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Gleiberman Lillian - - 2009
An enormous amount of research has yielded significant knowledge about ethnic differences in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. Consistent findings such as greater sodium-sensitivity, lower potassium excretion and high higher serum sodium levels in African Americans need further exploration to define more precise physiological mechanisms. The genetic alleles associated ...
Jablonski Kristen L - - 2009
Age and increasing systolic blood pressure (BP) are associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, but the factors involved are incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial function is related to dietary sodium intake among middle-aged and older adults (MA and O) with elevated systolic BP. Data were analyzed on ...
Eladari Dominique - - 2009
Abnormal renal sodium handling plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of arterial hypertension. Though sodium is present in the diet as a chloride salt, most studies have focused on the renal mechanisms of sodium transport and their regulation, and very few have investigated the impact of chloride. However, strong ...
Umesawa Mitsumasa - - 2009
BACKGROUND: An inverse association between protein intake and blood pressure has been reported in Western countries. However, the evidence is limited for Asians, whose protein sources are different from those in Western populations. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to examine the association between protein intake and blood pressure in Japanese adults. ...
Buyck Jean-François - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Dietary sodium and potassium intakes are factors known to influence blood pressure (BP) through different pathways. These mechanisms likely result in differential effects on parameters characterizing BP. The aim of the study was to evaluate relationships between both sodium and potassium intake and all BP parameters--namely systolic blood pressure ...
Aronson Solomon - - 2009
Clevidipine is an arterial, selective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with an ultrashort half-life. In this prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-comparison trial series, the safety and efficacy of intravenous clevidipine with nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside and nicardipine in hypertensive patients during cardiac surgery were compared. No differences in the incidences of myocardial infarction, ...
Ubeda Amalia - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure associated with the sodium excipient content of soluble or effervescent analgesic has been previously reported. However, the influence of other anions associated with sodium on blood pressure is still controversial. METHODS: Observational study of elderly hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure treated with effervescent paracetamol (3 ...
Wildman Scott Sp - - 2009
Sodium balance determines the extracellular fluid volume and sets arterial blood pressure (BP). Chronically raised BP (hypertension) represents a major health risk in Western societies. The relationship between BP and renal sodium excretion (the pressure/natriuresis relationship) represents the key element in defining the BP homeostatic set point. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system ...
Vaidya Anand - - 2009
Determination of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) via electrocardiogram (ECG) is a known independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension (HTN). Dietary sodium and HTN are both associated with unfavorable alterations in left ventricular mass, however, to what extent their interplay affects ECG screening for LVH is unclear. ...
Uzu Takashi - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in the diabetic condition was reported to enhance the sodium sensitivity of blood pressure. In patients with sodium-sensitive hypertension, high sodium intake reduces the nocturnal fall in blood pressure. Therefore, we examined the effects of the amount of sodium intake or diuretics in ...
Barker, Kimberly Lynn
The regulation of overall body fluid balance as well as fluid sodium concentration and osmolality involves a complex and interrelated sequence of similar receptor and effector mechanisms. In a recent study in conscious dogs, intracarotid infusions of hypertonic saline were performed concurrent with a jugular vein infusion of water at ...
Chen Jing - - 2009
Since insulin resistance is thought to be the underlying mechanism for metabolic syndrome, affected individuals might be sensitive to a dietary sodium intervention. We aimed to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and salt sensitivity of blood pressure. 1906 Chinese participants without diabetes, aged 16 years or more, were selected ...
du Cailar Guilhem - - 2009
After the demonstration of a positive correlation between sodium intake and arterial pressure in large population studies, the effect of short-term reduction in sodium intake demonstrated the efficacy of this nonpharmacologic therapy. In addition, a positive relation between urinary sodium (the most reliable estimate of salt intake) and left ventricular ...
Harshfield Gregory A - - 2009
Hypertension--an important health problem in industrialized nations--is particularly significant in blacks and obese individuals, in whom it is hypothesized to result from impaired renal sodium regulation. We reviewed studies that identified individuals with impaired sodium regulation by examining the natriuretic response to mental stress. A significant percentage of black and ...
He Jiang - - 2009
To examine factors related to blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions. We conducted a dietary feeding study that included a 7-day low-salt intervention (51.3 mmol sodium/day), a 7-day high-salt intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day), and a 7-day high-salt and potassium-supplementation (60 mmol potassium/day) intervention among 1906 study ...
Dumler Francis - - 2009
We sought to summarize major recent studies in the field of dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure, and discuss the following trials. INTERSALT: Sodium intake correlates with the rise in blood pressure with age, but not with the prevalence of hypertension. The population study identified a minimal impact of ...
Woo J - - 2009
Both hypertension and osteoporosis have common underlying nutritional aetiology, with regards to dietary cations intake. We tested the hypothesis that sodium intake reflected in urinary Na/Cr and blood pressure would be negatively associated with bone mineral density (BMD), whereas other cations may have opposite associations. Subjects were part of a ...
Alireza Patricia L - - 2009
We report the discovery of superconductivity at high pressure in SrFe(2)As(2) and BaFe(2)As(2). The superconducting transition temperatures are up to 27 K in SrFe(2)As(2) and 29 K in BaFe(2)As(2), the highest obtained for materials with pressure-induced superconductivity thus far.
van der Zander Kim - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Several placebo-controlled clinical studies suggest that products containing isoleucyl-prolyl-proline and valyl-prolyl-proline are able to lower blood pressure without adverse effects. The most efficient way of producing high concentrations of these lactotripeptides (LTPs) is enzymatic hydrolysis of dairy protein (casein) with the use of a mixture of several enzymes derived ...
Harrison David G - - 2008
Several studies published in the past three decades have suggested that the adaptive immune system contributes to hypertension. Recent studies have shown that T cells play a crucial role in the blood pressure elevation caused by angiotensin II and in response to sodium and volume challenge. Hypertensive stimuli cause effector ...
Krikken Jan A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The blood pressure increase associated with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, torcetrapib is probably attributable to an off-target effect but it is unknown whether activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be related to variation in the plasma CETP level. We questioned whether the plasma CETP level ...
Lago Rodrigo M - - 2008
Recent cross-sectional studies have suggested that higher serum sodium levels may be a marker of elevated blood pressure. It is unclear whether serum sodium levels are related to the risk of developing hypertension in the community. We investigated the association of serum sodium with longitudinal blood pressure tracking and incidence ...
Idogun, E.S.
High-fruit and high-vegetable diets are known to have ameliorating effects on many diseases and their complications. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of high fruit and high vegetable diets on the electrolytes and blood pressure of hypertensive patients. This experimental study was conducted at Olabisi Onabanjo ...
Savopoulos Christos G - - 2009
The aim of our study was to investigate the role of dyslipidemia on red blood cell sodium-lithium countertransport activity in healthy and hypertensive individuals. A total of 128 Caucasian individuals, aged 20 to 60 years old, were divided into 4 groups: dyslipidemic/ hypertensive, dyslipidemic/normotensive, normolipidemic/hypertensive, and normolipidemic/ normotensive (controls). Sodium-lithium ...
ten Cate J M - - 2008
Caries prevention might benefit from the use of toothpastes containing over 1500 ppm F. With few clinical studies available, the aim of this pH-cycling study was to investigate the dose response between 0 and 5000 ppm F of de- and remineralization of advanced (> 150 microm) enamel lesions. Treatments included ...
Raimann Jochen - - 2008
The concept of dry weight (DW) is central to dialysis therapy. The most commonly used definition of DW is the weight below which patients become hypotensive on dialysis. However, this definition is dependent on patient symptoms. A more rigorous definition of DW is the body weight at a physiological extracellular ...
Twardowski Zbylut J - - 2008
Sodium balance is precisely regulated by intake and output. The kidneys are responsible for adjusting sodium excretion to maintain balance at varying intakes. Our distant ancestors were herbivores. Their diet contained little sodium, so they developed powerful mechanisms for conserving sodium and achieving low urinary excretion. About 10,000 years ago, ...
Chen Jing - - 2008
Blood pressure (BP) responses to the cold pressor test (CPT) and to dietary sodium intake might be related to the risk of hypertension. We examined the association between BP responses to the CPT and to dietary sodium and potassium interventions. The CPT and dietary intervention were conducted among 1906 study ...
Jessani Saleem - - 2008
Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor, and while sodium restriction in hypertensive patients appears effective, its role in normotensive individuals remains unclear. We assessed the effect of a low vs. high-sodium diet on blood pressure in normotensive Indo-Asian adults. A randomized, controlled, crossover trial was conducted on 200 normotensive ...
Lazarou Chrystalleni - - 2008
There is sufficient evidence to suggest that dietary approaches may help to prevent and control high blood pressure. This review focuses on the main dietary approaches for which there is ample scientific data regarding the prevention and management of hypertension: i.e. moderate use of sodium, alcohol, an increased potassium intake, ...
He Feng J - - 2008
Until recently, humans consumed a diet high in potassium. However, with the increasing consumption of processed food, which has potassium removed, combined with a reduction in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, there has been a large decrease in potassium intake which now, in most developed countries, averages around 70 ...
Dujardin K S - - 2008
Several epidemiologic and clinical studies show that following myocardial infarction, dietary supplements of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3FA) reduce sudden death. Animal data show that omega3FA have antiarrhythmic properties, but their mechanisms of action require further elucidation. The effects of omega3FA supplementation were studied in female rabbits to analyze whether ...
World Michael J - - 2008
In 2003, occasional military patients with hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia and alkalosis were encountered in Iraq. Development of central pontine myelinolysis in one patient indicated treatment should be cautious. Two years later, heat illness continued to occur during the very hot summer months and 23 cases were admitted to a British military ...
Miura Katsuyuki - - 2008
Findings from observational and interventional studies on the relationship of dietary linoleic acid, the main dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid, with blood pressure have been inconsistent. The International Study of Macro-Micronutrients and Blood Pressure is an international cross-sectional epidemiological study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 years from ...
Andrade Lúcia - - 2008
Leptospirosis is recognized as a globally re-emerging zoonosis. Interstitial nephritis is the principal feature of the disease. Leptospirosis-induced acute kidney injury typically is nonoliguric and includes hypokalemia. Tubular function alterations precede a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate, which could explain the high frequency of hypokalemia. Studies in human beings ...
Houston Mark C - - 2008
Despite advances in the prevention and treatment of hypertension over the past decade, hypertension remains an important public health challenge. Recent efforts to reduce the prevalence of hypertension have focused on nonpharmacologic means, specifically diet. An increased intake of minerals such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium by dietary means has ...
Yosry M - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether magnesium sulphate could induce controlled hypotension, reduce choroidal blood flow, provide a 'dry' operative field and could be compared with sodium nitroprusside in the recently raised issue of the use of hypotensive anaesthesia in eye surgery, i.e. for choroidal tumour surgery as the choroid ...
Jiménez-Martínez Inéz - - 2008
The development of a controlled release formulation of captopril has been a challenge for some time. In this work, the in vitro sustained release of captopril from Metolose SH 4000 SR/sodium bicarbonate floating tablets has been studied, varying the proportions of Metolose and bicarbonate. This was studied at two different ...
Penz Erika D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Increases in dietary sodium increase blood pressure, whereas emerging evidence confirms that the reduction in dietary sodium results in reduced cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effect that reducing dietary sodium can have on cardiovascular events in Canada. METHODS: Based on published meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, blood pressure ...
Baartscheer A - - 2008
Increased activity of the Na+/H+ -exchanger (NHE-1) in heart failure underlies raised [Na+]i causing disturbances of calcium handling. Inhibition of NHE-1, initiated at the onset of pressure/volume overload, prevents development of hypertrophy, heart failure and remodelling. We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NHE-1, initiated at a later stage, would induce ...
Schweiger Teresa A - - 2008
PURPOSE: The role of arginine vasopressin in heart failure and the use of vasopressin receptor antagonists in the treatment of heart failure are reviewed. SUMMARY: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) functions in the regulation of plasma osmolarity and blood pressure. In heart failure, AVP worsens heart failure by causing vasoconstriction of arteries ...
Cook Nancy R - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Salt intake has long been known to influence blood pressure among hypertensive patients, but its effect among those without overt hypertension, as well as its effects on cardiovascular disease itself, have been disputed. This report reviews the evidence for an effect on both blood pressure and cardiovascular ...
Ijarotimi O S - - 2008
This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% ...
Lee Ya Ping - - 2008
1. Prevention of hypertension and improved blood pressure control can be achieved through dietary modification. In particular, population studies and randomised controlled trials have indicated a beneficial effect of both dietary protein and dietary fibre on level of blood pressure. 2. A large population study indicates that an increase in ...
Champagne Catherine M - - 2008
Magnesium plays a role in a number of chronic, disease-related conditions. This article reviews current pertinent literature on magnesium, focusing on hypertension and cardiovascular diseases and implications for relationships with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A major role for magnesium is in the regulation of blood pressure. While data are not ...
Adebawo, O.O.
Fruits and vegetables contain vital components such as potassium, antioxidants, vitamins and folic acid that might contribute to lowering blood pressure which is a major risk factor in cardiovascular disorders. However, the results of the few investigations on the correlation between intake of fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular disease have ...
Fukuda Michio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We have shown that as renal function deteriorated, night-time fall in both blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion were diminished. We have also reported that sodium intake restriction and diuretics both normalized circadian blood pressure rhythm from nondipper to dipper patterns. In this study, we investigated whether an angiotensin ...
Olayemi, S O; ;
Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that salt sensitivity, which is a heritable trait, is a hallmark to hypertension in blacks. Previous studies on twenty-four hour urinary sodium were either incomplete or yielded contradictory results possibly from incomplete urine collection. This study attempted complete urine collection, which involves collection of ...
Mackraj Irene - - 2008
AIM OF THE STUDY: The in vivo effects of Tulbhagia violacea on systemic arterial blood pressure and on the renin-angiotensin system in a Dahl salt-sensitive rat model were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Animals were treated for 14 days intraperitoneally as follows: Tulbhagia violacea (Tvl) (50mg/kg b.w.), captopril (Cap) (10mg/kg b.w.) ...
Santos Sergio F F - - 2008
Hypertension and chronic volume overload are complications often seen in hemodialysis patients. Current hemodialysis practices adopt a standard dialysate sodium prescription that is typically higher than the plasma sodium concentration of most patients. As a general rule, hemodialysis patients have stable predialysis plasma sodium concentrations, and each patient has a ...
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