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Results 351 - 400 of 1562
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Whelton P K - - 1999
Our objective was to assess the effects of supplementation with oral potassium on blood pressure (BP) in humans, using pooled analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Results from 33 randomized, controlled trials (2,609 participants) in which potassium supplementation was the only difference between the intervention and control conditions were used. Information ...
Mustafa S S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of systemic infusions of nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside on flow distribution and wall shear stress in the microcirculation. METHODS: With university approval, the cremaster muscle of 28 anesthetized (70 mg/kg pentobarbital given intraperitoneally) hamsters (Harlan Sprague Dawley: Syrian; weight, ...
Nilsson A B - - 1999
The importance of angiotensin type-1 (AT1) receptor stimulation during renal development has recently been established in both pharmacological and knockout models. We have previously reported irreversible and progressive papillary atrophy and a reduced baseline renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) after neonatal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. The aim of the present ...
Wong F - - 1999
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between subtle cardiovascular abnormalities and abnormal sodium handling in cirrhosis. A total of 35 biopsy-proven patients with cirrhosis with or without ascites and 14 age-matched controls underwent two-dimensional echocardiography and radionuclide angiography for assessment of cardiac volumes, structural changes and ...
Tunstall-Pedoe H - - 1999
We related 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion cross-sectionally to blood pressure and longitudinally to coronary events and deaths during follow-up in a representative sample of the Scottish population. A random sampling of men and women aged 40-59 in 1984 to 1987 produced 11,629 men and women who provided questionnaire results, ...
Ilic L - - 1999
Controlled transport of molecules through the skin's main barrier, the stratum corneum (SC), is a long standing goal of transdermal drug delivery. Traditional, needle-based injection provides delivery of almost any water soluble compound, by creating a single large aqueous pathway in the form of the hollow core of a needle, ...
Seeliger E - - 1999
The impact of sodium intake and changes in total body sodium (TBS) for the setting of pressure-dependent renin release (PDRR) was studied in freely moving dogs. An aortic cuff allowed servo control of renal perfusion pressure (RPP) at preset values. Protocols were 1) high sodium intake (HSI), 2) low sodium ...
Vogt T M - - 1999
Epidemiologic studies across societies have shown consistent differences in blood pressure that appear to be related to diet. Vegetarian diets are consistently associated with reduced blood pressure in observational and interventional studies, but clinical trials of individual nutrient supplements have had an inconsistent pattern of results. Dietary Approaches to Stop ...
He J - - 1999
Observational epidemiologic studies identify an inverse relationship between dietary fiber and protein intake and blood pressure. This relationship has been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies and among various populations. Few randomized trials have examined the effect of dietary fiber and protein supplementation on blood pressure. In general, ...
Sacks F M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Populations eating mainly vegetarian diets have lower blood pressure levels than those eating omnivorous diets. Epidemiologic findings suggest that eating fruits and vegetables lowers blood pressure. HYPOTHESIS: Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that high intake of fruits and vegetables lowers blood pressure, and (2) that an overall dietary pattern ...
Chrysant G S - - 1999
The link between sodium intake and hypertension remains controversial because of inconsistency between early epidemiologic studies, which showed a strong positive relationship between salt intake and blood pressure/incidence of hypertension, and more recent studies, which showed only modest decreases in blood pressure with sodium reduction, particularly in the normotensive population. ...
Metz J A - - 1999
Based on the premise that elevated blood pressure and low bone mass have both been associated with poor Ca nutriture and disturbances in Ca metabolism, a cross-sectional study was employed to determine if blood pressure and dietary Ca intake were significantly related to bone mass. Forty-seven men between 24-77 years ...
Heidler H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare in a prospective study three techniques for draining irrigation fluid during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and to assess which method minimizes the risk of increased intravesical pressure and decreased plasma sodium level, as a sign of fluid absorption. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 90 ...
He J - - 1999
There is substantial evidence from both observational epidemiology studies and randomized controlled trials that dietary intake of sodium and potassium is important in the etiology of hypertension. However, the direct evidence for a direct link between dietary sodium and potassium and risk of cardiovascular and renovascular events is limited. Epidemiological ...
Franx A - - 1999
In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion ...
Krebs M O - - 1999
In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received ...
Jin L - - 1999
High potassium intake is known to attenuate hypertension, glomerular lesion, ischemic damage, and stroke-associated death. Our recent studies showed that expression of recombinant kallikrein by somatic gene delivery reduced high blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, and renal injury in hypertensive animal models. The aim of this study is to explore the ...
Sica D A - - 1999
Nocturnal blood pressure patterns are expressed as a consequence of both intrinsic circadian rhythms and the quantity and quality of sleep. A range of neurohumoral factors have been either inferred or definitively proven to influence the circadian blood pressure pattern. In this regard, changes in atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma renin ...
Ojanen S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: According to several studies the QRS amplitude of the ECG increases during hemodialysis. The detailed background to this phenomenon has not been defined. Two main mechanisms have been suggested: myocardial ischemia and volume changes. New noninvasive technologies make possible a comparison of QRS complex changes synchronously with myocardial ischemia ...
Uzu T - - 1999
It has been postulated that the lack of nocturnal blood pressure fall in patients called nondippers is associated with more serious end organ damages by hypertension than in dippers whose blood pressure falls during the night. Recently, we found that sodium restriction shifted circadian rhythm of blood pressure from that ...
Uzu T - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we found that sodium restriction restored the circadian rhythm of blood pressure from non-dippers to dippers in patients with a sodium-sensitive type of essential hypertension. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sodium restriction on the circadian blood pressure rhythm in patients with primary aldosteronism, a ...
Mattson D L - - 1998
The influence of chronic administration of the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril on blood pressure and sodium balance was evaluated in conscious Swiss Webster mice. Arterial pressure was measured with chronic indwelling catheters, and sodium balance was determined by infusing sodium intravenously in isotonic saline and collecting urine 24 h/d. Experiments ...
Burnier M - - 1998
The importance of sodium in the pathophysiology of hypertension has been revealed by several sources, including large epidemiological analyses, interventional trials, and a large body of experimental and clinical evidence. According to Guyton's hypothesis, a shift of the pressure-natriuresis curve has been described in all forms of hypertension, suggesting that ...
Santoro A - - 1998
Hemodialysis (HD)-induced hypotension may be precipitated by severe hypovolemia. To avoid the appearance of destabilizing hypovolemias, we have developed a biofeedback control system for intradialytic blood volume (BV)-changes modeling. The system, incorporated in a dialysis machine, is based on a multivariable closed-loop control with a dependent output variable, the BV ...
Anderson D E - - 1998
This article reviews evidence that mild, but sustained, inhibition of breathing can affect blood pressure regulation via effects of increased PCO2 on sodium regulation. Experiments with micropigs are summarized which show that anticipation of the onset of a familiar avoidance task is accompanied by sustained increases in PCO2, increases in ...
Dwyer J H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Intake of calcium from the diet is inversely associated with blood pressure in observational studies and animal models but randomized trials in humans have found only small effects of calcium supplementation on blood pressure. A blood pressure-lowering effect of calcium supplementation may thus be restricted to persons with a ...
Celsi G - - 1998
Recent reports have shown that low birth weight infants have a higher incidence of adult hypertension. These observations have stimulated a number of studies designed to evaluate the mechanisms of this phenomenon. In this study, fetal growth retardation was induced by treating pregnant rats with dexamethasone. After birth, pups whose ...
Cook N R - - 1998
Intraperson variability in both blood pressure (BP) and sodium excretion dilutes associations and leads to underestimates of the dose-response relation. The authors applied statistical correction techniques to data from the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP), Phase I, carried out 1987-1990. Men and women with high normal diastolic BP (80-89 mmHg) ...
Munroe P B - - 1998
Hypertensives of African origin have low-renin, sodium-sensitive blood pressure and respond poorly to treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The epithelial sodium channel may be important in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension in this population. This is supported by the identification of mutations within this channel, which lead to excess ...
Baker E - - 1998
In Liddle's syndrome, a rare inherited form of hypertension, epithelial sodium channel mutations appear to cause high blood pressure by increasing sodium reabsorption through sodium channels in the renal distal tubule. This increase in channel activity has not been confirmed previously by in vivo measurement. We have made transnasal potential ...
Bates C J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To characterize relationships among blood pressure, pulse rate, vitamin C status and other protective and risk factors for older British people, from a national survey. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of survey data. SETTING: A population study, representative of mainland Britain. SUBJECTS: Among 914 people of both sexes living in ...
Anderson D E - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Previous research with normotensive adults aged over 40 years ('older') found that sensitivity of blood pressure of subjects with high resting end-tidal partial pressures of CO2 to high sodium intake was greater than normal. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the lesser sensitivity of blood pressure of young normotensive ...
Doris P A - - 1998
Rapid progress has occurred recently in understanding the origin, chemistry, synthesis, control, and actions of endogenous materials that may be ligands for the cardiac glycoside binding site on the mammalian sodium pump (Na,K-ATPase). The present paper reviews this progress and examines in detail the evidence supporting ouabain-like and bufodienolide-like compounds ...
Buter H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Dietary sodium restriction enhances the antiproteinuric and blood pressure lowering effect of ACE inhibition. In clinical practice, however, long-term compliance to a low-sodium diet may be difficult to obtain. We therefore investigated whether the blunting of the antiproteinuric and blood pressure lowering efficacy of ACE inhibition by high sodium ...
Kamitani A - - 1998
The adducin genes contribute significantly to population variation in rat blood pressure and cell membrane sodium transport. The 460Trp mutation of the human alpha-adducin gene has been associated with hypertension, in particular hypertension sensitive to sodium restriction. We studied the relationship between the 460Trp mutation and population variation in blood ...
Ng S S - - 1998
The effects of zaprinast (a type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor) on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, mean circulatory filling pressure, arterial and venous resistances were compared to those of sodium nitroprusside in three groups, each of intact or ganglion-blocked, Inactin-anaesthetised rats. In intact rats, zaprinast (1.5, 3.0 mg kg(-1) ...
Leenen F H - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of short-term and long-term high sodium intake on cardiac mass and design in sodium-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive rats versus sodium-resistant Wistar-Kyoto rats. METHODS: Young spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were randomly allocated to control diet, 2 or 8% dietary sodium for 2-12 weeks and changes ...
Manunta P - - 1998
The relationship between blood pressure and sodium (Na) excretion is less steep in hypertension caused by increased renal tubular reabsorption. We recently demonstrated that one mutation in rat alpha-adducin gene: (1) is responsible for approximately 50% of the hypertension of MHS rats, and (2) stimulates tubular Na-K pump activity when ...
Graudal N A NA Department of Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, - - 1998
One of the controversies in preventive medicine is whether a general reduction in sodium intake can decrease the blood pressure of a population and thereby reduce the number of strokes and myocardial infarctions. In recent years the debate has been extended by studies indicating that reduced sodium intake has adverse ...
Nurminen M L - - 1998
Data accumulated from epidemiological observations, intervention trials and studies on experimental animals provide a growing body of evidence of the influence of various dietary components on blood pressure. Dietary sodium, usually taken in the form of sodium chloride (common salt), is positively associated with blood pressure, and in many hypertensive ...
Mayer S A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) predisposes patients to excessive natriuresis and volume contraction. We studied the effects of postoperative administration of 5% albumin solution on sodium balance and blood volume after SAH. We also sought to identify physiological variables that influence renal sodium excretion after SAH. METHODS: Forty-three patients with acute ...
Whelton P K PK Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, La 70112, USA. - - 1998
Nonpharmacologic interventions are frequently recommended for treatment of hypertension in the elderly, but there is a paucity of evidence from randomized controlled trials in support of this recommendation. To determine whether weight loss or reduced sodium intake is effective in the treatment of older persons with hypertension. Randomized controlled trial. ...
Goto A - - 1998
Accumulated evidence has suggested that several sodium pump inhibitors, similar to cardiotonic steroids, are present in the human body. Ouabain-like factor, the most appealing candidate, has been found to be increased with high sodium intake and hypervolaemia, and in essential hypertension, mineralocorticoid hypertension, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Furthermore, blocking the action ...
Radford N B - - 1998
The positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides has been attributed to inhibition of the Na-K-ATPase, accumulation of intracellular sodium and enhanced calcium availability due to Na-Ca exchange. However, few measurements of intracellular sodium in the functioning left ventricle following ouabain exposure at therapeutic doses are available. Our experimental objective was ...
Carter-Edwards L - - 1998
Though focus groups are widely used for development of interventions, little is known about their utility in questionnaire construction, particularly for health surveys in a south-eastern African-American population. In this study, focus groups aided in the development of questions, question sub-components, and response options identifying factors that may influence dietary ...
Sacks F M - - 1998
In populations, dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium each have been inversely associated with blood pressure. However, most clinical trials in normotensive populations have not found that dietary supplements of these minerals lowered blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that normotensive persons who have low habitual intake of these ...
Lurbe E - - 1998
The objective was to study the impact of birth weight on the relationship between ambulatory blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion in children and adolescents. The study included 134 healthy children (61 boys), all Caucasians, who were born at term after a normotensive pregnancy. For each subject, a 24-hour ambulatory ...
Gallen I W - - 1998
Dietary potassium restriction increases sodium and chloride retention, whereas potassium administration promotes both diuresis and natriuresis. In epidemiologic and clinical studies, potassium intake is inversely related to blood pressure and is lower in blacks than in whites. The present studies examined the mechanism by which potassium restriction fosters sodium conservation ...
Morimoto A - - 1997
BACKGROUND: In patients with sodium-sensitive hypertension, glomerular pressure is increased and microalbuminuria, a marker of glomerular hypertension, is a predictor of cardiovascular events. Similarly, the lack of a nocturnal decrease in blood pressure in these patients is also associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesised that sodium ...
Kawamura M - - 1997
To evaluate the effects of prolonged intake of a high-sodium diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, we examined the relation of daily urinary sodium excretion to blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipid metabolism in 140 Japanese adults who lived in a region where the average daily consumption of sodium was ...
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