Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1562
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Krekels M M - - 1997
The objective of the present study was to explore the interrelationships among cumulative sodium loss, renin activation, and blood pressure changes during sodium restriction in essential hypertensive patients. Specifically, we wanted to know whether the degree of sodium sensitivity of blood pressure depends on renin activation during steady state or ...
Lambert J - - 1997
We investigated 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure and arterial distensibility, a marker of biophysical vessel wall properties, in 32 normoalbuminuric type I diabetic patients and 32 healthy control subjects on diets containing 50 mmol and 200 mmol sodium per day. The increase in daytime diastolic blood pressure from 50 to 200 ...
Brogden R N - - 1997
Fenoldopam is a dopamine agonist that causes peripheral vasodilation via stimulation of dopamine 1 (D1) receptors. The efficacy of an intravenous infusion of fenoldopam in decreasing blood pressure in patients with a hypertensive urgency, including patients who developed hypertension after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and in a small number ...
Kimura G - - 1997
Although the concept of the pressure-natriuresis curve is very clear, considerable confusion concerning its importance and utility in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension persists. We recently showed that the pressure-natriuresis curve could be considered linear. In this brief review, we would like to stress the advantages of treating it as ...
Uzu T - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Sodium restriction has been widely used for treatment of hypertension and renal diseases. Whether sodium restriction can transform the circadian rhythm of blood pressure from nondipper to dipper is examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=42) with essential hypertension were maintained on a high-sodium diet (12 to 15 g of ...
Huang Y W - - 1997
The hypothesis that sodium chloride deficiency, and not its overuse, is prime cause of hypertension and arteriosclerosis is presented. In the author's home town--a farflung part of northern China--hypertension is a rare disease and arteriosclerosis is a virtually unknown condition. The average intake of sodium chloride for these people is ...
Navar L G - - 1997
Systemic arterial pressure is a dynamic and responsive physiologic parameter that can be influenced by many different factors. In particular, short-term changes in arterial pressure are caused by a myriad of mechanisms that affect cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and cardiovascular capacitance. In the long run, however, most of these ...
Laffi G - - 1997
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The hyperdynamic circulation of cirrhosis has been related either to plasma volume expansion (increased preload) or peripheral arterial vasodilation (reduced afterload). The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular function in patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis by echocardiography. METHODS: Nineteen patients with abnormal sodium handling (11 sodium ...
VanÄ•cková I - - 1997
We have shown previously that in the Prague Hypertensive Rat (PHR) "hypertension travels with the kidney" and that the kidney appears to produce an as yet unknown "hypertensogenic" substance. Since enhanced sodium retention could also contribute to this type of hypertension, this possibility was tested in isolated perfused kidneys from ...
Ozono R - - 1997
1. We evaluated the effects of the dietary restriction of sodium chloride on blood pressure and systemic calcium metabolism in 19 in-patients with essential hypertension (11 men and 8 women, mean age 49.9 +/- 12.1 years). 2. All patients received a high-sodium diet (250 mmol/day) for 1 week, followed by ...
Ursino M - - 1997
A previously developed mathematical model is used to investigate the role of some hemodynamic, regulatory, and osmotic factors in the development of symptomatic hypotension during hemodialysis. Sensitivity analysis of the model parameters suggests that a decrease in atrial pressure, with a consequent fall in cardiac output (Frank-Starling mechanism), is the ...
Movilli E - - 1997
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on blood volume (BV) preservation of three different profiles of dialysate sodium variation with similar intradialytic sodium balances. Ten uremic patients aged 50 +/- 11 years receiving regular bicarbonate hemodialysis for 49 +/- 57 months were studied. Each patient underwent ...
Meijers R H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: During surgery, computers can be of great use to support the anesthesiologist in providing task automation. In this paper we describe a closed loop blood pressure controller and show the results of its clinical evaluation. METHODS: The controller is based on a simple and robust Proportional-Integral controller and a ...
Barri Y M - - 1997
Nonpharmacologic treatment currently is recognized as an important part in the treatment of hypertension, and the role of dietary potassium intake in blood pressure (BP) control is becoming quite evident. Clinical studies have examined the mechanism by which hypokalemia can increase BP and the benefit of a large potassium intake ...
Andreoli T E - - 1997
What I have tried to describe in these brief introductory statements are the key elements stimulating renal sodium retention mediated by arterial underfilling, as illustrated by the volume repletion reaction (Fig. 3). They may be summarized by saying that edematous states characterized by underfilling-most notably systolic pump failure-represent, in fact, ...
Whelton P K PK Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Md, - - 1997
To assess the effects of supplementation with oral potassium on blood pressure in humans. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. English-language articles published before July 1995. Thirty-three randomized controlled trials (2609 participants) in which potassium supplementation was the only difference between the intervention and control conditions. Using a standardized protocol, 2 ...
Castiglia Y M - - 1997
Our objective was to determine the effects of high-dose fentanyl on canine renal function (RF). We anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (SP) 16 dogs, randomly divided into 2 groups: in G1, SP was given alone, and in G2, combined with 0.05 mg.kg-1 fentanyl. All animals were ventilated artificially and had catheterized ...
Nielsen C B - - 1997
The effects of low-dose dopamine infusion on renal hemodynamics, tubular function estimated by the lithium clearance technique and plasma levels of angiotensin II (Ang II), aldosterone (Aldo), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were studied in 11 patients with essential hypertension (HT) and in 10 healthy control subjects ...
Rodríguez-Martínez M - - 1997
To investigate whether plasma sodium pump inhibitory activity is controlled by cardiopulmonary and aortic baroreceptors, mean arterial pressure, right atrial pressure, sodium and water balances, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma antinatriferic activity (PAA; plasma sodium pump inhibitory activity) were determined before, during and after Ringer volume expansion ...
Ohman K P - - 1997
The stimuli generating kinins participating in blood pressure, volume and sodium homeostasis and their origin are not fully known. We studied the effects of a combined sodium and volume load on circulating plasma and tissue kallikreins. Normal saline (2000 ml) was infused over 4 h in 14 subjects with primary ...
Dyer A - - 1997
The INTERSALT Study, an international, collaborative, cross-sectional investigation of the relation between blood pressure and dietary and other factors, used quality-controlled, standardized procedures and assessment of multiple possible confounding factors to study 10,079 men and women in 52 population-based samples in 32 countries. In this study 24-h urinary excretion data ...
Geleijnse J M - - 1997
In 1980, a randomized trial was conducted among 476 Dutch newborn infants to study the effect of a low or normal sodium diet on blood pressure during the first 6 months of life. At the end of the trial, systolic blood pressure in the low sodium group (n = 231) ...
Grassi G - - 1997
Low sodium intake is the most widely used nonpharmacological approach to the treatment of hypertension. Although nonpharmacological treatment is by definition regarded as safe, the suggestion has been made that low sodium intake is not totally devoid of inconveniences, and animal data have shown it to be accompanied by an ...
He J - - 1997
Evidence relating dietary sodium and blood pressure comes from a variety of sources: animal experiments, observational epidemiologic studies, migration studies, and randomized controlled trials. In this review, we examine new findings in each of these areas published during 1995 and 1996. Results from both observational epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled ...
Goslar P W - - 1997
The role of diet, acculturation, and physical activity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was examined among 1,420 Mexican American, 388 Cuban American, and 542 Puerto Rican women who responded to the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey collected in 1982-4. Dietary intake measures included sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fiber, ...
Flanigan M J - - 1997
Low dialysate sodium concentrations can reduce postdialysis thirst and serum sodium activity, but patients typically experience dialysis hypotension, fatigue, disequilibrium, and cramps. "High-sodium" hemodialysis minimizes dialysis disequilibrium but increases the serum sodium activity of most patients. Programmed "variable-sodium" dialysis can minimize dialysis discomfort but may also alter the sodium kinetics ...
Wong F - - 1997
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathogenesis of the delayed natriuresis after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion is unknown. This was studied to elucidate the mechanism involved. METHODS: In 12 patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites after TIPS, systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal sodium handling, central blood volume, neurohumoral factors, and ...
Whelton P K - - 1997
Phase 1 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention was conducted in 2182 adults, aged 35-54 y, with diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mm Hg to test the feasibility and blood pressure-lowering effects of seven nonpharmacologic interventions (weight loss, sodium reduction, stress management, and supplementation with calcium, magnesium, potassium, and fish ...
McCarron D A - - 1997
During the past decade, a credible body of evidence has emerged supporting the concept that maintaining an adequate dietary mineral intake, specifically of calcium, magnesium, and potassium, protects against high blood pressure in humans. Observational and interventional studies in humans and extensive use of laboratory models showed that a significant ...
Cutler J A - - 1997
We updated a previously published overview of randomized clinical trials testing the effects of reducing sodium intake. We excluded trials that had confounded designs, enrolled preadolescent study populations, tested intakes outside the usual range for the US population, or reported neither systolic nor diastolic blood pressure. Thirty-two trials with outcome ...
Kotchen T A - - 1997
This paper reviews the evidence that salt sensitivity of blood pressure is related both to the anion ingested with sodium as well as to other components of the diet. In several experimental models of salt-sensitive hypertension and in humans, blood pressure is not increased by a high sodium intake provided ...
Tobian L - - 1997
A diet high in NaCl can raise blood pressure in susceptible people and animals, probably by similar mechanisms. The possibly harmful effects of a high-NaCl diet are not unexpected because both prehistoric humans and mammals evolved in a low-NaCl environment. Evolutionary forces molded mammals to adapt well to a low ...
Beard T C - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To measure the associations among blood pressure, hypertension, and recorded dietary factors. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the computer file of the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults, in which persons of both sexes aged 16 to 64 years living in private households (excluding pregnant women) had been ...
McCarron D A - - 1997
This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial assessed the influence of sodium chloride intake on the antihypertensive effect of the calcium channel blocker isradipine. Participants with uncomplicated hypertension controlled by isradipine entered a 4-week sodium-restricted (60 to 80 mmol/24 h) period. Participants with urinary sodium levels < 120 mmol/24 h (n ...
Takenaka T - - 1997
In the present study, we have estimated plasma nonrefilling rate and assessed its relationship to blood pressure stability during hemodialysis (HD) with normal or high sodium dialysate and during high flux hemodiafiltration (HDF). In standard HD, the greater plasma nonrefilling rate resulted in the larger decrease in blood pressure (alpha ...
Su Y R - - 1996
The amiloride-sensitive sodium channel is responsible for the rate-limiting step of sodium reabsorption in the distal renal tubule, and thus may play a key role in the maintenance of sodium balance and blood pressure. In this study, a genetic variant that results in a change of threonine to methionine at ...
Stamler J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure remains a widespread major impediment to health. Obesity and specific dietary factors such as high salt and alcohol intake and low potassium intake adversely affect blood pressure. It is a reasonable hypothesis that additional dietary constituents, particularly macronutrients, may also influence blood pressure. METHODS AND RESULTS: ...
Trevisan M - - 1996
A significant and positive association between red blood cell sodium lithium countertransport (Na-Li CT) and blood pressure has been found in numerous studies. However, the majority of the studies presented to date are cross-sectional in nature and limited information exists on the longitudinal association between Na-Li CT and blood pressure. ...
Sanjuliani A F - - 1996
Fifteen patients with uncomplicated mild to moderate primary hypertension (7 males, 8 females, age range 36-65 years) were submitted to a double blind randomized crossover study, receiving MgO 3 times a day at a daily dose of 1.0 g (600 mg/day of magnesium) and placebo for a period of 6 ...
Trout D - - 1996
Sodium azide is the principal gas-generating agent used to inflate automobile supplemental restraint systems, more commonly called airbags. Although sodium azide is known to affect the cardiovascular system by causing peripheral vasodilation, there is no published literature describing occupational exposures to sodium azide in the rapidly growing automobile airbag industry. ...
Anderson D E - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that blood pressure of older adults with high resting end tidal CO2 (PETCO2) is sensitive to high dietary intake of sodium chloride. DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty-four Caucasian men and women, aged 41-79 years (mean +/- SEM 55.5 +/- 1.4), restricted their dietary intake of sodium ...
Goto A - - 1996
Molecular mechanisms related to sodium retention have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. It is unclear how sodium retention leads to a rise in blood pressure, but ouabainlike compound may act as a final common pathway in sodium-induced hypertension. In ectopic corticotropin syndrome, hypertension has been attributed to cortisol ...
Tanaka M - - 1996
This study was designed to determine if coexisting metabolic acidosis or normovolaemic haemodilution, or both, modifies the acute cardiodepressant effect of i.v. sodium bicarbonate. Thirty-one mongrel dogs were anaesthetized with halothane, and the lungs ventilated mechanically; dogs were allocated randomly to one of four groups: control group (pHa 7.39 (SD ...
Abdi A - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To determine the possible relationship between the degree of dietary sodium intake and the development of renal failure during blockade of the renin-angiotensin system. DESIGN: Antihypertensive doses of captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme, and hydralazine, a non-specific vasodilator, were administered in sham-operated and two-kidney, two clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats ...
Bakris G L - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether sodium intake alters albumin excretion in patients with nephropathy from non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were treated with two different long-acting calcium antagonists. DESIGN: Prospective, crossover, open-label trial. SETTING: Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center. PATIENTS: 9 men and 6 women (mean age +/- SD, 56 +/- 8 years) ...
Sanai T - - 1996
It has been postulated that glomerular capillary pressure is elevated in sodium-sensitive types of hypertension. In addition, the presence or absence of renal function reserve, in response to a chronic protein load, is thought to be useful in predicting the existence of glomerular hypertension. Intrarenal hemodynamic parameters in the sodium-sensitive ...
Uzu T - - 1996
We investigated the relationship between sodium sensitivity and diurnal variation of blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Twenty-eight inpatients with essential hypertension were maintained on high sodium (12 to 15 g NaCl per day) and low sodium (1 to 3 g NaCl per day) diets for 1 week each. ...
Goonasekera C D - - 1996
Hypertension is a complication of reflux nephropathy commonly occurring during adolescence and young adult life. We studied cellular sodium transport in an adolescent cohort with this condition as abnormal sodium transport is a feature of human hypertension. Thirty males and 52 females with reflux nephropathy, (median age 20.3 years) had ...
Turner S T - - 1996
BACKGROUND: A number of alterations of ion transport and concentrations have been reported in erythrocytes from patients with hypertension and their young normotensive offspring. Of these, only sodium-lithium countertransport appears to be capable of predicting the effects of genetic variation on interindividual differences in blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: As a first ...
Suzuki H - - 1996
To investigate the role of sodium in obesity induced hypertension, Wistar fatty rats (WFR) were employed. This rat has the following characteristics: (1) hyperglycemia, (2) hyperinsulinemia, and (3) hypertriglycemia. Four percent sodium chloride with constant amount of food intake was administered to these rats from 8 to 16 weeks. During ...
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