Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1533
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Ogoshi Maho - - 2008
The teleost adrenomedullin (AM) family consists of three groups, AM1/AM4, AM2/AM3, and AM5. In the present study, we examined the effects of homologous AM1, AM2, and AM5 on drinking and renal function after peripheral or central administration in conscious freshwater eels. AM2 and AM5, but not AM1, exhibited dose-dependent (0.01-1 ...
Mercure Chantal - - 2008
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) converts the vasopressor angiotensin II (Ang II) into angiotensin (1-7) [Ang(1-7)], a peptide reported to have vasodilatory and cardioprotective properties. Inactivation of the ACE2 gene in mice has been reported by one group to result in an accumulation of Ang II in the heart and an ...
Cataliotti Alessandro A Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
We previously reported the feasibility of an acute, orally delivered, newly developed, conjugated form of human B-type natriuretic peptide (hBNP) in normal animals. The objective of the present study was to extend our findings and to define the chronic actions of an advanced oral conjugated hBNP (hBNP-054) administered for 6 ...
Jörneskog Gun - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) are at increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We examined if patients with FCHL have altered microvascular and macrovascular responses to angiotensin II, a principal mediator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. METHODS: Sixteen patients with FCHL and 16 healthy controls were investigated before, ...
Borges Giulianna R - - 2008
Sympathovagal balance and baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) were evaluated during the development (1 and 4 wk) of one-kidney, one-clip (1K1C) hypertension in conscious mice. The development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis was also examined. Overall variability of systolic arterial pressure (AP) and HR in the time domain and ...
Deng Aihua A Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92161, USA. - - 2009
Angiotensin II blockade delays progression of chronic kidney disease by modifying intrarenal hemodynamics, but the effects on metabolic adaptations are unknown. Using the remnant kidney model of chronic kidney disease in rats, we measured the effects of combined angiotensin II blockade with captopril and losartan on renal oxygen consumption (QO(2)) ...
Chen Duo - - 2008
Analytical two-dimensional (2D) integral expressions are derived for fast calculations of time-harmonic and transient near-field pressures generated by apodized rectangular pistons. These 2D expressions represent an extension of the fast near-field method (FNM) for uniformly excited pistons. After subdividing the rectangular piston into smaller rectangles, the pressure produced by each ...
Sampson Amanda K - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin system is a far more complex enzymatic cascade than realized previously. Mounting evidence suggests sex-specific differences in the regulation of the renin-angiotensin system and arterial pressure. We examined the hemodynamic responses, angiotensin II receptor subtypes, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene expression levels after graded doses of angiotensin II ...
Vera Trinity T Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216-4505, - - 2008
The main goal of this study was to determine whether kidney-specific induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can prevent the development of angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent hypertension. To test this hypothesis, intrarenal medullary interstitial catheters were implanted into the left kidney of uninephrectomized mice. Infusion of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP; 250 microg/mL; at ...
Izuhara Yuko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) protect the kidney, at least in part, independently of blood pressure lowering. Still, the extent to which blood pressure lowering is related to renoprotection remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: 139 newly synthesized ARB-derivatives were assayed for inhibition of advanced glycation (AGEs). The 9 ...
Billet Sandrine - - 2008
Numerous clinical studies and experimental investigations using cell culture and animal models suggest that angiotensin II (AngII) via AT(1) receptor activation might induce cardiovascular hypertrophy, fibrosis and atherosclerosis resulting in vascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure or stroke and in end-organ damages. However, a question still remains: which ...
Yamashita Haruyo - - 2008
Fatty acids (FAs) are acquired from free FA associated with albumin and lipoprotein triglyceride that is hydrolyzed by lipoprotein lipase (LpL). Hypertrophied hearts shift their substrate usage pattern to more glucose and less FA. However, FAs may still be an important source of energy in hypertrophied hearts. The aim of ...
Wang Hong H Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, - - 2008
Salt status plays a pivotal role in angiotensin-II-induced organ damage by regulating reactive oxygen species status, and it is reported that reactive oxygen species activate mineralocorticoid receptors. To clarify the role of reactive oxygen species-related mineralocorticoid receptor activation in angiotensin-II-induced cardiac dysfunction, we examined the effect of the following: salt ...
Chandrasekaran Badrinathan - - 2008
Apelin is a novel peptide that acts through the APJ receptor, sharing similarities with the angiotensin II-angiotensin II type 1 receptor pathway. It is a peripheral vasodilator, powerful inotrope and may affect central fluid homeostasis. Animal and human studies suggest that it may play a role in the pathogenesis of ...
Bagi Zsolt - - 2008
Previously, we found that high intraluminal pressure leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and also upregulates several components of the renin-angiotensin system in the wall of small arteries. We hypothesized that acute exposure of arterioles to high intraluminal pressure in vitro via increasing ROS production enhances the functional ...
Katovich Michael J - - 2008
Over the past two decades, enormous progress has been made in understanding the possible physiological significance of alternate renin-angiotensin system processing pathways and angiotensin fragments, such as angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7). Evidence from in vivo and ex vivo studies in humans and various animal models suggests a possible role for this heptapeptide ...
Lange Matthias - - 2008
Three pathways are critically involved in blood pressure regulation during anaesthesia, i.e. the sympathetic nervous system, the renin angiotensin system (RAS), and the vasopressinergic system. The fact that anaesthetic agents typically blunt the regulatory role of the adrenergic system emphasises the importance of the remaining compensatory mechanisms. In patients chronically ...
Zhu Feng - - 2008
Agonistic AT(1) receptor autoantibodies (AT(1)-AAs) have been described in the patients with malignant hypertension or preeclampia. Furthermore, AT(1)-AAs were highly associated with refractory hypertension. Function of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is important in the regulation of blood pressure. We investigated and compared the ability of angiotensin II (Ang II) ...
Zhao Di D Department of Physiology and Hypertension and Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2008
Acute angiotensin II (Ang II) infusions into mice increase arterial pressure (AP) and elicit pressure natriuresis. We used this model of pressure natriuresis to delineate the distal nephron responses to AP-mediated increases in distal sodium delivery. In the first group, we measured changes in urinary sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in male ...
Perini Renza - - 2008
To define the dynamics of cardiovascular adjustments to apnoea, beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) were recorded during prolonged breath-holding in air in 20 divers. Apnoea had a mean duration of 210 +/- 70 s. In all subjects, HR attained a value 14 beats ...
Whaley-Connell Adam - - 2008
Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulation of the Ang type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) facilitates myocardial remodeling through NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of oxidative stress. Components of the renin-angiotensin system constitute an autocrine/paracrine unit in the myocardium, including renin, which is the rate-limiting step in the generation of Ang II. This investigation sought ...
Farkas A - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bradycardia is a risk factor for the development of torsade de pointes (TdP). The aim of this work was to compare the importance of changes in heart rate and arterial blood pressure in the development of drug-induced TdP and to investigate the role of vagal influences. EXPERIMENTAL ...
Vaajanen Anu - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is known to play an essential role in controlling sodium balance and body fluid volumes, and thus blood pressure. In addition to the circulating system which regulates urgent cardiovascular responses, a tissue-localized renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates long-term changes in various organs. Many recognized RAS components have also ...
Matsukawa Toshiyoshi - - 2008
Patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) were shown to have suppressed muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in our previous study. Although baroreflex inhibition probably accounts in part for this reduced MSNA in PA, we hypothesized that the lowered activity of the renin-angiotensin system in PA may also contribute to the suppressed ...
Calò Lorenzo A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a powerful proinflammatory cytokine and growth factor that activates NF-kappaB, as well as NAD(P)H oxidase, and thus is a key factor for the induction and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies have shown high Ang II and high blood pressure-driven proatherogenic remodelling in ...
Le Mével Jean-Claude - - 2008
In mammals, a large body of evidence supports the existence of a brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) acting independently or synergistically with the endocrine RAS to maintain diverse physiological functions, notably cardiovascular homeostasis. The RAS is of ancient origin and although most components of the RAS are present within the brain ...
Liu Juan - - 2008
Simvastatin (SIM), a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has therapeutic effects that are not limited to cholesterol reduction. In this study, we investigated the change in the cell surface area and protein content of cultured rat cardiomyocytes on exposure to cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a cytokine involved in the growth and survival of cardiac ...
Uechi Masami - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To clarify regulation of the renin-angiotensin (RA) system in cardiac tissues by measuring angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase activities in cats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. ANIMALS: 13 adult cats. PROCEDURES: Pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy was induced by coarctation of the base of the ascending aorta in 6 cats, and 7 ...
Halabi Carmen M CM Genetics Program, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2008
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a critical role in metabolism. Thiazolidinediones, high-affinity PPARgamma ligands used clinically to treat type II diabetes, have been reported to lower blood pressure and provide other cardiovascular benefits. Some mutations in PPARgamma (PPARG) cause type II diabetes and ...
Ghosh Sarbani - - 2008
Cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET) are biologically active metabolites of arachidonic acid that have potent effects on renal vascular reactivity and tubular ion transport and have been implicated in the control of blood pressure. EETs are hydrolyzed to their less active diols, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET), by the enzyme soluble epoxide ...
Burke Sandra L - - 2008
We examined the contribution of the renal nerves to mean arterial pressure (MAP) during 5-week chronic infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II; 50 ng/kg per minute SC) in conscious rabbits. Basal MAP was 68+/-1 mm Hg, and the maximum depressor response to ganglion blockade was -20+/-2 mm Hg. MAP increased ...
Salazar Francisco - - 2008
We have demonstrated that the reduction of angiotensin II effects during the nephrogenic period reduces the nephron number and induces the development of hypertension. The hypotheses examined are that this reduction of angiotensin effects leads to the development of an age-dependent sodium sensitive hypertension and that the hypertension is angiotensin ...
Brillante D G - - 2008
AIM: Angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptors are believed to become over-expressed in response to cardiovascular damage and to mediate beneficial effects (e.g. vasodilation). It is unknown whether AT2 receptors are functionally expressed in patients with insulin resistance (INSR). In this study, we investigated the role of the highly selective ...
Ramírez-Expósito María Jesús - - 2008
Hypertension is the major risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal disease. Also, it is probably the most important risk factor for peripheral vascular disease and vascular dementia. Although hypertension occurs in both men and women, gender differences have been observed. However, whether sex hormones are responsible for ...
Bodineau Laurence - - 2008
Among the main bioactive peptides of the brain renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin (Ang) II and AngIII exhibit the same affinity for the type 1 and type 2 Ang receptors. Both peptides, injected intracerebroventricularly, cause similar increase in blood pressure (BP). Because AngII is converted in vivo to AngIII, the identity of ...
Vaajanen Anu - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is known to play an essential role in controlling sodium balance and body fluid volumes, and thus blood pressure. In addition to the circulating system which regulates urgent cardiovascular responses, a tissue-localized renin-angiotensin system (RAS) regulates long-term changes in various organs. Many recognized RAS components have also ...
Xu Zhujie - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have a normal ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction. However, there are few data available to guide the therapy of these patients. The effects of statins on cardiac remodeling are well documented in animal models and it is reported that statin therapy ...
Craig David H - - 2008
Patients with malignancy typically exhibit abnormal dendritic cell profiles. Interstitial tumor pressure is increased 20-50 mmHg over that in normal tissue. We hypothesized that elevated pressure in the tumor microenvironment may influence dendritic cell (DC) phenotype and function. Monocyte-derived immature and mature DC isolated from healthy human donors were exposed ...
Bakris George L - - 2008
Fixed-dosed combination regimens consisting of a calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker represent a new addition to the available antihypertensive treatment options. Clinical trials demonstrate that both the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker amlodipine and angiotensin II receptor blockers are effective agents for the management of ...
Aragon Andrea C - - 2008
In utero and lactational exposure of mice to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) leads to cardiac hypertrophy and hydronephrosis in adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal TCDD exposure increases the susceptibility to cardiovascular disease when offspring are exposed to a common cardiovascular disease risk factor, angiotensin II (Ang II). Pregnant C57BL/6N mice ...
Weiss Daiana - - 2008
Previous studies have shown that administration of angiotensin II to atherosclerosis-prone animal models results in an increase in the extent of atherosclerosis and that this effect may be independent of changes in blood pressure. We sought to determine whether atherosclerosis was increased in the setting of a low renin model ...
Alenina Natalia - - 2008
Mas is the receptor for angiotensin-(1-7) and is involved in cardiovascular and neuronal regulation, in which the heptapeptide also plays a major role. Mas-deficient mice have been generated by us, and their characterization has shown that Mas has important functions in behaviour and cardiovascular regulation. These mice exhibit increased anxiety ...
Mousa Tarek M - - 2008
Exercise training (EX) has become an important modality capable of enhancing the quality of life and survival of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although 4 wk of EX in animals with CHF evoked a reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and ANG II plasma levels and an enhancement in ...
Simonetti Giacomo D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Historically, there have been few drug trials for antihypertensive treatment in childhood and recommendations have been extrapolated from data obtained in adulthood. During the last decade an increased awareness of the risks of childhood hypertension stimulated clinical trials of antihypertensive agents in children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article ...
Gilbert Jeffrey S JS Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216-4505, - - 2008
Studies over the last decade have provided exciting new insights into potential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The initiating event in preeclampsia is generally regarded to be placental ischemia/hypoxia, which in turn results in the elaboration of a variety of factors from the placenta that generates profound effects on ...
Danziger Robert S - - 2008
Aminopeptidase N (APN) or CD13 is a conserved type II integral membrane zinc-dependent metalloprotease in the M1 family of ectoenzymes. APN is abundant in the kidneys and central nervous system. Identified substrates include Angiotensin III (Ang III); neuropeptides, including enkephalins and endorphins; and homones, including kallidan and somatostatin. It is ...
de la Sierra Alejandro - - 2007
Moderate elevations in blood pressure translate to significant increases in cardiovascular and cerebro vascular risk. Beneficially, this relationship allows small decreases in blood pressure to be associated with risk reduction. Both the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system are involved in hypertension, hence targeting these systems is likely to ...
Ram C Venkata S - - 2007
It is clear that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) play key roles in sustaining elevated blood pressure, subsequently resulting in increased risks of cardiovascular (CV), cerebrovascular and kidney disease. Modifying these systems with antihypertensive agents has led to the discovery that their effects may indeed ...
Murakami Kinshiro - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The local renin-angiotensin system is important in cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the association between angiotensin (Ang) II-forming activity in fractionated peripheral leukocytes and atherosclerotic risks such as blood pressure, smoking, age and serum cholesterol level, and used a new analytical approach for the measurement of chymase-like activity ...
Rupp Heinz - - 2007
Angiotensin (AT) II and noradrenaline play major roles in hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease, which are themselves interlinked. Harmful effects of AT II are not blocked solely by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, as it is now evident that AT II is generated by other enzymes such as chymase. Angiotensin II ...
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