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Weinberger Myron H - - 2006
The effect of sodium in human blood pressure has been a contentious subject of considerable debate for decades. Nonetheless, it is generally conceded that there is heterogeneity to alterations in sodium and extracellular fluid volume in the blood pressure responses of normal and hypertensive humans. Although there are many forms ...
Doulton Timothy W - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that inappropriate stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is responsible for the increase in blood pressure that occurs in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) before the development of renal failure. However, the interpretation of previous studies in ADPKD patients is confounded by inadequate matching with ...
McCrea B A - - 2006
Clostridium perfringens is important to both poultry producers and humans. The excretion rate of pathogenic foodborne bacteria increases after live haul; however, the majority of research into flock cross-contamination has been performed on Salmonella and Campylobacter. Research into the sources of C. perfringens in poultry operations have implied that dirty ...
Studier, Eugene H.
1. 1. Among neotropical bats with subdivided renal medullae, some natural urine samples are equal in concentration to mean maximum calculated levels.2. 2. Natural urine osmotic pressures in frugivorous phyllostomids are less than in other phyllostomids which, in turn, are less than in insectivorous bats.3. 3. Urinary sodium (Na+) concentrations ...
Hodgson Jonathan M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Compared with carbohydrate intake, dietary intake of plant protein can lower blood pressure in humans, but the effects of animal protein intake on blood pressure have yet to be investigated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with animal protein intake from lean red meat ...
Takahashi Yoshiko - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether dietary intervention in free-living healthy subjects is effective in improving blood pressure levels. DESIGN: Open randomised, controlled trial. SETTING: Free-living healthy subjects in two rural villages in north-eastern Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred and fifty healthy volunteers aged 40-69 years. INTERVENTIONS: Tailored dietary education to encourage a ...
Roberts Delia - - 2006
There are many occupations where workers undergo daily exposure to rigorous environments, often with only limited access to fluids. Such conditions warrant the use of an electrolyte rehydration beverage; however, the long-term use of such beverages may pose potential health risks due to the increase in dietary sodium intake. This ...
Liu Bei - - 2006
The applicability of a recently proposed force field of Calero et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 11377) to Na-MOR zeolites is evaluated. The Henry law coefficients of ethane and C(5)-C(9) as well as the adsorption isotherms of ethane, propane, butane, and hexane in various Na-MOR zeolites are computed ...
Tang H L - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of sodium ramping (profiling) in reducing hypotensive episodes and symptoms during haemodialysis. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Regional hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS: Thirteen patients who experienced frequent episodes of hypotension and/or symptoms such as cramps, dizziness, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, and headache during haemodialysis in the ...
Junghans T - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Capnoperitoneum (CP) compromises hemodynamic function during laparoscopy. Three therapeutic concepts were evaluated with an aim to minimize the hemodynamic reaction to CP: First, a controlled increase of intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV) by intravenous fluids; second, partially reduced sympathetic activity by the beta1-blocker esmolol; and third, a decrease in mean ...
Elliott Paul - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Findings from epidemiological studies suggest an inverse relationship between individuals' protein intake and their blood pressure. METHODS: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of 4680 persons, aged 40 to 59 years, from 4 countries. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intake based on 24-hour dietary ...
Sagnella G A - - 2006
The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is of fundamental importance in the control of sodium reabsorption through the distal nephron. ENaC is an important component in the overall control of sodium balance, blood volume and thereby of blood pressure. This is clearly demonstrated by rare genetic disorders of sodium channel ...
Blankfield Robert P - - 2006
The supposition that temperature homeostasis has precedence over blood pressure homeostasis, that vascular remodeling ensues, that hypertension is the consequence and that sodium chloride ingestion sets the sequence in motion, constitutes the thermoregulatory-vascular remodeling hypothesis. Because the cardiovascular system plays a role in both temperature and blood pressure regulation, the ...
Celik Sevim Akgül - - 2006
The use of isotonic sodium chloride on endotracheal suctioning is still commonly performed in intensive care units (ICUs). According to the studies, isotonic sodium chloride instillation may decrease oxygen saturation, increased intracranial pressure, arterial blood pressure, and cause cardiac dysrhythmias, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and nosocomial infection. Endotracheal suctioning should ...
Jan R A - - 2006
One hundred thirty five hypertensive patients and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were taken up for studying the relationship of 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion, sodium-potassium molar ratio and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive population in Kashmir. There ...
Goksel Basak Karakurum - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, demographic, clinical features, and possible risk factors for hemodialysis headache (HDH). BACKGROUND: HDH has been recognized for many years, but the pathophysiology of this condition is not known. High arterial blood pressure, decreased serum osmolality, sodium washout, and high ...
Davenport Andrew - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Over the last three decades the standard dialysate sodium concentration has increased from 136 to 140 mmol/l (mEq/l) today. There has been great debate as to whether a reduction in dialysate sodium alone can lead to improved blood pressure control, and reduced inter-dialytic weight gain. METHODS: An audit was ...
Ajani Umed A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association recommends no more than 2400 mg of sodium intake per day for healthy adults. Healthy People 2010 goals are to increase the proportion of persons who consume 2400 mg or less of sodium daily. We examined daily sodium intake among people with and without high ...
Sandgaard N C F - - 2005
AIM: This study focused on static and dynamic changes in total renal blood flow (RBF) during volume expansion and tested whether a change in RBF characteristics is a necessary effector mechanism in saline-induced natriuresis. METHODS: The aortic flow subtraction technique was used to measure RBF continuously. Identical amounts of NaCl ...
MacGregor G A - - 2005
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and disability world-wide. Blood pressure, throughout the range seen in developed countries, is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lowering blood pressure within the whole population by lifestyle interventions, such as reducing dietary salt intake and increasing the consumption of ...
Grönholm Tina T Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Biomedicum Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, FIN-00029 Helsinki, - - 2005
In this study we examined diabetes- and hypertension-induced changes in cardiac structure and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat. We hypothesized that treatment with omapatrilat, a vasopeptidase inhibitor, which causes simultaneous inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase, provides additional cardioprotective effects, ...
Moret Karin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Sodium profiling improves haemodynamic tolerance in haemodialysis (HD) patients but may also influence sodium homeostasis. Changes in blood volume and plasma conductivity (PC) during HD can be modelled by feedback technology, but their effects on sodium homeostasis are not widely studied. METHODS: This randomized crossover study compared PC and ...
Norsk Peter - - 2005
The human cardiovascular system and regulation of fluid volume are heavily influenced by gravity. When decreasing the effects of gravity in humans such as by anti-orthostatic posture changes or immersion into water, venous return is increased by some 25%. This leads to central blood volume expansion, which is accompanied by ...
Farquhar William B - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute blood pressure (BP) and hemodynamic effects of sodium chloride (3% intravenous solution). Although many studies link a change in dietary sodium to a change in BP, few consider the effects of sodium concentration in the blood on BP. We hypothesized ...
Kawada Noritaka - - 2005
We used cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-deficient mice to test the hypothesis that COX-1 regulates blood pressure (BP) and renal hemodynamics. The awake time (AT) mean arterial pressures (MAPs) measured by telemetry were not different between COX-1(+/+) and COX-1(-/-) (131+/-2 versus 126+/-3 mm Hg; NS). However, COX-1(-/-) had higher sleep time (ST) MAP ...
Oren Ron M - - 2005
Hyponatremia has been identified as a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and other edematous disorders and can lead to severe neurologic derangements. Low cardiac output and blood pressure associated with CHF triggers a compensatory response by the body that activates several ...
Miura Katsuyuki - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent dietary guidelines for the prevention and treatment of hypertension emphasized a healthy eating pattern called the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, in addition to avoidance of obesity, high salt intake, and excessive alcohol intake. Our new challenge is to examine the long-term efficacy and ...
Magina S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the main side-effects of long-term therapy with ciclosporin. However, the influence of salt intake on the 24-h mean blood pressure of patients with psoriasis treated with ciclosporin is not known. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in patients with psoriasis, the sodium sensitivity of the ciclosporin-induced rise in ...
He Feng J - - 2005
Randomized trials have shown that increasing potassium intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials used potassium chloride, whereas potassium in fruits and vegetables is not a chloride salt. It is unclear whether a nonchloride salt of potassium has a greater or lesser effect on blood pressure compared with potassium ...
Townsend Marilyn S - - 2005
Analysis of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1984 revealed that a dietary pattern low in mineral intake, specifically calcium, potassium, and magnesium, was associated with hypertension in American adults. Using more recent survey data from NHANES III and NHANES IV, we re-examined the validity of ...
Kumanyika S K - - 2005
Sodium reduction is efficacious for primary prevention of hypertension, but the feasibility of achieving this effect is unclear. The objective of the paper is detailed analyses of adherence to and effects of the sodium reduction intervention among overweight adults in the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, Phase II. Sodium reduction (comprehensive ...
Johnson Richard J - - 2005
Hypertension is epidemic and currently affects 25% of the world's population and is a major cause of stroke, congestive heart failure, and end-stage renal disease. Interestingly, there is evidence that the increased frequency of hypertension is a recent event in human history and correlates with dietary changes associated with Westernization. ...
López-Gómez Juan M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Excessive interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is usually related to an overload of sodium and water, and is the most important factor for arterial hypertension in dialysis. On the other hand, food intake also contributes to IDWG, and is the basic factor for nutrition. The objective of this study is ...
Lambie Stewart H - - 2005
Relatively low dialysate conductivity (Cndi) may improve outcomes by reducing the overall sodium burden in dialysis patients. Excess sodium removal, however, could lead to hemodynamic instability. We performed a randomized controlled trial of reduction of Cndi. For the study, 28 patients were randomized to maintenance of Cndi at 13.6 mS/cm ...
Schneditz Daniel - - 2005
Many physiologic variables have been measured in the extracorporeal circulation by experimental systems but only a few systems have reached technical maturity for everyday application. Variables relating to cardiovascular function, which today can be measured in the extracorporeal system, are pressure, temperature, and measures of blood composition such as hematocrit, ...
Cook N R - - 2005
A cross-sectional dose-response relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure (BP) has been demonstrated, but evidence for a graded longitudinal effect is limited. Evaluation of BP response to sodium reduction was assessed in a 3-year lifestyle dietary intervention trial. BP changes at 18 and 36 months after enrollment were analysed ...
Evans Roger G - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) oxidase [NAD(P)H oxidase] are both expressed in tubular epithelial cells within the renal medulla, particularly the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (mTALH). Thick ascending limbs contribute to long-term blood pressure control, both because they ...
Dussol Bertrand - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Loop diuretics are the drugs of choice for the treatment of hypertension in chronic renal failure patients. However, the adaptive changes in the distal nephron and the short half-life of these drugs may decrease their long-term efficacy. Thiazides are not believed to be efficient in advanced renal failure, but ...
Chan C C W - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Results from small-scale randomized studies on the effectiveness of different preparations of nitric oxide donors in cervical priming before first trimester termination of pregnancies are not consistent. We compared sodium nitroprusside gel to misoprostol, the standard agent for cervical priming in this randomized double-blinded controlled trial. METHODS: Two hundred ...
de Wardener Hugh E - - 2004
Dietary salt is the major cause of the rise in the blood pressure with age and the development of high blood pressure in populations. However, the mechanisms whereby salt intake raises the blood pressure are not clear. Existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume ...
Khaw Kay-Tee - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Abundant evidence indicates that a high sodium intake is causally related to high blood pressure, but debate over recommendations to reduce dietary sodium in the general population continues. A key issue is whether differences in usual sodium intake within the range feasible in free-living populations have clinical or public ...
Psaltopoulou Theodora - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Diet has been reported to influence arterial blood pressure, and evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet reduces cardiovascular mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether the Mediterranean diet, as an entity, and olive oil, in particular, reduce arterial blood pressure. DESIGN: Arterial blood pressure and several sociodemographic, anthropometric, ...
Coroas Andreia S P S - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Cyclosporine (CsA) therapy may be accompanied by a significant increase in blood pressure, either sodium (Na+) independent or Na+ dependent. The relationship between Na+ intake and body water distribution among patients treated with CsA has not been evaluated. We report the study, by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), of water ...
Dhingra Ravi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Increased sodium intake has been positively associated with high blood pressure (BP) and hypertensive target organ damage, but associations with cardiac structure in nonhypertensive individuals have yielded inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that sodium intake is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), independent ...
Gillman Matthew W MW Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School/Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, Mass 02215, USA. - - 2004
Few data exist on the intergenerational influence of calcium intake during pregnancy on offspring blood pressure. As part of the ongoing US prospective cohort study Project Viva, we analyzed 4091 Dinamap blood pressure measurements from 936 six-month-old infants whose mothers had completed food frequency questionnaires during the second trimester of ...
Charra B - - 2004
The total amount of sodium present in the body conditions the extracellular compartment volume. In advanced renal failure and in dialysis the sodium balance becomes positive and the extracellular volume inflates. This leads to hypertension and to direct cardiac and vascular changes that explain for a large part the excessive ...
Bie P - - 2004
Body fluid regulation depends on regulation of renal excretion. This includes a fast vasopressin-mediated water-retaining mechanism, and slower, complex sodium-retaining systems dominated by the renin-angiotensin aldosterone cascade. The sensory mechanisms of sodium control are not identified; effectors may include renal arterial pressure, renal reflexes, extrarenal hormones and other regulatory factors. ...
Ward Natalie C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a cytochrome P450 (omega-hydroxylase) metabolite of arachidonic acid with vasoconstrictor activity that may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In humans, there are few data relating 20-HETE to vascular pathophysiology. This study aimed to determine whether urinary 20-HETE excretion is related to blood pressure ...
Seeliger Erdmann - - 2004
The study was designed to determine to what extent moderate elevation of renal perfusion pressure (RPP) via the mechanism of 'pressure natriuresis' contributes to the natriuresis induced by acute i.v. saline loading. Nine Beagle dogs maintained on ample sodium intake (5.5 mmol (kg body mass)(-1) day(-1)) were chronically equipped with ...
Wilson Jimmy - - 2004
Hypertension is a common finding in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death in this population, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for CV events. Understanding the etiology of hypertension in chronic HD patients is critical in order to optimize treatment and reduce ...
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