Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1559
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Su Y R - - 2001
Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart attacks, stroke, and kidney failure. It is estimated to cause as many as 25% of all deaths in the United States, particularly for African Americans, in whom the disease is both more common and more severe. Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder ...
Appel L J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Few trials have evaluated the effects of reduced sodium intake in older individuals, and no trial has examined the effects in relevant subgroups such as African Americans. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The effects of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) and hypertension control were evaluated in 681 patients with hypertension, ...
Schmidt R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Haemodialysis-induced hypotension is still a severe complication in spite of all the progress in haemodialysis treatment. Because of its multifactorial causes, haemodialysis-induced hypotension cannot be reliably prevented by conventional ultrafiltration and sodium profiling in open-loop systems, as they are unable to adapt themselves to actual decreases in blood pressure. ...
Jougasaki M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The recently discovered vasodilating and positive inotropic peptide, adrenomedullin (ADM), has strong natriuretic actions. ADM-induced natriuresis is caused by an increase in glomerular filtration rate and a decrease in distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Although ADM is activated in human and experimental heart failure, the role of ADM in the ...
TraƟ B - - 2001
In the present study, effects of enrofloxacin on biochemical, haematological and blood gas parameters were investigated. Changes in laboratory parameters were monitored during the treatment period. Enrofloxacin was administered (5 mg/kg intramuscularly, once daily) to 10 healthy dogs for 14 days. Acidosis and temporary increases in aspartate aminotransferase, indirect bilirubin, ...
Rosenthal T - - 2001
The effect of age on older hypertensive patient's blood pressure response to increased sodium intake is well known. Salt sensitivity which does increase with age and the decrease in renal function limiting the ability of aged kidney to excrete sodium load are major factors, responsible for rise in blood pressure ...
Imanishi M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To find whether sodium sensitivity of blood pressure appears before hypertension and whether the sensitivity is related to diabetic nephropathy, we examined type 2 diabetic patients with normal levels of serum creatinine. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 32 patients were divided into three age-matched groups: 11 patients ...
Arjamaa O - - 2001
In the study reported here, we examined blood pressure and endocrine responses in cold conditions during salt load in young healthy subjects who had previously shown increased resting blood pressure during acutely increased sodium intake. Subjects (n = 53) added 121 mmol sodium into their normal diet for 1 week. ...
Alvarez-Lara M A - - 2001
Evidence exists of the important role of sodium balance and extracellular fluid volume in the genesis of hypertension in chronic renal failure (CRF). Several studies have shown that patients with advanced CRF have an increased, interstitial and intravascular, extracellular water volume (ECW). The relationship between the increase in ECW and ...
Beal A M - - 2000
Intracarotid infusions of noradrenaline (0.15 nmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) either alone or accompanied by phentolamine (1.5 nmol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) caused similar-sized increases in salivary protein, magnesium and bicarbonate, and decreases in osmolality, sodium, potassium and chloride whereas intravenous noradrenaline stimulated much smaller responses. Concurrent infusions of the ...
Reinhardt H. Wolfgang - - 2000
Total body sodium (TBSodium) is a major determinant of body water and arterial pressure. Several observations, in particular that of a "sodium memory," indicate that TBSodium is a controlled variable. Various regulatory elements are involved, e.g., the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, atrial receptors, and renal arterial pressure. Balance studies in dogs provide ...
Alderman M H - - 2000
The positive relation of sodium intake and blood pressure, first recognized a century ago, has been well established in ecological, epidemiological, and experimental human studies. Equally well established is the association of increasing blood pressure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Indeed, the pharmacological capacity to reduce blood pressure has produced ...
Appel L J - - 2000
An impressive body of evidence strongly supports the concept that multiple dietary factors influence blood pressure and that modification of diet can have powerful, beneficial effects on this highly prevalent, yet modifiable, cardiovascular risk factor. Dietary therapies with a proven ability to lower blood pressure include reduced sodium intake, weight ...
Vásárhelyi B - - 2000
The aim of our study was to characterize renal function and its relationship to blood pressure in healthy young Caucasian men born with a birth weight under 2,500 g (LBW). Urinary protein patterns, N-acetylglucosamine and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, fractional sodium and potassium excretions, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure, and erythrocyte Na+/K+-ATPase ...
van Paassen P - - 2000
Pressure natriuresis (PN), i.e., a rise in renal sodium excretion in response to a higher BP, is involved in long-term BP regulation. PN is blunted in essential hypertension, but the mechanism is unknown. This study assessed the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in PN in eight essential hypertensive men ...
Leyssac P P - - 2000
Inconsistencies in previous reports regarding changes in early distal NaCl concentration (ED(NaCl)) and renin secretion during osmotic diuresis motivated our reinvestigation. After intravenous infusion of 10% mannitol, ED(NaCl) fell from 42.6 to 34.2 mM. Proximal tubular pressure increased by 12.6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by ...
Lurbe E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The objective in the present study was to evaluate if obesity beginning in the first two decades of life influences the relationship between ambulatory blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eighty-five obese and 88 non-obese children aged 3-19 years were included in the study. For each ...
Goto A - - 2000
It is clear that defective renal sodium handling plays an important role in the development of hypertension and that this abnormality could be caused by heterogeneous hereditary factors in the kidney. It is likely that sodium pump inhibitors with or without whole-body autoregulation gradually produce a rise in blood pressure ...
Hilary Green J - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of high-calcium skim milk or potassium-enriched high-calcium skim milk on blood pressure compared with nonenriched skim milk. DESIGN: This was a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Each milk intervention lasted for 4 weeks, with a minimum of 4 weeks of wash-out between ...
Agroyannis B - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of calcium and potassium content in red blood cells (RBC) from uremic patients during a hemodialysis (HD) session. In 17 uremic patients on HD, the calcium and potassium content of RBC was determined in 3 blood samples collected at 0 ...
Brown M D - - 2000
The majority of older hypertensive humans are sodium sensitive and they are characterized by increased alpha-adrenergic responsiveness relative to their level of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. To test the hypothesis that heightened SNS activity and/or increased alpha-adrenergic receptor responsiveness during sodium loading may play a role in the sodium-dependent ...
Uzu Takashi - - 2000
In patients with essential hypertension it has been postulated that the lack of nocturnal fall in blood pressure (nondippers) is associated with more serious end organ damage than in patients whose blood pressure falls during the night (dippers). Although the mechanism of abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm remains unclear, our ...
Delemarre F M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of chronic dietary sodium restriction on uteroplacental circulation. METHODS: In a randomized trial, Doppler flow velocity waveforms of the uterine and umbilical artery were studied at monthly intervals during pregnancy in 59 women on a low-sodium diet and in 68 controls. RESULTS: Pulsatility index (PI), ...
Moraes R S - - 2000
The reasons for the inconsistent association between salt consumption and blood pressure levels observed in within-society surveys are not known. A total of 157 normotensive subjects aged 18 to 35 years, selected at random in a cross-sectional population-based survey, answered a structured questionnaire. They were classified as strongly predisposed to ...
Dahlem P - - 2000
In this case report we present a 2-year-old girl with the classical signs of the hyponatraemic hypertensive syndrome. She initially presented with a history of behavioural abnormalities and hyponatraemia (126 mmol/l) and her blood pressure was as high as 220/160 mmHg. After admission, somnolence developed. Intravenous anti-hypertensive therapy was started ...
Ohya Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of barnidipine hydrochloride, a long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker on urinary sodium excretion in patients with essential hypertension. PATIENTS: Twelve patients (2 males, 10 females) with mild to moderate essential hypertension. METHODS: A single-blinded study. After the control (placebo) period, 10 to 15 mg barnidipine ...
Qidwai W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To find out whether individuals with blood pressures on the lower side consume more garlic in their diets. A pilot study to make grounds for more elaborate future trials. METHOD: A questionnaire was developed in order to estimate the dietary intake of garlic per person per month and to ...
Barba G - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the systemic vascular and renal adaptation to changes in dietary sodium intake. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven healthy normotensive male subjects were randomized to high or low sodium diets in a double blind crossover design (7 days on each ...
Safar M E - - 2000
Sodium sensitivity is usually studied in terms of change of blood pressure (BP) but the specific effects on conduit arteries have not been addressed. In genetic models of hypertension, chronically increased sodium diet is associated with aortic hypertrophy and development of extracellular matrix independent of BP. These alterations, often associated ...
Centonza L - - 2000
The aim of this study was to investigate whether, in the short term, physiological blood pressure changes are coupled with changes in urinary sodium excretion in normotensive subjects, maintained at fixed sodium intake and under controlled postural and behavioural conditions. Twelve normotensive subjects were recruited. For each subject, seven urine ...
Unwin R J - - 2000
In order to clarify the effects on sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle of methazolamide (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor), chlorothiazide and the loop diuretics frusemide and bumetanide, superficial loops were perfused in vivo in anaesthetized rats and the individual diuretics were included in the perfusate. Differentiation between effects in ...
Miller G D - - 2000
The inverse relationship between intake of dairy products and blood pressure levels was first suggested by several epidemiologic surveys in the early 1980's that revealed low calcium intake in populations with increased prevalence of hypertension. Subsequent laboratory and clinical investigations provided further evidence of the association between calcium and blood ...
Hunter J M - - 2000
A survey of 515 non-pregnant women at 12 geographically chosen research sites in rural Mashonaland shows significant differences in mean blood pressure, controlled by age cohorts. Three levels of economic development are identified: (1) the traditional economy on communal lands, with lowest blood pressure, (2) the wage economy in areas ...
Cheung B M - - 2000
We studied 70 Hong Kong Chinese patients with untreated hypertension and 47 normotensive controls. Blood pressure measurements and 24-h urine collection were performed for each patient, and were repeated 12 weeks later in 14 hypertensive patients who remained untreated. Twenty-two hypertensive patients underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The primary hypothesis ...
Hermansen K - - 2000
Prevention of hypertension, and control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension, are necessary for the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle modifications are one of the most important tools for effective lowering of blood pressure. Most randomized controlled studies have shown that even a modest weight loss of ...
Bode-Böger S M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and local blood flow. Its biological activity is impaired in hypertension and atherosclerosis. Because blood pressure undergoes a circadian rhythm, we investigated whether systemic NO production is dependent on a circadian variability, and whether the phasing of diurnal ...
Oliverio M I - - 2000
To examine the role of the angiotensin II (AT)(1A) receptor in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance, we measured systolic blood pressure responses in AT(1A) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a-/-) and wild-type (Agtr1a+/+) mice while dietary sodium content was systematically altered. On a 0.4% sodium diet, systolic blood pressures were significantly ...
Love J N - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential utility of sodium bicarbonate in an established model of acute propranolol toxicity. METHODS: Two minutes after the completion of a propranolol infusion (10 mg/kg), a bolus of 1.5 mEq/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (1 mEq/mL) followed by an infusion of 1.5 mEq/kg over the ...
Kimura Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The circadian rhythm of blood pressure in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is not well understood. We evaluated the circadian blood pressure rhythm in such patients by comparison with that in patients with essential hypertension (EHT). The latter are characterized by a nocturnal blood pressure decline, the so called ...
Haenni A - - 2000
Insulin increases renal sodium reabsorption which may contribute to hypertension. However, acute insulin administration may result in vasodilation. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects on blood pressure and alterations in ion status during hyperinsulinemia. Blood pressure and serum sodium and ionized calcium concentrations were measured before ...
Nakagawa H - - 1999
Using the identical protocol of an Intersalt Study previously conducted, we undertook a new study (Intersalt-2) 8 years later. We measured changes in various factors affecting blood pressure (BP) including urinary sodium and potassium excretion in three districts of Japan: Osaka, Tochigi, and Toyama. Also we evaluated the trends in ...
Widerlöv E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of food intake on electrocardiogram (ECG) variables (heart rate, QT-, QTc-, PR-intervals, QRS-time) and morphological alterations of the T-waves in 12 healthy male volunteers. METHODS: The study was of open, three-period crossover design. On each occasion, all subjects fasted from midnight. During two of the ...
McKnight K A - - 1999
To examine effects of food restriction resembling very-low-calorie dieting on heart performance, normal rats were fed 25% of ad libitum food intake for 14 days. Although heart weight decreased (P < 0.05) after 5 days, left ventricular systolic pressure as well as rates of pressure development and fall were increased ...
Uzu T - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Recently, we found that sodium restriction shifted the circadian rhythm of blood pressure from nondipper to dipper in patients with the sodium-sensitive essential hypertension. This study examined whether diuretics can transform the circadian rhythm of blood pressure from nondipper to dipper. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 21 patients with ...
Musiari L - - 1999
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether salt-sensitivity in essential hypertension produces a significant comparative difference in diastolic function and ventricular mass when compared with sodium-resistance. Recent epidemiological data have demonstrated a positive correlation between sodium intake and arterial pressure. Furthermore, a positive correlation has been detected between ...
Yoshida M - - 1999
The relationship between blood pressure and urinary sodium-to-potassium (Na/K) ratio was assessed in eight healthy men, none of whom used antihypertensive medications. Blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium concentrations were measured for 11 to 33 days without any dietary restriction. For two of the eight subjects, the urinary Na/K ...
McCarron D A - - 1999
No single study or avenue of investigation can resolve the scientific controversies that entangle efforts to determine the effects of specific nutrients on medical conditions. To reach consensus in this area requires a substantial body of plausible, reproducible and consistent data from various investigative approaches--such as the data that now ...
Whelton P K - - 1999
Our objective was to assess the effects of supplementation with oral potassium on blood pressure (BP) in humans, using pooled analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Results from 33 randomized, controlled trials (2,609 participants) in which potassium supplementation was the only difference between the intervention and control conditions were used. Information ...
Mustafa S S - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of systemic infusions of nitroglycerin and sodium nitroprusside on flow distribution and wall shear stress in the microcirculation. METHODS: With university approval, the cremaster muscle of 28 anesthetized (70 mg/kg pentobarbital given intraperitoneally) hamsters (Harlan Sprague Dawley: Syrian; weight, ...
Nilsson A B - - 1999
The importance of angiotensin type-1 (AT1) receptor stimulation during renal development has recently been established in both pharmacological and knockout models. We have previously reported irreversible and progressive papillary atrophy and a reduced baseline renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) after neonatal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. The aim of the present ...
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