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Suematsu Nobuhiro N Department of Physiology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, - - 2010
Patients on a low salt (LS) diet have increased mortality. To determine whether reduction in NO bioactivity may contribute to the LS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality. Adult male mongrel dogs were placed on LS (0.05% sodium chloride) for 2 weeks. Body weight (25.4 + or - 0.4 to 23.6 + ...
Wysocki Jan J Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. - - 2010
Angiotensin (Ang)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cleaves Ang II to form Ang-(1-7). Here we examined whether soluble human recombinant ACE2 (rACE2) can efficiently lower Ang II and increase Ang-(1-7) and whether rACE2 can prevent hypertension caused by Ang II infusion as a result of systemic versus local mechanisms of ACE2 activity ...
Soares de Moura R - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Propofol is an alternative to thiopental for induction of general anaesthesia for cesarean section. It crosses the placenta and induces vasodilatation of isolated vessels and may therefore alter fetal placental vascular resistance. The direct effect of propofol on the fetal placental circulation was studied in vitro. The actions of ...
Garc??a Gonzalo - - 2009
We report the first examples of a new series of antioxidant-sartan hybrids (AO-sartans), which were made by adding an antioxidant fragment to the hydroxymethyl side chain of losartan. Experiments performed in cultured cells demonstrate that these new hybrids retain the ability to block the angiotensin II effect with increased antioxidant ...
Tsutamoto Takayoshi - - 2010
In general, treatment with most angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increases plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) level because of a lack of negative feedback on renin activity. Olmesartan is a potential ARB inducing activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) that hydrolyzes Ang II to Ang 1-7, and has shown a beneficial ...
Feng Yumei - - 2010
Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, and an overactive brain RAS has been highlighted in several genetic and experimental models. Until now, angiotensin II (Ang II) was thought to be the main effector of this system, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-Ang II-Ang II ...
Ardanaz Noelia N Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, - - 2010
Glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) plays an important role in cellular defense by converting hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides to nonreactive products, and Gpx1(-/-) mice, which are characterized by reduced tissue glutathione peroxidase activity, are known to exhibit enhanced oxidative stress. Peroxides participate in tissue injury, as well as the hypertrophy ...
Baumann Marcus - - 2010
Transient prehypertensive treatment (TPT) causes prolonged antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects. Reduced angiotensin sensitivity has been attributed to those effects. We hypothesize that prehypertensive preconditioning by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockade improves cardiovascular protection of late-onset AT1R blockade in a model of spontaneous hypertensive heart-failure rats (SHHF/Mcc-fa(cp)). TPT (4-8 ...
Ibarra-Lara Luz - - 2010
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear receptors that, upon activation with selective ligands, work as transcription factors. Recently, these have been related with the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to study PPARalpha-stimulation and its effects on blood pressure in rats with aortic coarctation, and to explore ...
Gonzalez-Villalobos Romer A RA Dept. of Physiology, Tulane Univ. Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Ave., SL39, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. - - 2010
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition (ACEi) ameliorates the development of hypertension and the intrarenal ANG II augmentation in ANG II-infused mice. To determine if these effects are associated with changes in the mouse intrarenal renin-angiotensin system, the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT), renin, ACE, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) mRNA (by quanitative ...
Cheriyan Joseph J Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, - - 2009
(i) To compare the effects of intra-arterial administration of urotensin II in patients with CVD with healthy volunteers, and (ii) to study the haemodynamic effects of intra-arterial infusion of the urotensin II receptor antagonist, urantide. Ten healthy volunteers and 10 patients with CVD received a dose-ramped brachial artery infusion of ...
Lugo-Baruqui Alejandro - - 2010
Angiotensin II (AT-II) is a peptide that plays an important role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system. Traditionally, the RAA system has been related with states of systemic hypertension and hypoperfusion as a counterbalance mechanism. Recently, AT-II has been studied for its properties in the process of fibrosis in several organs, ...
Lacolley Patrick - - 2009
The aortic blood pressure curve involves two components: a steady component, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), which is dependent on cardiac output and vascular resistance, and a pulsatile component pulse pressure (PP), which is dependent on arterial stiffness and pulse wave reflections. The transduction mechanisms of MAP and PP differ ...
Iizuka Kenji - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: We applied pressure stress to human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) and investigated whether mechanical pressure stress and/or angiotensin II (Ang II) affected angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2. We then tested whether the administration of nifedipine had a demonstrable and possibly beneficial effect. METHODS: A pulsatile atmospheric pressure with or without ...
Kawada Toru - - 2009
Although an acute arterial pressure (AP) elevation induced by intravenous angiotensin II (ANG II) does not inhibit sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) compared to an equivalent AP elevation induced by phenylephrine, there are conflicting reports as to how circulating ANG II affects the baroreflex control of SNA. Because most studies have ...
Bomback Andrew S - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), an important regulator of blood pressure as well as fluid and electrolyte balance, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Blockade of the RAAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin-II (ANG-II) receptor blockers (ARBs) lowers blood pressure, decreases morbidity and ...
Maurer Patrik - - 2010
Current vaccination approaches against hypertension target angiotensin I and angiotensin II, key components of the renin-angiotensin system. The effectiveness and long-term safety of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with antihypertensive small-molecule drugs is well documented. Phase I/II testing of the angiotensin I vaccine PMD3117 demonstrated safety and immunogenicity in humans. ...
Huynh Ngan N - - 2009
Arginase upregulation is associated with aging and cardiovascular diseases. In this study we report on the cardiovascular phenotype of the arginase II knockout (KO) mouse. We demonstrate that vascular sensitivity and reactivity altered over time in these animals such that no influence on responses to vasoconstrictor activity was observed in ...
Kopkan Libor - - 2009
Results of our previous studies have suggested that enhanced generation of superoxide (O2(-)) may contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension in Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR). The present study was performed to evaluate in TGR the effects of chronic treatment with the O2(-) scavenger tempol and the antioxidant apocynin on the ...
Jessup Jewell A JA Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina, - - 2009
Hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy often precede diastolic dysfunction and are risk factors for diastolic heart failure. Although pharmacologic inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) improves diastolic function and functional capacity in hypertensive patients with LV hypertrophy, the effects of combination therapy with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) ...
Mukherjee Prabir K - - 2009
We examine the effect of pressure on the rotator-II (R(II)) to rotator-I (R(I)) (R(II)-R(I)) transition within Landau phenomenological theory. The influence of pressure on the R(II)-R(I) transition is discussed by varying the coupling between the lattice distortion and the area/molecule. The pressure dependence of the area/molecule and the lattice distortion ...
Cowan Brett R - - 2009
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), an important control system for blood pressure and intravascular volume, also causes left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fibrosis. The main causal mechanism is the increase in blood pressure, which leads to increased left ventricular wall stress; however, aldosterone release from the adrenals and (more controversially) the ...
Kvakan Heda - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive target organ damage, especially cardiac hypertrophy with heart failure and arrhythmia, is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin II, a major mediator of hypertension and cardiac damage, has proinflammatory properties. Inflammation and activation of the immune system play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of hypertensive target ...
Polizio Ariel H - - 2009
This study was performed to provide insight into the regulatory role of angiotensin II and arterial pressure on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress generation in the hypertensive kidney from an experimental animal model of renovascular hypertension. Aortic coarcted and sham-operated rats received vehicle, losartan or minoxidil in ...
Tran Linda T - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic treatment with etanercept (a soluble recombinant fusion protein consisting of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2) on the development of hypertension in fructose-fed rats (FFR). High fructose feeding and treatment with etanercept (0.3 ...
Griffin Karen A - - 2009
Angiotensin II is believed to mediate blood pressure-independent progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The evidence is less definitive than has been implied, and the studies by Benndorf et al. suggest that angiotensin II acting through its type 2 receptor may even have beneficial effects, although the responsible ...
Ortiz Rudy M RM Division of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced - - 2009
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) may contribute to elevated arterial pressure in Ang II-dependent hypertension. However, the in vivo effects of Ang II and of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism on CRP during Ang II-dependent hypertension have not been examined. In addition, urinary CRP excretion as a method to monitor the progression ...
Isa Katsunori - - 2009
Angiotensin-(1-12) [ANG-(1-12)] is a newly identified peptide detected in a variety of rat tissues, including the brain. To determine whether brain ANG-(1-12) participates in blood pressure regulation, we treated male adult (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats (24-28 wk of age) with Anti-ANG-(1-12) IgG or Preimmune IgG via an intracerebroventricular cannula for 14 ...
Yu Ying - - 2009
Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus. Deletion of the FP reduces blood pressure, coincident with a reduction ...
Jernigan Nikki L NL Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Excellence in Cardiovascular-Renal Research, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, - - 2009
The importance of beta and gamma epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) proteins in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC)-mediated pressure-induced constriction in renal interlobar arteries has been demonstrated recently. In renal epithelial tissue, ENaC expression is regulated by angiotensin II (Ang II). However, whether Ang II regulates vascular ENaC expression has never ...
Chan Elsa C - - 2009
1. In our previous study we have identified prevalent internal elastic lamina (IEL) defects in the aorta of hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein(E)-deficient mouse, which are thought to provide a structural basis for the development of atherosclerosis and intimal thickening. In this study, we examined the effects of losartan, an angiotensin II type ...
Phisitkul Sorot - - 2009
CYT-006-AngQb, under development by Cytos Biotechnology AG, is a vaccine in which a peptide derived from the angiotensin II molecule is conjugated to the surface of the highly repetitive structure of virus-like particles. CYT-006-AngQb was designed to treat hypertension with the benefit of relatively long-lasting effects that do not require ...
Cassis Lisa A - - 2009
Infusion of ANG II in hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The purpose of this study was to define the contribution of ANG II-induced hypertension to these vascular pathologies. Male apolipoprotein E (apoE)- and LDL receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice were infused with ANG II (1,000 ...
Sakurabayashi-Kitade Sachiko - - 2009
OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has revealed that aldosterone (ALDO) is produced in the vasculature, and acts directly in the cardiovascular system. This study was designed to examine the role of ALDO in the process of long-term renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induced vascular remodeling. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Hypertensive transgenic mice that ...
Efrati Shai - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Poor glycemic control contributes to development of diabetic nephropathy. However, for a majority of clinical situations, the mechanisms responsible for high glucose-induced aggravation of renal tissue injury are not fully elucidated. We investigated responsiveness to pressure of various renal cell subsets subjected to hyperglycemic environment in an in-vitro model ...
Allen Andrew M - - 2009
Angiotensin II acts through specific receptors to alter several brain functions including fluid and electrolyte control, neuroendocrine function and autonomic efferent activity. This review discusses one brain site, the rostral ventrolateral medulla, where the actions of angiotensin II have been intensively studied. The rostral ventrolateral medulla plays a critical role ...
Montecucco Fabrizio - - 2009
Recent evidence shows that the renin-angiotensin system is a crucial player in atherosclerotic processes. The regulation of arterial blood pressure was considered from its first description of the main mechanism involved. Vasoconstriction (mediated by angiotensin II) and salt and water retention (mainly due to aldosterone) were classically considered as pivotal ...
Ogawa Susumu S Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tohoku University hospital, Sendai, - - 2009
To demonstrate that the administration of an angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) inhibits the vicious cycle of high glucose (HG)-reactive oxygen species (ROS)-angiotensinogen (AGT)-Ang II-AT1R-ROS by suppressing ROSs and inflammation, thus ameliorating diabetic nephropathy (DN). Thirteen hypertensive DN patients were administered ARBs, and the following parameters ...
Gonzalez-Villalobos Romer A RA Department of Physiology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Ave, SL39, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. - - 2009
The extent to which endogenous angiotensin (Ang) II formation is responsible for increasing kidney Ang II content and blood pressure during Ang II-induced hypertension is unknown. To address this, mice were treated with an Ang-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEi) to block endogenous Ang II formation during chronic Ang II infusions. ...
Marañón Rodrigo O - - 2009
Little is known about the vascular actions of angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO) in Amphibia. This study investigated (1) Ang II contractility, (2) NO concentrations, and (3) correlations between Ang II contractility, NO concentration and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in isolated Bufo arenarum toad aortic rings. Contractility ...
Silva Guillermo B GB Division of Hypertension and Vascular Research, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan 48202, - - 2008
Renal medullary superoxide (O(2)(-)) increases in angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent hypertension. O(2)(-) increases thick ascending limb Na transport, but the effect of Ang II-dependent hypertension on the thick ascending limb is unknown. We hypothesized that Ang II-dependent hypertension increases thick ascending limb NaCl transport because of enhanced O(2)(-) production and increased ...
Carlström Mattias - - 2009
NADPH oxidases (NOX) are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature and contribute to the control of renal perfusion. The role of NOX2 in the regulation of blood pressure and afferent arteriole responsiveness was investigated in NOX2(-/-) and wild-type mice. Arteriole constrictions to ANG II (10(-14)-10(-6) ...
Di Zhang An - - 2008
Experimental and clinical studies show that aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation has deleterious effects in the cardiovascular system that may cross-talk with those of angiotensin II (Ang II). This study, using a transgenic mouse model with conditional and cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of the human MR, was designed to assess the cardiac consequences ...
Rajapakse Niwanthi W NW Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA. - - 2008
Experiments were performed to determine whether exogenous L-arginine could ameliorate angiotensin II-induced hypertension and renal damage. Rats were instrumented with chronic indwelling femoral venous and arterial catheters for infusions of drugs and measurement of conscious arterial pressure. Arterial blood pressure significantly increased from 124+/-1 to 199+/-4 mm Hg, after 9 ...
Olatunji L A - - 2008
The use of oral contraceptive (OC) steroids is associated with high blood pressure, although mechanisms responsible are still unclear. This study sought to investigate the possible roles that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) may play in the development of OC-induced hypertension. Administration of OC led to significant ...
Crowley Steven D - - 2008
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a master regulator of blood pressure and fluid homeostasis. Because RAS components are expressed in several tissues that may influence blood pressure, studies using conventional gene targeting to globally interrupt the RAS have not determined the contributions of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT(1)) receptors ...
Sandblom Erik - - 2009
Catecholamines increase arterial pressure by increasing cardiac output (Q) and stroke volume (V(s)), while angiotensin II (ang II) also increases vascular resistance (R(sys)) in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki. Adrenaline, phenylephrine and ang II (Asn(1), Val(5)) were injected into P. borchgrevinki. Cardiovascular variables, including central venous pressure (P(cv)) and mean ...
Ogoshi Maho - - 2008
The teleost adrenomedullin (AM) family consists of three groups, AM1/AM4, AM2/AM3, and AM5. In the present study, we examined the effects of homologous AM1, AM2, and AM5 on drinking and renal function after peripheral or central administration in conscious freshwater eels. AM2 and AM5, but not AM1, exhibited dose-dependent (0.01-1 ...
Mercure Chantal - - 2008
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) converts the vasopressor angiotensin II (Ang II) into angiotensin (1-7) [Ang(1-7)], a peptide reported to have vasodilatory and cardioprotective properties. Inactivation of the ACE2 gene in mice has been reported by one group to result in an accumulation of Ang II in the heart and an ...
Cataliotti Alessandro A Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
We previously reported the feasibility of an acute, orally delivered, newly developed, conjugated form of human B-type natriuretic peptide (hBNP) in normal animals. The objective of the present study was to extend our findings and to define the chronic actions of an advanced oral conjugated hBNP (hBNP-054) administered for 6 ...
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