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van Beek Arenda Hea - - 2011
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The breath hold maneuver is a convenient and frequently used method to assess cerebrovascular reactivity (CR). This study aimed to assess feasibility and reproducibility of this method in healthy older persons. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers, aged 75 (SD 4) years, performed 2 consecutive breath holds after careful ...
Tikellis Chris - - 2011
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has recently emerged as a key regulator of the renin-angiotensin system in both health and disease. ACE2 deficiency is associated with elevated tissue and circulating levels of angiotensin II and reduced levels of angiotensin 1-7. Phenotypically, this results in a modest elevation in systolic blood pressure ...
Olafiranye Oladipupo - - 2011
To characterize primate arterial waveforms, we prospectively studied 38 bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata; 25 female, 13 ± 4 y). Brachial artery waveforms were recorded from these animals by applanation tonometry and were decomposed into harmonics by using Fourier analysis. The ratio of individual to total harmonic amplitude (H:T) was derived ...
Chen Yun Y Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI, USA. - - 2011
A volumetric blood surge (rapid physical movement/displacement of blood) is hypothesized to cause the non-impact, mild TBI and battlefield PTSD induced by a blast over-pressure wave. Systematic review of the literature. Articles relating to the fields of blast injury, brain injury and relevant disorders were searched between the years 1968-2010 ...
Do Doan Hoa - - 2011
Aim: Noninvasive markers of right ventricular (RV) diastolic dysfunction are limited by their lack of reproducibility and accuracy. We tested the hypothesis that right atrial (RA) size measured by echocardiography was correlated to invasive parameters of RV diastolic filling. Methods and Results: We studied 31 consecutive adult patients with congenital ...
Sim Lee Nuang - - 2011
Understanding the foulant deposition mechanism during crossflow filtration is critical in developing indices to predict fouling propensity of feed water for reverse osmosis (RO). Factors affecting the performance on different fouling indices such as MFI-UF constant pressure, MFI-UF constant flux and newly proposed fouling index, CFS-MFI(UF) were investigated. Crossflow Sampler-Modified ...
Kujal Petr - - 2010
1. Hypertension plays a critical role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but it has also been postulated that antihypertensive drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) show class-specific renoprotective actions beyond their blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects. 2. Because this notion has recently ...
Shoucri Rachad M - - 2010
The problem of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently received much attention. In this study we discuss some relations that connect ejection fraction EF to the parameters describing the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR). It is shown that the study of the relation between EF and ESPVR can ...
Schmieder Roland E - - 2010
End organ damage in hypertension can be detected early, reflects accurately the hypertensive patient's overall cardiovascular risk, and should be prevented and treated with antihypertensive treatment. We selectively review the relevant literature since 1995, including the German and European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension. Measurement of ...
Ehlers Pauliina I - - 2011
Milk casein-derived bioactive tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro) and valine-proline-proline (Val-Pro-Pro) lower blood pressure in animal models of hypertension and humans. In some studies, their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory effect has been demonstrated. Besides classical ACE-angiotensin II-AT(1)-receptor pathway (ACE-Ang II- AT(1)), the significance of ACE2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas-receptor (ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas) axis in the blood pressure regulation has ...
Milani Carlo J CJ Department of Physiology, Hypertension and Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, - - 2010
Previous studies have demonstrated that the urinary excretion of angiotensinogen is significantly increased in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats, which is associated with an augmentation of intrarenal ANG II levels. These findings suggest that urinary angiotensinogen excretion rates provide an index of intrarenal ANG II levels in ANG II-dependent hypertensive states. ...
Jia Nan - - 2012
Aims: Oxidative stress and fibrosis is implicated in cardiac remodeling and failure. We tested whether allopurinol could decrease myocardial oxidative stress and attenuate cardiac fibrosis and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertensive mice. Methodology: We used 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice, in which angiotensin II was subcutaneously infused ...
Capone Carmen C Division of Neurobiology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, - - 2011
Hypertension alters cerebrovascular regulation and increases the brain's susceptibility to stroke and dementia. We investigated the temporal relationships between the arterial pressure (AP) elevation induced by "slow pressor" angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion, which recapitulates key features of human hypertension, and the resulting cerebrovascular dysfunction. Minipumps delivering saline or ANG ...
Giani Jorge F - - 2011
Angiotensin (ANG)-(1-7) constitutes an important functional end-product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that acts to balance the physiological actions of ANG II. In the kidney, ANG-(1-7) exerts beneficial effects by inhibiting growth-promoting pathways and reducing proteinuria. We examined whether a 2-wk treatment with a daily dose of ANG-(1-7) (0.6 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) exerts ...
Iwamoto Mutsumi - - 2010
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted protein that regulates fibrosis. We hypothesized that CTGF is induced in a pressure-overloaded (PO) heart and that blocking the angiotensin II type 1 receptor would reduce CTGF expression. Accordingly, we administered olmesartan and compared its effects with other antihypertensive drugs in a ...
Li Lei L Central Laboratory, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, - - 2010
Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1-receptor blockers (ARBs) have been effectively used not only in the treatment of hypertension but also in cardiac protection. However, whether and why there are differences in these effects still remain unclear. Here we compared the effects of five commonly used ARBs (Candesartan, Olmesartan, Losartan, Telmisartan ...
Sodhi Komal K Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, - - 2010
We have shown previously that increased vascular endothelial expression of CYP4A2 leads to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (20-HETE)-dependent hypertension. The renin-angiotensin system is a key regulator of blood pressure. In this study, we examined possible interactions between 20-HETE and the renin-angiotensin system. In normotensive (110±3 mm Hg) Sprague-Dawley rats transduced with a lentivirus ...
Xu Jiang - - 2010
Angiotensin II (ANG II) contributes to hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction; however, it is difficult to separate the cardiac effect of ANG II from its hemodynamic action in vivo. To overcome the limitations, we used transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a transgene fusion protein that releases ANG II ...
Biala Agnieszka - - 2010
Calcium-sensitizing agents improve cardiac function in acute heart failure; however, their long-term effects on cardiovascular mortality are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that levosimendan, an inodilator that acts through calcium sensitization, opening of ATP-dependent potassium channels and phosphodiesterase III inhibition, improves cardiac function and survival in double transgenic rats harboring ...
Jennings Brett L BL Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tenn 38163, - - 2010
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, and angiotensin II is one of the major components of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of hypertension. However, the precise mechanisms for the development of hypertension are unknown. Our recent study showing that angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell growth ...
Chen Chun Cheng Andy CC Dept. of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, - - 2010
The hypothesis that TNF receptor 1-deficient (TNFR1(-/-)) mice display blood pressure (BP) and renal functional responses that differ from wild-type (WT) mice was tested in an angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent model of hypertension. Basal systolic BP (SBP), mean arterial pressure, diastolic BP, heart rate (HR), and pulse pressure were similar ...
Thunhorst Robert L RL Dept. of Psychology, Univ. of Iowa, 11 Seashore Hall E., Iowa City, IA 52242-1407, USA. - - 2010
We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection ...
Sullivan Jennifer C JC Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Ga 30912, USA. - - 2010
Females are less sensitive to the hypertensive effects of angiotensin II compared with males, although the molecular mechanisms responsible are unknown. We hypothesize that differential activation of angiotensin II, angiotensin (1-7), angiotensin II type 1, angiotensin II type 2, and mas levels in the renal cortex of male and female ...
Northcott Carrie A - - 2010
Brain and peripheral renin-angiotensin systems are important in blood pressure maintenance. Circulating ANG II stimulates brain RAS to contribute to the increase mean arterial pressure (MAP). This mechanism has not been fully clarified, so it was hypothesized that reducing angiotensin type 1a (AT(1a)) receptors (AT(1a)Rs) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ...
Boesen Erika I - - 2010
Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists are antihypertensive and renoprotective in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced hypertension if administered when AngII infusion commences, but their effects on established hypertension are poorly understood. We therefore tested the effects of intervening with an ETA (ABT-627) or ETB (A-192621) receptor antagonist after establishing hypertension with AngII (65 ...
Vera Trinity T Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Excellence in Cardiovascular-Renal Research, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, 39216-4505, - - 2010
We have previously demonstrated that moderate hyperbilirubinemia decreases blood pressure in ANG II-dependent hypertension through mechanisms that decrease oxidative stress and increase nitric oxide levels. Since decreases in renal hemodynamics play an important role in mediating the hypertensive actions of ANG II, the goal of the present study was to ...
Liu Jinjun - - 2010
It has been shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in cardiac remodeling mediated by NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accordingly, NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS may play a role in cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload. In the present study, we sought to determine whether inhibition of NADPH oxidase ...
Calò Lorenzo A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: ACE and ACE2 produce angiotensin II (Ang II), a vasopressor that induces cardiovascular remodeling, and Ang 1-7, a vasodilator with an antiremodeling effect. While Ang 1-7 has antiarrhythmic properties, at higher concentration it may induce ventricular tachycardia and sudden death. ACE2, therefore, may play an essential role in blood ...
Marvar Paul J PJ Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2010
We have previously found that T lymphocytes are essential for development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension; however, the mechanisms responsible for T-cell activation in hypertension remain undefined. We sought to study the roles of the CNS and pressure elevation in T-cell activation and vascular inflammation caused by angiotensin II. To prevent ...
Shi Peng P Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, - - 2010
Accumulating evidence indicates a key role of inflammation in hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. However, the role of inflammatory processes in neurogenic hypertension remains to be determined. Thus, our objective in the present study was to test the hypothesis that activation of microglial cells and the generation of proinflammatory cytokines in ...
Suzuki H - - 2010
Candesartan cilexetil, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), was discovered in Japan in 1982. By the end of 2009, five randomized prospective clinical trials had been conducted in Japan. Herein, we examine the similarities and differences in the results with ARB reported from abroad and Japan. Candesartan reduced blood pressure ...
Biala Agnieszka - - 2010
There is compelling evidence to indicate an important role for increased local renin-angiotensin system activity in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that activates SIRT1, a novel cardioprotective and longevity factor having NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase activity. We tested the hypothesis whether resveratrol could ...
Howard Catherine G CG Department of Physiology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, - - 2010
Transgenic rats with inducible expression of the mouse Ren2 renin gene [strain name: TGR(Cyp1a1Ren2)] allow induction of various degrees of ANG II-dependent hypertension. Dietary administration of the aryl hydrocarbon indole-3-carbinol (I3C) at a dose of 0.15% induces a slowly developing form of ANG II-dependent hypertension, whereas dietary administration of a ...
Xia Huijing H School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, Room 5218, New Orleans, LA 70112, - - 2010
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a new component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Accumulating evidence shows that ACE2 provides protective effects in peripheral tissues and has great potential for the treatment of RAS-related diseases. The role of ACE2 in the central nervous system is not well established. However, in recent ...
Crossley Dane A DA - - 2010
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important regulator of cardiovascular function in adult vertebrates. Although its role in regulating the adult system has been extensively investigated, the cardiovascular response to Ang II in embryonic vertebrates is relatively unknown. We investigated the potential of Ang II as a regulator of cardiovascular ...
Jiménez-Ferrer Enrique - - 2010
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia elegans Vahl. (Lamiaceae), recognized with the popular name of "mirto" is widely used in Mexico for healing purposes, and also them as antihypertensive treatment. AIM OF THE STUDY: The high prevalence of this illness and the side effects of antihypertensive drugs conducted us to the evaluation of ...
Dikalova Anna E AE Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1639 Pierce Dr, Atlanta, GA 30322, - - 2010
Superoxide (O2(-) ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including hypertension; however, commonly used antioxidants have proven ineffective in clinical trials. It is possible that these agents are not adequately delivered to the subcellular sites of superoxide production. Because the mitochondria are important sources of reactive ...
Zhou Zhi - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To explore whether the accelerated senescence of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is related to the reduction of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: In-vivo studies, plasma levels of CGRP and the number of senescent EPCs were measured in hypertensive humans and animals, from which the EPCs ...
Vlahakos Demetrios V - - 2010
The renin-angiotensin system is the major regulator of blood pressure by virtue of controlling vascular resistance and plasma volume. Much less recognition exists for the role of the renin-angiotensin system in regulating erythropoiesis, a biological function critical for oxygen delivery to tissues. In this review, we present evidence that angiotensin ...
Nguyen Dinh Cat Aurelie - - 2010
Pathophysiological aldosterone (aldo)/mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling has significant effects on the cardiovascular system, resulting in hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling; however, the specific contribution of the vascular MR to blood pressure regulation remains to be established. To address this question, we generated a mouse model with conditional overexpression of the MR ...
Trask Aaron J AJ Hypertension and Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. - - 2010
Emerging evidence suggests that cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may contribute to the regulation of heart function and hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of ACE2 in the hearts of (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats may accelerate progression of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by preventing conversion of angiotensin II ...
Ojeda Norma B NB Department of Pediatrics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State St., Jackson, MS 39216-4505, - - 2010
Placental insufficiency results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and hypertension in adult male growth-restricted rats. Although renal ANG II and plasma renin activity do not differ between growth-restricted and control rats, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) abolishes hypertension in growth-restricted rats, suggesting that the RAS contributes to IUGR-induced hypertension. ...
Charles Christopher J - - 2010
Biological actions attributed to the adrenomedullin (AM) peptides, AM and AM2, include reduction of arterial pressure and peripheral resistance. While AM has been shown to reduce aldosterone secretion from the adrenal, little information is available regarding possible actions of AM2 on aldosterone. Evidence suggests that AM may act as a ...
Crowley Steven D - - 2010
Activation of the immune system by ANG II contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension, and pharmacological suppression of lymphocyte responses can ameliorate hypertensive end-organ damage. Therefore, to examine the mechanisms through which lymphocytes mediate blood pressure elevation, we studied ANG II-dependent hypertension in scid mice lacking lymphocyte responses and wild-type ...
Ramchandra Rohit - - 2010
To determine the effect of irbesartan treatment on resting levels and arterial baroreflex control of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in heart failure (HF), we studied conscious normal sheep and sheep with HF induced by rapid ventricular pacing for 8-10 wk (n = 7 per group). In HF, there is ...
Perez Yolanda Y YY Centro de Investigacion Biomedica del Sur, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Argentina 1, Centro, 62790, Xochitepec, Morelos, Mexico. - - 2010
Citrus limetta Risso (Rutaceae) is widely used in Mexico for healing purposes, among them as antihypertensive treatment. To assess the antihypertensive effect of C. limetta leaves as one of its ethnomedical uses. The acute response of blood pressure to angiotensin II administration was measured in mice. Additionally, the acute oral ...
Sabharwal Rasna R Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52242, - - 2010
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a powerful vasodilator that interacts with the autonomic nervous system. A subunit of the CGRP receptor complex, receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), is required for trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface and high-affinity binding to CGRP. We hypothesized that upregulation of RAMP1 would ...
Guilluy Christophe - - 2010
Hypertension is one of the most frequent pathologies in the industrialized world. Although recognized to be dependent on a combination of genetic and environmental factors, its molecular basis remains elusive. Increased activity of the monomeric G protein RhoA in arteries is a common feature of hypertension. However, how RhoA is ...
Cheng Wen-Han - - 2010
Angiotensin (Ang) II exerts diverse physiological actions in both the peripheral and central neural systems. It was reported that the activity of Ang II is higher in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and that angiotensin type-1 receptors are colocalized with NAD(P)H oxidase in the neurons ...
Reis Wagner L - - 2010
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis has been described in several circumventricular and hypothalamic structures in the central nervous system that are implicated in mediating central angiotensin-II (ANG-II) actions during water deprivation and hypovolemia. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular responses, drinking behavior, and urinary excretions were examined following central angiotensinergic stimulation in awake freely-moving ...
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