflecting increased metabolic clearance rate of ANG II (MCR(ANG II)). To address this, we ...
Yang Jing - - 2007
The in vivo cardiovascular effects of acutely administered neurokinin B (NKB) have been attributed both to direct effects on vascular tone and to indirect effects on central neuroendocrine control of the circulation. We proposed: 1) that a modest long-term increase in plasma NKB levels would decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP) ...
Flamant Martin - - 2007
Hypertension is associated with vascular remodeling characterized by rearrangement of extracellular matrix proteins. To evaluate how matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 contributes to the progression of hypertensive vascular disease in vivo, wild-type (wt) or MMP-9(-/-) mice were treated with angiotensin II (Ang II; 1 microg/kg per minute, by minipump) plus a 5% ...
Tsutsui Hiroyuki - - 2007
Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in the structural and functional abnormalities of the diabetic heart. We investigated whether or not Ang II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) could attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling in ...
Vanecková Ivana - - 2007
The effectiveness of antisense (AS) phosphorothioated oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN) targeted to the angiotensin (ANG) type 1 (AT1) receptor, was studies in Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), whose ANG II-dependent hypertension can be attributed to the insertion of a single mouse renin gene. Our results show that a single intraarterial bolus injection of ...
Whaley-Connell Adam - - 2007
Angiotensin II (ANG II) contributes to cardiac remodeling, hypertrophy, and left ventricular dysfunction. ANG II stimulation of the ANG type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) generates reactive oxygen species via NADPH oxidase, which facilitates this hypertrophy and remodeling. This investigation sought to determine whether cardiac oxidative stress and cellular remodeling could be ...
Ferreirós Nerea - - 2007
Candesartan cilexetil is an angiotensin receptor antagonist widely used in the treatment of high blood pressure. This prodrug is metabolised into candesartan, which blocks the receptors AT1 for angiotensin II decreasing the blood pressure levels. During the development of a solid phase extraction procedure for the chromatographic determination of eight ...
Crowley Steven D - - 2007
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical regulator of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. Components of the RAS, including renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptors, are expressed throughout the body in tissues that may impact blood pressure control. Blocking actions of individual components of the RAS ...
McMullan Simon - - 2007
Chronic intravenous angiotensin II (Ang II) has been widely used to establish centrally mediated hypertension in experimental animals, and disruption of Ang II activity is a frontline treatment for hypertensive disease. However, the acute central actions of circulating Ang II are poorly understood. We examined the effects of intravenous pressor ...
Krum Henry - - 2007
Urotensin II, an 11-amino acid peptide, has been found to be the most potent vasoconstrictor yet described, in certain vascular beds. Discovery of its endogenous receptor (UII-R) has ignited considerable interest in this system's role in disease states associated with increased vascular tone (eg, systemic hypertension). Urotensin II was shown ...
Israel Anita - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of short-term administration of AT(1) angiotensin II receptor antagonists on the sympathetic response to a cold pressor test (CPT) in normotensive healthy volunteers. Eighty-two healthy volunteers were included in this double-blind placebo-controlled study. Blood pressure and heart rate were determined ...
Ghanem Firas A - - 2007
Hypertension is one of the most important contributors to atherosclerosis. A possible link between inflammation and elevated blood pressure has been suggested by several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Possible mechanisms include an imbalance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, amplified thrombogenesis and platelet activation, and perhaps a direct effect of inflammatory mediators. ...
Vongpatanasin Wanpen W Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, - - 2007
Chronic elevations in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with a greater risk of hypertension. Whether elevations in CRP cause hypertension is unknown. Chronic, conscious blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed by radiotelemetry in wild-type CF1 control and CF1 transgenic mice expressing rabbit CRP (CF1-CRP) under the regulation of the ...
Miller Steven J - - 2007
Recent clinical and animal studies have shown that collateral artery growth is impaired in the presence of vascular risk factors, including hypertension. Available evidence suggests that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) promote collateral growth in both hypertensive humans and animals; however, the specific mechanisms are not established. This study evaluated the ...
Widder Julian D - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Human endothelial cells use the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) to export glutathione disulfide (GSSG). This can promotes thiol loss during states of increased glutathione oxidation. We investigated how MRP1 modulates blood pressure and vascular function during angiotensin II-induced hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Angiotensin II-induced hypertension altered vascular glutathione flux ...
Hood S G - - 2007
The mechanisms by which chronic infusion of an initially subpressor low dose of angiotensin II (ANG II) causes a progressive and sustained hypertension remain unclear. In conscious sheep (n = 6), intravenous infusion of ANG II (2 microg/h) gradually increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) from 82 +/- 3 to 96 ...
Neumann Jutta - - 2007
Standard treatment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients includes an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker. CKD is often characterized by sympathetic hyperactivity. This study investigates the prevalence of sympathetic hyperactivity (quantified by assessment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity [MSNA]) in a sizable group of patients with CKD ...
Lyons D - - 2007
The vasoconstrictive action of angiotensin II (AII) is partly, sympathetically mediated and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors appear to exert a sympatholytic effect. We examine the effect of an orally administered, selective AT(1) receptor antagonist (losartan 50 mg) on sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction in healthy volunteers in an observer blind crossover study. ...
Nossaman Bobby D - - 2007
In contrast to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the nonopioid analgesics phenacetin, acetaminophen and dipyrone exhibit weak anti-inflammatory properties. An explanation for this difference in pharmacologic activity was provided by the recent discovery of a new cyclooxygenase isoform, cyclooxygenase (COX)-3, that is reported to be inhibited by phenacetin, acetaminophen and dipyrone. ...
Vera Trinity - - 2007
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction can attenuate the development of angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension. However, the mechanism by which HO-1 lowers blood pressure in this model is not clear. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that induction of HO-1 in the kidney can attenuate the increase ...
Savoia Carmine - - 2007
The role of angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT(2)R) on vascular responses to angiotensin II in humans remains unclear. In this study we explored whether AT(2)R is expressed and functionally active on peripheral resistance arteries of hypertensive diabetic patients treated for 1 year with either the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan or ...
Vanourková Zdenka - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we compared the effects of treatment with the AT1 receptor antagonist candesartan and of 'triple therapy' (hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide, reserpine) on the course of blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy and angiotensin II concentrations after induction of hypertension in transgenic rats with inducible expression of the mouse renin ...
Cao Nga - - 2006
1. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I has acute effects on cardiovascular function, including a well-characterized vasodilator response in isolated arteries. In addition to increasing the release of nitric oxide, IGF-I also has effects on a variety of other signalling pathways that affect vascular tone, in particular interactions with the sympathetic nervous ...
Kawamura Makoto - - 2007
Evidence has emerged that undernutrition in utero is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders in adulthood, along with genetic and environmental factors. Recently, the local expression of angiotensinogen and related bioactive substances has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in cardiac remodeling, i.e. fibrosis and hypertrophy. The aim of ...
Rajagopalan Sanjay - - 2006
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play a role in vascular aging. The authors hypothesized that blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor with an angiotensin receptor blocker in healthy elderly subjects improves vascular compliance and endothelial function. Thirty-five healthy elderly subjects were randomized to valsartan or placebo in a ...
Sinnayah Puspha - - 2006
The subfornical organ (SFO) of the brain has long been considered a critical integrating center for the cardiovascular actions of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Early reports of angiotensin II (Ang II) immunoreactivity in the SFO and its neural projections to downstream cardiovascular nuclei raised the possibility that Ang II is ...
Luther James M - - 2006
This study tested the hypothesis that angiotensin promotes oxidative stress and inflammation in humans via aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor. We measured the effect of intravenous aldosterone (0.7 mug/kg per hour for 10 hours followed by 0.9 mug/kg per hour for 4 hours) and vehicle in a randomized, double-blind crossover ...
Lancien Frédéric - - 2007
The goal of the present study was to investigate the central action of native angiotensin II (ANG II) on the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in unanesthetized trout. The animals were equipped with two subcutaneous electrocardiographic (ECG) electrodes, a dorsal aorta catheter and an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula which was inserted within ...
Kai Hisashi - - 2006
Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. We have shown that in Wistar rats with a suprarenal aortic constriction (AC), pressure overload-induced transient perivascular inflammation (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1] induction and macrophage accumulation) in the early phase is the determinant of reactive myocardial fibrosis and resultant ...
Gurley Susan B - - 2006
The carboxypeptidase ACE2 is a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). To clarify the physiological roles of ACE2, we generated mice with targeted disruption of the Ace2 gene. ACE2-deficient mice were viable, fertile, and lacked any gross structural abnormalities. We found normal cardiac dimensions and function in ACE2-deficient animals with mixed ...
Chen Jung-Wei - - 2006
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of 2 sedation regimens during treatment: (1) oral meperidine and hydroxyzine with nitrous oxide (N2O); and (2) oral diazepam and hydroxyzine, submucosal meperidine, and N2O. Nitrous oxide was tapered to oxygen (O2) only 10 minutes following submucosal meperidine ...
Ziori H - - 2006
ACE-inhibitors prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The tumor suppressor gene p53 up-regulates the cellular renin-angiotensin system, resulting in ANG II synthesis, which activates p53 creating a positive feedback loop. One hundred and fourteen rabbits were separated into groups A (control), B (sham-operated), C and D. In groups ...
Chappel M C - - 2006
The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) has revealed a far more complex enzymatic cascade that may influence the renin-angiotensin system within the kidney, specifically the expression of the functional products angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang-(1-7). The regulation of this critical system involved in blood pressure control must now ...
Wong Marty K S - - 2006
Silver sea bream (Sparus sarba) is extremely euryhaline and can survive in a wide range of salinities (0-70 per thousand). The status of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in sea bream adapted to different salinities was studied. As indicated by plasma Ang II levels, a suppressed status of the RAS was ...
Klein Janet D - - 2006
The kidney responds to high levels of ANG II, as may occur during malignant hypertension, by increasing sodium and water excretion. To study whether kidney medullary transporters contribute to this response, rats were made hypertensive using ANG II. Within 3 days of being given ANG II, systolic blood pressure (BP) ...
Zhu Yi-Chun - - 2006
Urotensin II (U-II) is a cyclic neuropeptide that was first isolated from teleost fish some 35 years ago. Mammalian U-II is a powerful vasoconstrictor with a potency greater than that of endothelin-1.Nevertheless, unlike endothelin-1, which constricts all or nearly all vascular beds, the vasoactive effects of U-II are reported to ...
Chen Jiuhua - - 2006
Energy dispersive synchrotron x-ray diffraction is carried out to measure differential lattice strains in polycrystalline Fe(2)SiO(4) (fayalite) and MgO samples using a multi-element solid state detector during high-pressure deformation. The theory of elastic modelling with Reuss (iso-stress) and Voigt (iso-strain) bounds is used to evaluate the aggregate stress and weight ...
Peterson Jeffrey R - - 2006
New evidence that has emerged during the past several years clearly demonstrates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain play a crucial role in blood pressure regulation by serving as signaling molecules within neurons of cardiovascular control regions. In the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, a key role for oxidant ...
Mitchell Kenneth D - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Transgenic rats with inducible angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension (strain name: TGR[Cyp1a1-Ren2]) were generated by inserting the mouse Ren2 renin gene, fused to the cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1) promoter, into the genome of the rat. The present study was performed to characterise the changes in plasma and kidney tissue ...
Díez Javier - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The Losartan Intervention For End-point reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study found that a losartan-based regimen, compared with an atenolol-based regimen, resulted in a significantly lower risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, despite similar reductions in blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to ...
Ferder León - - 2006
Excess body weight, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance together have been denominated the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we analyze the potential role of angiotensin II (Ang II) and reactive oxygen species in mediating inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. Ang II induces pro-inflammatory genes and other pro-inflammatory substances and ...
Cheung Bernard M Y - - 2006
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a key role in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) inhibit angiotensin II type 1 receptors and large clinical trials have shown that they are effective in many cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic nephropathy. They ...
Sarr Mamadou - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Chronic administration of moderate amounts of red wine has been associated with a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. This study examined whether red wine polyphenols prevent the angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in rats, and, if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Hypertensive rats ...
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