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Mackraj Irene - - 2008
AIM OF THE STUDY: The in vivo effects of Tulbhagia violacea on systemic arterial blood pressure and on the renin-angiotensin system in a Dahl salt-sensitive rat model were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were treated for 14 days intraperitoneally as follows: Tulbhagia violacea (Tvl) (50mg/kg b.w.), captopril (Cap) (10mg/kg b.w.) ...
Santos Sergio F F - - 2008
Hypertension and chronic volume overload are complications often seen in hemodialysis patients. Current hemodialysis practices adopt a standard dialysate sodium prescription that is typically higher than the plasma sodium concentration of most patients. As a general rule, hemodialysis patients have stable predialysis plasma sodium concentrations, and each patient has a ...
Onem Yalcin - - 2008
The two most common forms of inherited normotensive hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis are Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes. Bartter's is mostly seen in children, while Gittelman's is mostly seen in adolescents and adults. We analyze three subjects of adult-onset Gitelman's and Bartter's syndrome. The patients applied to our hospital due to severe ...
Miki Paulo P - - 2008
PURPOSE: Colonoscopy plays an essential role in the therapeutic and diagnostic approach in various colonic pathologies, the aim of the present study was to compare three solutions and their efficacy for the bowel preparation in adult patients submitted to elective colonoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly divided into three groups ...
Ruixing Yin - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the prevalence of hypertension in Bai Ku Yao, an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The aim of this study was to compare the difference in the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors between the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. ...
Sällström Johan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide deficiency is involved in the development of hypertension, but the mechanisms are currently unclear. This study was conducted to further elucidate the role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in blood pressure regulation and renin release in relation to different sodium loads. METHODS: Blood pressure and heart ...
Rubinger Dvora - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and dialysate sodium (Na) concentration are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis-related hypertension. The present study was undertaken to determine whether increases in blood pressure in hemodialysis patients are associated with changes in heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of the ...
Zhang Wei - - 2008
1. Aetiological studies have shown that sodium loading increases both blood pressure and death from stroke. The present study was designed to investigate the pressor and non-pressor effects of sodium loading on stroke in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). 2. Eighty-five female SHRSP were used. Forty-nine SHRSP, aged 5 months, ...
Fang Zhi Xun - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The use of hypertonic crystalloid solutions, including sodium chloride and bicarbonate, for treating severe sepsis has been much debated in previous investigations. We have investigated the effects of three crystalloid solutions on fluid resuscitation in severe sepsis patients with hypotension. METHODS: Ninety-four severe sepsis patients with hypotension were randomly ...
Tzoulaki Ioanna - - 2008
To investigate associations of dietary iron (total, haem, and non-haem), supplemental iron, and red meat with blood pressure. Cross sectional epidemiological study. 17 population samples from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States participating in the international collaborative study on macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP). 4680 adults aged ...
Pimenta Eduardo - - 2008
Experimental data indicate that the cardiorenal effects of aldosterone excess are dependent on concomitant high dietary salt intake. Such an interaction of endogenous aldosterone and dietary salt has not been observed previously in humans. We assessed the hypothesis that excess aldosterone and high dietary sodium intake combine to worsen proteinuria ...
YAMAGISHI, K
Epidemiological evidence on gene-environment effects of the G-protein β-3 subunit C825T polymorphisms and sodium on blood pressure in the free-living general population is limited. We examined the associations between the C825T polymorphism and blood pressure levels, stratified by the sodium variables estimated by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and a dietary ...
Keen M L - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis patients lack the normal mechanisms to regulate body water volume and osmolality. The dialysis treatment is expected to adequately regulate both body water volume and body Na+ content, which is the primary action determining body water osmolality. Data in subjects with normal renal function indicate that an individual ...
YAMAGISHI, Kazumasa
There have been few epidemiological studies on the gene-environmental interaction between the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) T−344C polymorphism and sodium in relation to blood pressure in a free-living general population. We hypothesized a priori that persons with the T allele of CYP11B2 would have elevated blood pressure levels in response ...
Meira Fernanda S - - 2007
Although a safe procedure, hemodialysis (HD) can cause numerous complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of complications during dialysis, interdialytic weight gain, and the predialysis and postdialysis blood pressure in HD patients with and without variable sodium. Patients were observed during 12 HD sessions and ...
Elliott Paul - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Addition of up to 15.0 g/d salt to the diet of chimpanzees caused large rises in blood pressure, which reversed when the added salt was removed. Effects of more modest alterations to sodium intakes in chimpanzees, akin to current efforts to lower sodium intakes in the human population, are ...
Walker Jay - - 2007
A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether restricting dietary salt intake would provide protection from adverse cardiovascular events or mortality. Using the reported search, 462 papers were identified of which 14 papers represented the best evidence on the ...
Boudville Neil C - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To examine the control of blood pressure and volume, and the role of sodium removal in a single, large, contemporary, automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) population where icodextrin is used liberally and there is a policy to avoid long duration glucose-based daytime dwells. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: A university ...
Burnier Michel - - 2007
Blood pressure follows a circadian rhythm with a physiologic 10% to 20% decrease during the night. There is now increasing evidence that a blunted decrease or an increase in nighttime blood pressure is associated with a greater prevalence of target organ damage and a faster disease progression in patients with ...
Lien Lillian F - - 2007
Lifestyle modification can reduce blood pressure and lower cardiovascular risk. Established recommendations include weight loss, sodium reduction, and increased physical activity. PREMIER studied the effects of lifestyle interventions based on established recommendations alone and with the addition of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern. This analysis aimed ...
Lackland Daniel T - - 2007
Dietary salt has long been recognized as a major factor affecting blood pressure such that sodium intake is a component of lifestyle modification guidelines for control of high blood pressure. These recommendations are based on results from epidemiologic observational studies and clinical trials of various sodium diets among normotensives and ...
Chaki Takamitsu - - 2007
Sodium alginate oligosaccharides (NaAOs) consisting of a mixture of eight oligosaccharides have previously been reported to lower blood pressure. We investigated in this study the excretion of NaAOs into the urine or feces, and attempted to elucidate the mechanism for lowering blood pressure by using isolated mesenteric arteries from the ...
Fink Gregory - - 2007
Endothelin (ET) exerts powerful pressor actions primarily through activation of the ET(A) receptor subtype. The ET(B) receptor (ET(B)R) subtype, on the other hand, is generally thought to initiate physiological actions that decrease arterial pressure. Such actions include clearing ET from the bloodstream, initiating endothelium-mediated vasodilation, and facilitating renal sodium and ...
Brion M-J MJ Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Whiteladies Road, Bristol, Avon, UK. - - 2008
Infancy may be a sensitive period regarding effects of sodium intake on future blood pressure (BP). This has only been demonstrated in one randomized trial of low sodium formulae with follow-up in adolescence in one-third of participants. To prospectively assess associations between sodium intake in infancy and BP at 7 ...
Agarwal Rajiv - - 2007
Circadian blood pressure changes are blunted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proteinuria is the most important correlate of hypertension in CKD. However, little is known about the influence of circadian blood pressure changes and variation in protein excretion rate. Furthermore, the impact of blood pressure components, e.g., mean ...
Yamagishi Kazumasa - - 2007
There have been few epidemiological studies on the gene-environmental interaction between the aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) T-344C polymorphism and sodium in relation to blood pressure in a free-living general population. We hypothesized a priori that persons with the T allele of CYP11B2 would have elevated blood pressure levels in response ...
Penner S Brian - - 2007
Hypertension, the leading risk factor for mortality in the world, affects nearly one in four Canadians. There is substantive evidence that high dietary sodium contributes to hypertension. Animal studies consistently demonstrate increased blood pressure and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with high dietary sodium intake. Evidence of the adverse health effects ...
Gu Dongfeng D Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China. - - 2007
The heritability of blood pressure responses to dietary intervention has not been well studied. We examined the heritability of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake in a family feeding study among 1906 study participants living in rural North China. The dietary intervention included a 7-day low-sodium feeding ...
- - 2007
Hypertension is a complex disorder influenced by genetic and environmental determinants and their interactions. The objectives of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) are to localize and identify genes related to blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium intervention. GenSalt utilizes a family feeding-study design. Each ...
Nguyen Chi-Ngon - - 2008
In order to improve the intraoperative applications, this paper presents the advantages of using Guyton's model in hypotensive control system development. In this system, the mean arterial pressure is decreased and maintained at a low level during anaesthesia by controlling sodium nitroprusside infusion rate. The key of the study is ...
Cailar Guilhem du - - 2007
After the demonstration of a positive correlation between sodium intake and arterial pressure in large population studies, the effect of short-term reduction in sodium intake demonstrated the efficacy of this nonpharmacological therapy. In addition, a positive relation between urinary sodium (the most reliable estimate of salt intake) and left ventricular ...
Whitty Kevin - - 2008
This is the second in a series of papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis at elevated pressures. Two industrial black liquors were pyrolyzed under pressurized conditions in two laboratory-scale devices, a pressurized single-particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater. Temperatures ranging between 650 and 1100 degrees C ...
Arakelyan Karen P - - 2007
Calcium-regulating system is important for the functional activity of myocardium. However, little is known about the role of this system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Blood samples from the patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) caused by ischaemic disease (coronary artery disease) (NYHA class I-IV) were used to analyze ...
Myers Valerie H - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has not been a thorough recent evaluation of the nutritional effects on blood pressure. Apart from outstanding clinical trials like Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, there have been controversial papers on a number of factors influencing blood pressure. This paper is a systematic review of the ...
Uzu Takashi - - 2007
Recent studies have shown that metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease. We recently found that the prevalence of sodium-sensitive hypertension in patients with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than that in patients with essential hypertension but without metabolic syndrome. We therefore assessed the effects ...
Paschos G K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the natural precursor of the cardioprotective long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Available data indicate a possible beneficial effect of ALA on cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the response of various CVD risk factors to increased ALA intake is not well characterized. The purpose of the present study ...
Sayarlioglu Hayriye - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients who cannot restrict sodium consumption in their diets sometimes develop significant saline excess and hypertension between dialyses. This study assessed the effect of relatively low sodium dialysate dialysis on changes of echocardiography in hemodialysis patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen patients with ...
Gawarammana I B - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Uncommon metabolic abnormalities in the emergency department could be a result of drug overdose due to uncommon agents. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old male presented to the emergency department with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 3/15 and a normal pulse rate and blood pressure. Subsequent questioning after recovery revealed ...
Charra Bernard - - 2007
The total amount of sodium present in the body controls the extracellular volume. In advanced renal failure, sodium balance becomes positive and the extracellular volume expands. This leads to hypertension, and vascular changes that lead to adverse cardiovascular consequences in dialysis patients. Controlling the body sodium content and the extracellular ...
Yamagishi K - - 2006
Epidemiological evidence on gene-environment effects of the G-protein beta-3 subunit C825T polymorphisms and sodium on blood pressure in the free-living general population is limited. We examined the associations between the C825T polymorphism and blood pressure levels, stratified by the sodium variables estimated by 24-h urinary sodium excretion and a dietary ...
Chien Chien-Huan - - 2006
Whether or not water pressure enhances the cytotoxic activity of sodium fluoride (NaF) against human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF) was investigated. Loading with water pressure (up to 5 g) alone did not affect the cell proliferation, but significantly enhanced the cytotoxic activity of millimolar concentrations of NaF. Cytotoxic activity of ...
McDonald K Colleen - - 2006
Hypertensive patients should reduce sodium intake (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A). The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH diet)--with salt restriction and increased fruit, vegetable, calcium, and potassium intake-reduces blood pressure and should be recommended (SOR: A). Aerobic exercise is effective in the general, as well as elderly, populations ...
van de Wal Ruud M A - - 2006
Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We investigated which parameters determine baseline urinary albumin excretion in nondiabetic subjects, without renal disease. In addition, we evaluated the parameters that predict the albuminuria-lowering efficacy of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In this substudy of the Prevention of Renal ...
Eisenhut Michael - - 2007
BACKGROUND: All forms of malnutrition have been associated with increased severity of pneumonia, an increased pneumonia associated mortality and an increased risk of pulmonary fluid overload. Malnutrition was found to be associated with increased sweat sodium and chloride concentrations. A reduction of systemic sodium and chloride transport reflected in sweat ...
Zhou Yi Lun - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic hypotension is the most frequent complication in patients receiving haemodialysis (HD). Previous studies have reported that the use of modulating dialysate sodium concentration or ultrafiltration (UF) rates, or the combination use of sodium profile and UF profile may better preserve blood volume and reduce the incidence of hypotensive ...
Huppertz Thom - - 2006
In this study, factors influencing the disruption and aggregation of casein micelles during high-pressure (HP) treatment at 250 MPa for 40 min were studied in situ in serum protein-free casein micelle suspensions. In control milk, light transmission increased with treatment time for approximately 15 min, after which a progressive partial ...
Uzu Takashi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether an association between sodium-sensitive hypertension and metabolic syndrome exists; and whether, in patients with metabolic syndrome, the nocturnal fall of blood pressure decreases and salt restriction affects the circadian blood pressure rhythm. METHODS: Japanese patients with essential hypertension, who were treated without any antihypertensive agent, were ...
Maseko Muzi J MJ Cardiovascular Pathophysiology and Genomics Research Unit, School of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South - - 2006
Present guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hypertension indicate that a reduction in sodium (Na(+)) intake levels and an increase in potassium (K(+)) intake levels are critical components of blood pressure (BP) control. Whether this is being successfully implemented in urban, developing communities in South Africa is uncertain. The ...
Keven K - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Posttransplant hypertension is a well-known risk factor for long-term allograft failure and mortality in kidney recipients. Although dietary sodium restriction is a widely recommended nonpharmacological measure for control of blood pressure (BP), no detailed investigation has been conducted regarding the impact of dietary sodium restriction on this condition. METHODS: ...
Alderman Michael H - - 2006
The expectation that dietary sodium intake might influence cardiovascular disease occurrence has been based upon its impact on blood pressure (BP). Solid experimental data confirms the ability of large (75-100 mmols/24 hours) changes in dietary sodium to reduce pressure by, on average, mid-low single digits. However, there is substantial inter-individual ...
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