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Alderman M H - - 1990
Moderate sodium restriction (70 to 100 mEq/day) leads to a fall in blood pressure for only a minority (approximately 25%) of patients with mild hypertension. At the same time, it may also be hazardous by 1) increasing blood pressure in some patients (perhaps 15%); 2) disturbing sleep; 3) reducing intake ...
Mortensen L H - - 1990
Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor peptide synthesized by the vascular smooth muscle endothelium, was chronically infused into male Sprague-Dawley rats to determine whether a long-term increase in circulating endothelin levels would cause a sustained elevation in mean arterial pressure. Rats were catheterized, housed in metabolic cages, and maintained on a fixed ...
Rossi G - - 1990
Left ventricular dP/dt has been reported to be enhanced in the perfused isovolumic paced heart (Langendorff preparation) isolated from sodium-depleted rats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this positive inotropic effect is caused by increased responsiveness of the contractile myofilaments to calcium. To address this question, the calcium-left ...
Khaw K T - - 1990
In a population of 887 men and 1159 women aged 40 to 89 years in southern California, age adjusted systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated significantly with sodium/potassium ratios estimated from casual urine samples. The relationship was apparent over the whole range of blood pressures and urinary electrolyte excretions. An ...
Ying H - - 1990
This paper deals with real-time fuzzy control of mean arterial pressure (MAP) in pigs by regulating the infusion rate of the vasodilator drug, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The fuzzy controller was based on the parallel firing mode of a general-purpose Fuzzy LOgic Production System shell, FLOPS [2,3,16,20]. One of the major ...
Poulter N R - - 1990
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the magnitude, timing, and cause of changes in blood pressure that occur in migrants from a low blood pressure population on moving to an urban area. DESIGN: A controlled longitudinal observational study of migrants as soon after migration as possible and follow up at three, six, 12, ...
Geleijnse J M - - 1990
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sodium and potassium intake and the rise in blood pressure in childhood. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of a cohort of children with annual measurements during an average follow up period of seven years. SETTING: Epidemiological survey of the population of a suburban town in western ...
Herlitz H - - 1990
Evidence exists that volume expansion is associated with the appearance of a circulating sodium transport inhibitor. We have evaluated intra-arterial blood pressure (BP), central venous pressure (CVP), plasma renin activity (PRA), intraerythrocyte sodium content, erythrocyte sodium influx and rate constant of sodium efflux in 10 untreated primary hypertensive men (WHO ...
Cooper D J - - 1990
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether correction of acidemia using bicarbonate improves hemodynamics in patients who have lactic acidosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover study. Each patient sequentially received sodium bicarbonate and equimolar sodium chloride. The order of the infusions was randomized. SETTING: Intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. ...
Evans G H - - 1990
The role of dietary calcium and magnesium in the development of hypertension was studied in nine groups, each consisting of nine spontaneously hypertensive rats aged 8-31 weeks. The animals were fed AIN 76A semi-purified diets varying in calcium (0.075, 0.5 and 2.5%) and magnesium (0.01, 0.05 and 0.75%) concentrations according ...
McCauley Chapman K - - 1990
If the expense or side effects of antihypertensive drug therapy become a serious problem, dietary therapy can be a worthwhile option. The dietary prescription for treatment of hypertension usually involves modifications in energy, fat, and minerals. Weight, blood cholesterol, and triglycerides should be controlled through dietary management. Sodium's effect on ...
Kuta A J - - 1990
The pressures generated by a barium suspension and various solutions of meglumine sodium diatrizoate in water were measured with a manometer. A pressure of 120 mm Hg was produced by a 3.5-foot (105-cm) column of 60% wt/vol barium and a 5-foot (150-cm) column of either a 1:3 or 1:4 solution ...
Feldt-Rasmussen B - - 1990
All IDDM patients without late complications have blood pressures similar to the nondiabetic background population, and those who develop clinical nephropathy in Denmark have no familial predisposition to hypertension. Blood pressure remains normal until after development of microalbuminuria, indicating no primary role for hypertension in the pathogenesis of nephropathy. When ...
Packer M - - 1990
Prehistoric animals and humans consumed a diet low in sodium but high in potassium, and thus, evolutionary forces fostered the development of physiologic systems that conserved sodium and excreted potassium. With the advent of civilized societies, food cooking and processing have greatly increased the sodium but decreased the potassium content ...
Sonnenberg H - - 1990
The role of the medullary collecting duct in pressure natriuresis has not been established. In vivo microcatheterization was used to study the effect of an acute increase in blood pressure induced by bilateral carotid artery and vagal nerve ligation on medullary collecting duct function in anaesthetized rats. Increased fluid and ...
Saunders E - - 1990
The high incidence and prevalence of hypertension in the black community in western societies led to early speculation that the black population consumed more sodium (sodium chloride) than the general population. However, numerous studies have failed to support this conclusion. It seems rather that it is the handling of sodium ...
Schmid M - - 1990
We studied, under outpatient conditions, nine patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who were hypertensive on their usual diet, and nine normotensive healthy probands. The subjects were examined in random order on the 7th day after equilibration on a low-sodium diet (20 mmol/day) and again on the 7th day ...
Bruun N E - - 1990
In a comparative study the influence of changes in dietary sodium intake on blood pressure, renal function, extracellular fluid volume, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic factor and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) was investigated in 12 patients with essential hypertension and in 10 normotensive controls. ...
Kusunoki M - - 1990
We report on the excitatory effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which increased after the oral administration of valproate sodium, on anal canal resting pressure in human beings, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors. We used this drug in order to improve continence after ileoanal anastomosis. Seventeen patients (eight with ulcerative colitis and nine with ...
App E M - - 1990
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited fatal disorder among Caucasians. Bronchial mucus in CF contains more potassium and less sodium, which may be due to increased sodium absorption, resulting in a reduced airway water content. We studied 23 patients with CF after inhalation of normal saline or amiloride ...
Elliott W J - - 1990
The renal and hemodynamic effects of intravenously administered fenoldopam mesylate, a novel dopamine-1 receptor agonist, were compared with those of sodium nitroprusside in 28 patients (18 male; 26 black, two white; average age, 49 +/- 3 years) with an average blood pressure of 219/137 mm Hg, most of whom presented ...
Yasujima M - - 1990
To determine whether endothelin could act as a circulating hormone in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium-water excretion, we assessed the chronic effects of synthetic endothelin on systolic blood pressure, urine volume and urinary sodium excretion in conscious rats, and also evaluated the effects of benidipine or nilvadipine, newly ...
Howe P R - - 1990
We have examined the possibility that defective baroreflex function may contribute to the hypertensive effect of a high dietary sodium intake. In a preliminary study we found that, after interrupting the baroreflex by sino-aortic denervation (SAD), feeding a high-sodium diet to normotensive Wistar/Kyoto rats (WKY) caused their tail-cuff blood pressure ...
Katoh K - - 1990
As part of a physical anthropological and linguistic research in the Cook Islands, blood pressure levels, the degree of obesity, and urine cation excretion were measured in the residents of Rarotonga (the most westernized) and Mangaia (a less westernized island) in 1986. The rise of blood pressure with age was ...
Staessen J - - 1990
With the use of a linear model, the relation between urinary sodium and blood pressure has been reported to be positive, non-significant, or negative. The hypothesis that this relationship is more complex than linear was investigated in two different study populations, which were independently recruited and examined by different observers. ...
Forrester T E - - 1990
Blood pressure and leucocyte sodium content were measured in black Jamaican patients with pre-eclampsia and pregnant controls. Similar measurements were made in a group of mothers who had pre-eclampsia 36-38 weeks previously and their controls. An increase in cell sodium accompanied the high blood pressure in patients with pre-eclampsia. There ...
Ng L L - - 1990
Leukocyte intracellular sodium, as measured by flame photometry, is increased in essential hypertension, especially when associated with a body mass index greater than 27 kg.m-2. A triple isotope method for measuring the isotopically exchangeable pool of intracellular sodium was used to assess if this pool was increased in hypertension. No ...
Reisin E - - 1990
In the present work I focus on the pathophysiological mechanisms that may explain the association between high sodium intake, obesity and high blood pressure. Despite epidemiological and etiological controversies on the link between excess sodium in the diet and elevated arterial pressure, the association could be explained on the basis ...
Margetts B M - - 1990
The answer to the question the title of this paper puts is: No a P/S ratio diet alone does not lower blood pressure! Although a number of cross-sectional and other studies do suggest that there is a relationship between P/S ratio and blood pressure it is not possible in these ...
Magnus M H - - 1990
A survey on heart health knowledge was administered to 180 congregate meal participants at ten sites in two upstate New York counties. Respondents had relatively high awareness of the risks of cigarette smoking and high blood pressure, as well as of the dietary recommendations for lowering blood pressure levels. There ...
Falkner B - - 1990
The effect of long-term oral sodium loading on blood pressure and on stress-induced cardiovascular response was studied in normotensive and marginally hypertensive young adults. The 121 subjects, 18-23 years old, included 38 whites and 83 blacks. Blood pressure and heart rate response to the stress of mental arithmetic was measured ...
Shamiss A - - 1990
The relationship between blood pressure and dietary constituents including potassium, sodium, calcium, and protein was studied in 183 randomly selected men and women, 50-54 years of age. Twenty-five of the subjects were drug-controlled hypertensive patients. Subjects were investigated by automated BP measurements, 24-h urine collection, and blood sampling. Mean systolic ...
Long D - - 1990
Short-course 'sprint' triathlons have become popular in recent years, often as a precursor to the longer full-course triathlons. We undertook a study investigating the haematological and biochemical changes that occur in novice triathletes between the start and finish and after each of the three legs of a short sprint triathlon ...
Nicholls M G - - 1990
Whereas there is no doubt that non-drug treatment of hypertension, and modifications in life-style to prevent an age-associated rise in arterial pressure are attractive concepts, opinions vary as to what advice should be offered to hypertensive patients and to populations at large. No modification in diet or life style has ...
Knapp H R - - 1990
Dietary supplementation with either n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been reported to lower blood pressure in man, and to confer benefits in atherosclerotic vascular disease. Such effects have been suggested to be due to altered in vivo production of vasoactive prostaglandins, but this hypothesis has not been tested ...
Szénási G - - 1990
We studied if the effect of mechanical ventilation induced to keep arterial blood gas values within normal physiological limits has any influence on renal sodium excretion in anesthetized dogs (n = 17) subjected to acute unilateral renal denervation. Compared to the control and the postcontrol periods, ventilation elevated arterial pO2 ...
Watanabe K - - 1990
We analyzed the effects of acute sodium intake on left ventricular performance in 11 healthy normotensive men using Doppler echocardiography. For 2 weeks, they took 2,700-kcal diets containing 6 g and 24 g sodium chloride per day in the low sodium phase (5 days) and in the high sodium phase ...
Costa E de A Ede - - 1990
A 1978 survey of 4,565 people in Rio Grande do Sul obtained interview and blood pressure data as well as casual urine specimens for subsequent sodium and creatinine titrations. Data derived from this survey have demonstrated a variety of complex relationships between blood pressure and sodium, a number of which ...
Beretta-Piccoli C - - 1990
Exchangeable sodium is lower than normal in young male patients with essential hypertension. This may reflect a primary or secondary abnormality. To investigate this question, exchangeable body sodium was measured in 31 normotensive men with positive and 31 normotensive men with negative family history of essential hypertension on a normal ...
Meniga A - - 1990
Polymerisation characteristics of conventional units for curing composite resins are insufficient considering handling feasibilities particularly in the premolar and molar region. There is also hazardous ocular effect of near ultra-violet part of visible spectra. Sodium high pressure lamp technology has been applied to develop a new high pressure zinc lamp, ...
Eliahou H E - - 1990
Body weight reduction in the overweight hypertensive patient was found to reduce blood pressure, irrespective of the daily urinary sodium excretion. Significant blood pressure reductions were achieved while the urine sodium excretion was between 165-185 mEq/day. Salt restriction resulting in a significant decrease of the 24-hour urine sodium from 192-110 ...
Havlik R J - - 1990
Cross-sectional studies relating blood pressure to dietary intake have shown equivocal results, in part due to the inability to take into account the strong genetic component of blood pressure. Intervention studies, using the same subject as his own control, often encounter additional problems when subjects are asked to adhere to ...
- - 1990
A total of 841 healthy men and women aged 25 to 49 years, with diastolic blood pressures of 78 to 89 mm Hg, were randomly assigned to a control treatment group (no dietary counseling) or to one of four dietary counseling treatment groups (reduced calories, reduced sodium, reduced sodium and ...
Hall J E - - 1990
The RAS is part of an extremely powerful feedback system for long-term control of arterial pressure and volume homeostasis as illustrated in Figure 4. Disturbances that tend to lower blood pressure such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and peripheral vasodilation, cause sodium and water retention until blood pressure returns to normal ...
Zimmerman C L - - 1990
To determine whether urinary alkalinization had an effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phenylpropanolamine, a double-blind crossover study was conducted in four healthy, normotensive male volunteers. The subjects received 25 mg immediate-release phenylpropanolamine and either placebo or sodium bicarbonate in a balanced randomized order. The bicarbonate treatment consisted ...
Wu K D - - 1990
Acute responses of blood pressure and natriuresis to intravenous injection of furosemide and saline infusion were evaluated in 38 patients with essential hypertension. Twelve patients whose mean arterial blood pressure decreased by more than 5% at two hours after intravenous administration of 20 mg furosemide were classified as salt-sensitive (SS); ...
Funke E - - 1990
In Intersalt, positive relations between 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion and blood pressure were observed in over 10,000 men and women in 52 centers around the world. Body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking showed different associations with blood pressure in various population groups. We investigated these variables ...
Kristal-Boneh E - - 1991
Research interest in the relationship between dietary calcium and blood pressure stemmed from observations that in some cases hypertension occurs concomitant with calcium abnormalities, and from the search for nonpharmacological ways to prevent or control hypertension. A possible association between dietary calcium and blood pressure has been the subject of ...
Chaudhri S - - 1990
Thirty patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting and who required vasodilator therapy for control of arterial hypertension were allocated to receive either low-dose or high-dose enoximone or placebo infusions. A closed-loop arterial pressure control system was used to assess cardiovascular stability and the amount of sodium nitroprusside required ...
Ala-Houhala I - - 1990
The roles of blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate in the renal handling of albumin, beta 2-microglobulin and sodium were studied by partial correlation analysis in 22 patients with glomerulonephritis and in 25 patients with diabetic nephropathy. The analysis showed that in these proteinuric patients blood pressure may have an ...
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