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Results 201 - 250 of 1558
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Tochikubo Osamu - - 2004
We have previously reported that a high sodium intake increases sleep-time blood pressure (BP) in young men. However, there are cases in which this relation does not apply. To account for them, we investigated the relation between sodium intake and cardiac sympatho-vagal balance (SVB) in young men with high BP. ...
Gates Phillip E - - 2004
We determined the temporal effects of dietary sodium restriction on large elastic artery compliance and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 12 untreated, older (64+/-2 years) men and women (6 each) with stage 1 systolic hypertension. After baseline measurements subjects were assigned to 4 weeks of low or normal sodium intake ...
Agyei-Frimpong, M.T.; Department of ...
Serum levels of sodium and potassium were estimated by flame atomic emission spectroscopy and calcium spectrophotometrically by using o-cresolpthalein complexone reaction in 140 newly-diagnosed in-patients with essential hypertension both before and after treatment. Eighty normotensives matched for age and gender were used as controls. In this study it was observed ...
Zhao Liancheng - - 2004
Blood pressure and prevalence of high blood pressure are greater for northern than southern Chinese. Reasons for these differences are unclear. Relationships of north-south blood pressure differences with multiple dietary factors were investigated in 839 Chinese participants, International Study on Macronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP), 561 northern, 278 southern, aged ...
du Cailar Guilhem - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of sodium intake on the two components of arterial blood pressure [mean blood pressure (MBP) and pulse pressure] and left ventricular mass (LVM) in normotensive subjects and never-treated hypertensive patients. METHODS: Blood pressure, LVM (M-mode echocardiography) and sodium excretion as an index of dietary sodium ...
Locatelli Francesco - - 2004
Introduction. From the beginning of the dialysis era, the most appropriate composition of the dialysate has been one of the central topics in the delivery of dialysis treatment. METHODS: A discussion is employed to achieve a consensus on key points relating to the composition of the dialysate, focusing on the ...
Lancaster Kristie J - - 2004
Most patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) also have hypertension. It is critical to control blood pressure in CKD to decrease the risk of negative outcomes. Modification of diet can reduce blood pressure, most notably in people with hypertension and in older adults. Current guidelines recommend reducing sodium intake to ...
Aviv Abraham - - 2004
Based on racial differences in urinary potassium excretion and responses to diuretics, we present a model suggesting that a major cause of sodium sensitivity in blacks is an augmented activity of the Na-K-2Cl cotransport in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. This would result in an increased ability to ...
Delgado Maria Carolina - - 2004
Potassium is the most important ion in the living cell, affecting almost every cellular function. Numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies support the knowledge that potassium is a fundamental factor in blood pressure regulation. The role of potassium in blood pressure regulation is reviewed in this article, focusing on its impact ...
Odermatt Alex - - 2004
Hypertension is a major disease of later life affecting 25% of the adult population in the industrialized world with most hypertensive individuals diagnosed as having essential hypertension. Approximately one third of these patients have elevated blood pressure due to increased sodium and water retention by the kidney resulting in suppressed ...
Yamagishi Kazumasa - - 2004
Evidence on the effect of salt intake on the interaction between angiotensinogen (AGT) T174M polymorphism and high blood pressure is sparse. We therefore conducted a large population-based cross-sectional study of 2,823 men and women aged 30-74 in a Japanese farming community to examine associations between AGT polymorphism and blood pressure ...
Zhu Zhiming - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Sodium-induced hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy is related to pressure and volume overload. METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed to low and high sodium diet for 8 weeks. Angiotensin II receptor mRNA, abundance of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), vasoconstriction of aortic rings, and angiotensin II-induced calcium increase were investigated. RESULTS: Rats ...
Takechi Shigeru - - 2004
AIMS: High blood pressure after a natural disaster is tentatively considered to be due to elevation of sympathetic nerve activity. A volcano in Japan erupted on March 31, 2000, and people living in the vicinity of the volcano were evacuated to safe shelters. We found that many evacuees developed high ...
Swift Pauline A - - 2004
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has a central role in sodium transport across membranes. It is expressed on the apical cell surface of renal tubular epithelia and also on other aldosterone-responsive epithelial cells. In the kidney, ENaC contributes to the regulation of blood pressure via changes in sodium balance and ...
Kooman Jeroen P - - 2004
Volume and sodium excess is the predominant factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension in dialysis patients. However, except for anephric patients, the relationship between volume status, blood pressure, and hemodynamics is not straightforward, but may vary between subgroups of patients. In general, the sensitivity of blood pressure to changes in ...
Nordlander Margareta - - 2004
Clevidipine is an ultrashort-acting vasoselective calcium antagonist under development for short-term intravenous control of blood pressure. Studies in animals, healthy volunteers and patients have demonstrated the vascular selectivity and rapid onset and offset of antihypertensive action of clevidipine, a synthetic 1,4-dihydropyridine that inhibits L-type calcium channels. Clevidipine has a high ...
Alderman Michael H - - 2004
Salt and BP have been linked for more than a century. Recent data indicate that, given free access to sodium, in most populations, intake is between 100 and 200 mmol/d, although individual variation is wide. There is good evidence that individual differences are influenced by genetics, environment, and behavior. There ...
Hooper L - - 2004
Restricting sodium intake in elevated blood pressure over short periods of time reduces blood pressure. Long term effects (on mortality, morbidity or blood pressure) of advice to reduce salt in patients with elevated or normal blood pressure are unclear. To assess in adults the long term effects (mortality, cardiovascular events, ...
Jürgens G - - 2004
One of the controversies in preventive medicine is, whether a general reduction in sodium intake can decrease the blood pressure of a population and thereby reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In recent years the debate has been extended by studies indicating that reducing sodium intake has effects on the hormone ...
Helkamaa Teemu - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) can modulate renal dopaminergic tone. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that COMT blockade protects from salt-induced hypertension. METHODS: COMT gene-disrupted (-/-) mice and wild-type controls received a high-sodium diet (NaCl 6%) for 3 weeks. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by ...
He F J - - 2003
Over 70 years ago, potassium was found to have a natriuretic effect and was used in patients with heart failure. However, it took many years for its role in the control of blood pressure to be recognized. Recently, epidemiological and clinical studies in man and experimental studies in animals have ...
Obarzanek Eva - - 2003
Although group characteristics are known to influence average blood pressure response to changes in salt intake, predictability of individual responses is less clear. We examined variability and consistency of individual systolic blood pressure responses to changes in salt intake in 188 participants who ate the same diet at higher, medium, ...
Powroznyk A V V - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We set out to compare the efficacy of clevidipine and sodium nitroprusside infusions in the control of blood pressure and the haemodynamic changes they produce in hypertensive patients after operation for elective coronary bypass grafting. METHODS: Thirty patients were randomly allocated to receive either clevidipine or sodium ...
Vasavada Nina - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Torsemide has predictable absorption compared to furosemide. Thereby, torsemide results in more constant exposure to active drug. Our hypothesis was that this pharmacokinetic difference between these commonly used loop diuretics may translate into disparate antihypertensive responses in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, ...
Colì L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Intradialytic hypotension is mainly induced by the removal of extracellular sodium during dialysis, which impairs intravascular fluid refilling and reduces blood volume. To counter this complication we tested a new kind of profiled hemodialysis (PHD) consisting of the intradialytic modulation of dialysate sodium concentration according to individual profiles set ...
Wang Ji-Guang - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Experimental data show that ouabain is a modulator of the sodium-potassium pump, which plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. We investigated the distribution of plasma ouabain in the general population in relation to blood pressure and other determinants of sodium homeostasis. METHODS: In 379 ...
DiBona Gerald F - - 2003
To study effects of endogenous angiotensin II on responses to standardized stimulation of afferent neural input into the central portion of the arterial and cardiac baroreflexes. Different dietary sodium intakes were used to physiologically alter endogenous angiotensin II activity. Candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, was used to ...
Geleijnse J M - - 2003
The objective of the study was to assess the blood pressure response to changes in sodium and potassium intake and examine effect modification by age, gender, blood pressure, body weight and habitual sodium and potassium intake. Randomised trials of sodium reduction or potassium supplementation and blood pressure were identified through ...
Dysthe Dag Kristian - - 2003
Two dilatometers with high precision and stability have been developed for measurement of indentation by pressure solution creep. The indentation of gold wires or glass cylinders into sodium chloride has been measured with down to 10 A accuracy and 6% precision. The indentation curves show a strong history dependence and ...
Osadchii L I - - 2003
Systemic vasodilation produced by sodium nitroprusside in various concentrations and accompanied by a decrease in baseline blood pressure was followed by progressive reduction in pressor responses to alpha-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (mesatone) in rats. In a blood pressure range of below the physiological level (80-100 mm Hg), a positive linear correlation ...
Zvitov R - - 2003
Intact plant tissues (of hypocotyls, radicles, cotyledons and leaves) were contracted by applying a low DC electrical field through them. Stomatal opening as a result of the electrical treatment of leaves was observed, presumably due to the differential influence of the electrical treatment on guard cell turgor pressure versus turgor ...
Shand Brett - - 2003
Flavonoids are naturally occurring plant compounds with established in vitro antioxidant properties and potential cardioprotective effects. We carried out a 12-week pilot study on the effects of dietary supplementation with an extract of bioflavonoids prepared from the bark of Pinus radiata trees [Enzogenol] containing added vitamin C. Data was collected ...
Gerrish M - - 2003
The aim of this study was to investigate what affect profiling dialysate sodium and ultrafiltration rate had on cardiovascular stability during haemodialysis, and if there was any effect on patients' fluid balance, thirst, serum sodium levels, blood pressure, or comfort and tolerance. The past decade has seen major advances in ...
Moreno F Javier - - 2003
The combined effects of temperature (60 degrees C) and high-pressure treatments (400 MPa for 3 h) on the isomerization-degradation of lactose (10%) in basic media were studied. The formation of isomeric disaccharides (lactulose and epilactose) and galactose decreased by the application of high pressure in aqueous sodium hydroxide 4 mM ...
Hajjar Ihab M - - 2003
This analysis of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) was designed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium intake on age-related changes in blood pressure and pulse pressure. Data on 17,030 participants 20 years or older (mean age, 48.8+/-0.2 years; 47% male, 42% Caucasian, and 28% ...
Ducher Michel - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate further the relationships between blood pressure and sodium intake, which have been claimed to exist, but have not been clearly established, in epidemiological studies. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2-year follow up study of a cohort of 296 healthy volunteers working in the same company. RESULTS: Consistent with ...
Kwok T C Y - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of dietary sodium and potassium, as reflected by the urinary sodium/potassium excretion, and calcium intake with blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension among older Chinese vegetarians in Hong Kong. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Research clinic in a teaching hospital in Hong Kong. SUBJECTS: A ...
Varoni M V - - 2003
Cadmium intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration, at definite concentrations, induces a dose-dependent increase in the systemic blood pressure. Kallikreins are suggested to be important regulators of cardiovascular function. We evaluated the effects of 10 microg i.c.v. cadmium on mean blood pressure (MBP) and several urinary parameters such as 24h urine volume, sodium ...
Jørgensen Marit E - - 2003
AIM: To study levels of vasoactive hormones and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium between groups of Greenland Inuit and Danes, and to analyse the relationship between these hormones and 24-h blood pressure, including nightly blood pressure dips and pulse pressure. METHODS: 145 Greenlandic participants were categorized in three groups ...
Hajjar Ihab - - 2003
Compared with other regions in the United States, the southern region has had the highest stroke mortality rate and a more prevalent and resistant hypertension. We designed this analysis of the data obtained from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III (NHANES-III), which is a community-based cross-sectional survey, to ...
Charra Bernard - - 2003
The balance of sodium, through its dietary intake and renal excretion, determines extracellular fluid volume (ECV). Chronic renal failure and dialysis patients present with a positive sodium balance and increased ECV. The consequences are systemic hypertension and vascular and cardiac remodelling, especially left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). High blood pressure (BP) ...
Khandelwal Mukesh - - 2003
As noted in part I of this article, emerging evidence indicates that overt and (more commonly) subclinical volume expansion is frequent in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). That expansion in turn leads to hypertension. With loss of residual renal function, the hypertension becomes difficult to control even with increasing doses ...
Hooper L - - 2003
Restricting sodium intake in elevated blood pressure over short periods of time reduces blood pressure. Long term effects (on mortality, morbidity or blood pressure) of advice to reduce salt in patients with elevated or normal blood pressure are unclear. To assess in adults the long term effects (mortality, cardiovascular events, ...
Hooper L - - 2003
Restricting sodium intake in elevated blood pressure over short periods of time reduces blood pressure. Long term effects (on mortality, morbidity or blood pressure) of advice to reduce salt in patients with elevated or normal blood pressure are unclear. To assess in adults the long term effects (mortality, cardiovascular events, ...
Hooper L - - 2003
Restricting sodium intake in elevated blood pressure over short periods of time reduces blood pressure. Long term effects (on mortality, morbidity or blood pressure) of advice to reduce salt in patients with elevated or normal blood pressure are unclear. To assess in adults the long term effects (mortality, cardiovascular events, ...
Jürgens G - - 2003
One of the controversies in preventive medicine is, whether a general reduction in sodium intake can decrease the blood pressure of a population and thereby reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. In recent years the debate has been extended by studies indicating that reducing sodium intake has effects on the hormone ...
Weder Alan B - - 2003
Increased activity of erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport is associated with essential hypertension. Sodium-lithium countertransport is highly heritable, but no single gene product mediating the exchange or explaining the association of increased sodium-lithium countertransport activity and hypertension has been identified. We performed a linkage study by using erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport as a ...
Alderman Michael H - - 2002
Many public health agencies recommend universal restriction of dietary sodium to 100 mmol/L or less per day. This reflects the belief that because sodium restriction reduces blood pressure, it will therefore also reduce cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Although large (100 mmol/L/24 h) reductions in sodium intake do produce a ...
Barclay Robert L - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Colonic cleansing with sodium phosphate causes intravascular volume contraction in some patients. This study tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate-electrolyte oral rehydration would attenuate the hypovolemic changes associated with administration of sodium phosphate. METHODS: Adult outpatients were randomized to ingest either regular clear fluids or a carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration solution during ...
Espeland Mark A - - 2002
PURPOSE: To characterize relationships between sodium and potassium intakes and blood pressure control. METHODS: We analyzed repeated 24-hour diet recalls and 24-hour urine assays from 873 elderly participants with established hypertension in a 3-year clinical trial of lifestyle interventions. Pooled estimates of electrolyte intakes were developed using hierarchical measurement error ...
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