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Results 201 - 250 of 1524
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Izuhara Yuko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) protect the kidney, at least in part, independently of blood pressure lowering. Still, the extent to which blood pressure lowering is related to renoprotection remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: 139 newly synthesized ARB-derivatives were assayed for inhibition of advanced glycation (AGEs). The 9 ...
Billet Sandrine - - 2008
Numerous clinical studies and experimental investigations using cell culture and animal models suggest that angiotensin II (AngII) via AT(1) receptor activation might induce cardiovascular hypertrophy, fibrosis and atherosclerosis resulting in vascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure or stroke and in end-organ damages. However, a question still remains: which ...
Yamashita Haruyo - - 2008
Fatty acids (FAs) are acquired from free FA associated with albumin and lipoprotein triglyceride that is hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Hypertrophied hearts shift their substrate usage pattern to more glucose and less FA. However, FAs may still be an important source of energy in hypertrophied hearts. The aim of ...
Wang Hong H Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, - - 2008
Salt status plays a pivotal role in angiotensin-II-induced organ damage by regulating reactive oxygen species status, and it is reported that reactive oxygen species activate mineralocorticoid receptors. To clarify the role of reactive oxygen species-related mineralocorticoid receptor activation in angiotensin-II-induced cardiac dysfunction, we examined the effect of the following: salt ...
Chandrasekaran Badrinathan - - 2008
Apelin is a novel peptide that acts through the APJ receptor, sharing similarities with the angiotensin II-angiotensin II type 1 receptor pathway. It is a peripheral vasodilator, powerful inotrope and may affect central fluid homeostasis. Animal and human studies suggest that it may play a role in the pathogenesis of ...
Bagi Zsolt - - 2008
Previously, we found that high intraluminal pressure leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also upregulates several components of the renin-angiotensin system in the wall of small arteries. We hypothesized that acute exposure of arterioles to high intraluminal pressure in vitro via increasing ROS production enhances the functional ...
Katovich Michael J - - 2008
Over the past two decades, enormous progress has been made in understanding the possible physiological significance of alternate renin-angiotensin system processing pathways and angiotensin fragments, such as angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7). Evidence from in vivo and ex vivo studies in humans and various animal models suggests a possible role for this heptapeptide ...
Lange Matthias - - 2008
Three pathways are critically involved in blood pressure regulation during anaesthesia, i.e. the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system (RAS), and the vasopressinergic system. The fact that anaesthetic agents typically blunt the regulatory role of the adrenergic system emphasises the importance of the remaining compensatory mechanisms. In patients chronically ...
Zhu Feng - - 2008
Agonistic AT(1) receptor autoantibodies (AT(1)-AAs) have been described in the patients with malignant hypertension or preeclampia. Furthermore, AT(1)-AAs were highly associated with refractory hypertension. Function of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is important in the regulation of blood pressure. We investigated and compared the ability of angiotensin II (Ang II) ...
Zhao Di D Department of Physiology and Hypertension and Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2008
Acute angiotensin II (Ang II) infusions into mice increase arterial pressure (AP) and elicit pressure natriuresis. We used this model of pressure natriuresis to delineate the distal nephron responses to AP-mediated increases in distal sodium delivery. In the first group, we measured changes in urinary sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in male ...
Perini Renza - - 2008
To define the dynamics of cardiovascular adjustments to apnoea, beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) were recorded during prolonged breath-holding in air in 20 divers. Apnoea had a mean duration of 210 +/- 70 s. In all subjects, HR attained a value 14 beats ...
Whaley-Connell Adam - - 2008
Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation of the Ang type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) facilitates myocardial remodeling through NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of oxidative stress. Components of the renin-angiotensin system constitute an autocrine/paracrine unit in the myocardium, including renin, which is the rate-limiting step in the generation of Ang II. This investigation sought ...
Farkas A - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bradycardia is a risk factor for the development of torsade de pointes (TdP). The aim of this work was to compare the importance of changes in heart rate and arterial blood pressure in the development of drug-induced TdP and to investigate the role of vagal influences. EXPERIMENTAL ...
Vaajanen Anu - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is known to play an essential role in controlling sodium balance and body fluid volumes, and thus blood pressure. In addition to the circulating system which regulates urgent cardiovascular responses, a tissue-localized renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates long-term changes in various organs. Many recognized RAS components have also ...
Matsukawa Toshiyoshi - - 2008
Patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) were shown to have suppressed muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in our previous study. Although baroreflex inhibition probably accounts in part for this reduced MSNA in PA, we hypothesized that the lowered activity of the renin-angiotensin system in PA may also contribute to the suppressed ...
Calò Lorenzo A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a powerful proinflammatory cytokine and growth factor that activates NF-kappaB, as well as NAD(P)H oxidase, and thus is a key factor for the induction and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies have shown high Ang II and high blood pressure-driven proatherogenic remodelling in ...
Le Mével Jean-Claude - - 2008
In mammals, a large body of evidence supports the existence of a brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) acting independently or synergistically with the endocrine RAS to maintain diverse physiological functions, notably cardiovascular homeostasis. The RAS is of ancient origin and although most components of the RAS are present within the brain ...
Liu Juan - - 2008
Simvastatin (SIM), a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has therapeutic effects that are not limited to cholesterol reduction. In this study, we investigated the change in the cell surface area and protein content of cultured rat cardiomyocytes on exposure to cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a cytokine involved in the growth and survival of cardiac ...
Halabi Carmen M - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a critical role in metabolism. Thiazolidinediones, high-affinity PPARgamma ligands used clinically to treat type II diabetes, have been reported to lower blood pressure and provide other cardiovascular benefits. Some mutations in PPARgamma (PPARG) cause type II diabetes and ...
Uechi Masami - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To clarify regulation of the renin-angiotensin (RA) system in cardiac tissues by measuring angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase activities in cats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. ANIMALS: 13 adult cats. PROCEDURES: Pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy was induced by coarctation of the base of the ascending aorta in 6 cats, and 7 ...
Ghosh Sarbani - - 2008
Cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET) are biologically active metabolites of arachidonic acid that have potent effects on renal vascular reactivity and tubular ion transport and have been implicated in the control of blood pressure. EETs are hydrolyzed to their less active diols, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET), by the enzyme soluble epoxide ...
Burke Sandra L - - 2008
We examined the contribution of the renal nerves to mean arterial pressure (MAP) during 5-week chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II; 50 ng/kg per minute SC) in conscious rabbits. Basal MAP was 68+/-1 mm Hg, and the maximum depressor response to ganglion blockade was -20+/-2 mm Hg. MAP increased ...
Salazar Francisco - - 2008
We have demonstrated that the reduction of angiotensin II effects during the nephrogenic period reduces the nephron number and induces the development of hypertension. The hypotheses examined are that this reduction of angiotensin effects leads to the development of an age-dependent sodium sensitive hypertension and that the hypertension is angiotensin ...
Brillante D G - - 2008
AIM: Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors are believed to become over-expressed in response to cardiovascular damage and to mediate beneficial effects (e.g. vasodilation). It is unknown whether AT2 receptors are functionally expressed in patients with insulin resistance (INSR). In this study, we investigated the role of the highly selective ...
Ramírez-Expósito María Jesús - - 2008
Hypertension is the major risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal disease. Also, it is probably the most important risk factor for peripheral vascular disease and vascular dementia. Although hypertension occurs in both men and women, gender differences have been observed. However, whether sex hormones are responsible for ...
Bodineau Laurence - - 2008
Among the main bioactive peptides of the brain renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin (Ang) II and AngIII exhibit the same affinity for the type 1 and type 2 Ang receptors. Both peptides, injected intracerebroventricularly, cause similar increase in blood pressure (BP). Because AngII is converted in vivo to AngIII, the identity of ...
Vaajanen Anu - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is known to play an essential role in controlling sodium balance and body fluid volumes, and thus blood pressure. In addition to the circulating system which regulates urgent cardiovascular responses, a tissue-localized renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates long-term changes in various organs. Many recognized RAS components have also ...
Xu Zhujie - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have a normal ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction. However, there are few data available to guide the therapy of these patients. The effects of statins on cardiac remodeling are well documented in animal models and it is reported that statin therapy ...
Craig David H - - 2008
Patients with malignancy typically exhibit abnormal dendritic cell profiles. Interstitial tumor pressure is increased 20-50 mmHg over that in normal tissue. We hypothesized that elevated pressure in the tumor microenvironment may influence dendritic cell (DC) phenotype and function. Monocyte-derived immature and mature DC isolated from healthy human donors were exposed ...
Bakris George L - - 2008
Fixed-dosed combination regimens consisting of a calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker represent a new addition to the available antihypertensive treatment options. Clinical trials demonstrate that both the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker amlodipine and angiotensin II receptor blockers are effective agents for the management of ...
Aragon Andrea C - - 2008
In utero and lactational exposure of mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) leads to cardiac hypertrophy and hydronephrosis in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal TCDD exposure increases the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease when offspring are exposed to a common cardiovascular disease risk factor, angiotensin II (Ang II). Pregnant C57BL/6N mice ...
Weiss Daiana - - 2008
Previous studies have shown that administration of angiotensin II to atherosclerosis-prone animal models results in an increase in the extent of atherosclerosis and that this effect may be independent of changes in blood pressure. We sought to determine whether atherosclerosis was increased in the setting of a low renin model ...
Alenina Natalia - - 2008
Mas is the receptor for angiotensin-(1-7) and is involved in cardiovascular and neuronal regulation, in which the heptapeptide also plays a major role. Mas-deficient mice have been generated by us, and their characterization has shown that Mas has important functions in behaviour and cardiovascular regulation. These mice exhibit increased anxiety ...
Mousa Tarek M - - 2008
Exercise training (EX) has become an important modality capable of enhancing the quality of life and survival of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although 4 wk of EX in animals with CHF evoked a reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and ANG II plasma levels and an enhancement in ...
Simonetti Giacomo D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Historically, there have been few drug trials for antihypertensive treatment in childhood and recommendations have been extrapolated from data obtained in adulthood. During the last decade an increased awareness of the risks of childhood hypertension stimulated clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article ...
Gilbert Jeffrey S - - 2008
Studies over the last decade have provided exciting new insights into potential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The initiating event in preeclampsia is generally regarded to be placental ischemia/hypoxia, which in turn results in the elaboration of a variety of factors from the placenta that generates profound effects on ...
Danziger Robert S - - 2008
Aminopeptidase N (APN) or CD13 is a conserved type II integral membrane zinc-dependent metalloprotease in the M1 family of ectoenzymes. APN is abundant in the kidneys and central nervous system. Identified substrates include Angiotensin III (Ang III); neuropeptides, including enkephalins and endorphins; and homones, including kallidan and somatostatin. It is ...
de la Sierra Alejandro - - 2007
Moderate elevations in blood pressure translate to significant increases in cardiovascular and cerebro vascular risk. Beneficially, this relationship allows small decreases in blood pressure to be associated with risk reduction. Both the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system are involved in hypertension, hence targeting these systems is likely to ...
Ram C Venkata S - - 2007
It is clear that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) play key roles in sustaining elevated blood pressure, subsequently resulting in increased risks of cardiovascular (CV), cerebrovascular and kidney disease. Modifying these systems with antihypertensive agents has led to the discovery that their effects may indeed ...
Murakami Kinshiro - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The local renin-angiotensin system is important in cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the association between angiotensin (Ang) II-forming activity in fractionated peripheral leukocytes and atherosclerotic risks such as blood pressure, smoking, age and serum cholesterol level, and used a new analytical approach for the measurement of chymase-like activity ...
Rupp Heinz - - 2007
Angiotensin (AT) II and noradrenaline play major roles in hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease, which are themselves interlinked. Harmful effects of AT II are not blocked solely by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, as it is now evident that AT II is generated by other enzymes such as chymase. Angiotensin II ...
Reiser Jochen - - 2007
There is no question about the contributory risk of hypertension in morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular (CV) disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Another independent risk factor for CV disease and CKD is proteinuria, which is most commonly caused by dysfunction of the kidney glomerular filter, in particular of the ...
Victor Ronald G - - 2007
Basic research provides an increasingly compelling rationale for renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade in hypertension treatment and cardiovascular risk reduction. Clinical trials addressing blood pressure-independent effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, however, have yielded mixed results, in part because of incomplete RAS blockade. Animal studies have shed ...
Guarda Ismael F M S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The circumventricular structures of the central nervous system and nitric oxide are involved in arterial blood pressure control, and general anesthesia may stimulate the central renin-angiotensin system. We therefore investigated the central role of angiotensin II and nitric oxide on the regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure in conscious ...
Elmarakby Ahmed A - - 2007
The present study was designed to determine whether chemokine receptor 2b (CCR2b) contributes to the development of renal injury in salt-sensitive angiotensin II (ANG) hypertension. Rats were infused with ANG and fed a high-salt diet (HS) for 14 days. Rats were divided into 4 groups: HS; HS administered the CCR2b ...
Kobayashi Atsushi - - 2007
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) at a nontoxic low concentration on the cardiac and vascular hypertrophic response and reactive oxygen species generation, compared with the action of a vasodilator, hydralazine. Twelve- to 16-week-old low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice were subjected to ...
Geronikaki A - - 2007
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in the regulation of blood pressure, through the actions of angiotensin (Ang) II. Excessive RAAS activity may lead to hypertension and associated target organ damage. Indeed, RAAS blockade with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors ...
Qu Xiaoge - - 2007
Angiotensin II is a biologically active component of the renin-angiotensin system. High levels of angiotensin II may be responsible for hypertension and heart failure because they increase systemic vascular resistance, arterial pressure, and sodium and fluid retention. Therefore, it is important to monitor angiotensin II levels for the treatment of ...
Carvalho Leda Teixeira - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII) induce a portal hypertensive response (PHR) and the liver is able to convert AI into AII to trough the action of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Our purpose was to characterize angiotensin I liver conversion. METHODS: AI, AII or angiotensin (1-7) ...
Mayer Marcos A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Several studies suggest the importance of the interaction between the renin angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems in blood pressure control, especially in clinical situations such as the metabolic syndrome. Previously, we have demonstrated changes in noradrenergic hypothalamic control of blood pressure in an animal model of insulin resistance and ...
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