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Friedel H A - - 1991
Torasemide (torsemide) is a high-ceiling loop diuretic which acts on the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle to promote rapid and marked excretion of water, sodium and chloride. Like furosemide (frusemide), its major site of action is from the luminal side of the cell. Torasemide is at least ...
Brattström A A - - 1991
Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride solution increased blood pressure (BP) and shortened heart period (interbeat-interval: IBI) that is why an impairment in baroreflex regulation is believed to be part of that process. Therefore, in anaesthetized rats (1.35 g urethane/kg BW) the baroreceptor-heart reflex (BHR) was tested before and ...
Weinberger M H - - 1991
Heterogeneity exists among humans in the responses of blood pressure to alterations in sodium and extracellular fluid volume status. A variety of approaches have been utilized to characterize sodium responsivity of blood pressure including rapid volume expansion and contraction and dietary sodium manipulation. Studies conducted in our laboratories over the ...
Widgren B R - - 1991
In an attempt to explore pathophysiological mechanisms relevant for the development for future primary hypertension, we investigated young normotensive men with positive family histories of hypertension (PFH) regarding blood pressure, body weight, systemic and renal haemodynamics as well as cardiovascular hormones and sodium homeostasis. Sixteen subjects with PFH and thirteen ...
Brum J M - - 1991
Physiological studies have clarified the role that the brain has in the interplay between salt balance and hypertension. Neural mechanisms and endocrine secretions play a pivotal role in the adaptation of mammals to changes in the intake and excretion of sodium. Maneuvers that alter the concentration of sodium in the ...
Blaustein M P - - 1991
In summary, for reasons that are not clear, some persons seem to be extremely good at retaining sodium on a high-sodium diet or poor at excreting sodium on a high-sodium intake. This is more frequent in Western hemisphere blacks than in whites in the West or in blacks in Africa. ...
Stamler J - - 1991
INTERSALT, an international cooperative study on electrolytes and other factors related to blood pressure, found, in within-population analyses involving 10,079 persons, a significant positive association between 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure and between the sodium/potassium ratio and systolic blood pressure. These significant findings were derived from analyses ...
Falkner B - - 1991
The interaction of sodium sensitivity and stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity was studied in white and black young adults aged 18-23 years. The cardiovascular response to difficult mental arithmetic was measured before and after 14 days of oral sodium loading (10 g NaCl/day added to the usual diet). A sodium-sensitive blood pressure ...
Kuller L H - - 1991
The relation between dietary intake of sodium chloride and blood pressure levels remains controversial. The critical questions concern whether there is a susceptible subgroup at risk of elevated blood pressure because of sodium chloride consumption. If there is such a subgroup, what is its size and how can it be ...
Cutler J A - - 1991
To test for effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and to provide precise estimates of their magnitude, we conducted an overview of randomized clinical trials that aimed to reduce the intake of sodium in human subjects. We excluded from pooled analyses trials with confounded designs, those that compared intake ...
Prineas R J - - 1991
Studies that examine the effect of altered body weight or dietary sodium on blood pressure level are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on studies that compare the effects of weight reduction or sodium restriction in separate comparison groups or analyze the independent effect of the two intervention modalities in multiple regression ...
Mascioli S - - 1991
The effects of dietary sodium on blood pressure in normotensive adults is not well characterized. The Study of Sodium and Blood Pressure (SNaP) is a randomized, double-blind crossover trial using a placebo or 96 meq sodium in 4-week treatment periods separated by a 2-week washout period. Before capsule treatment periods, ...
Elliott P - - 1991
Evidence from controlled trials of sodium reduction and epidemiological studies are consistent in showing that lower urinary sodium excretion is associated with lower blood pressures (BPs) and quantitatively they give similar estimates of effect. An overview of randomised controlled trials gave the estimate that a reduction in sodium excretion averaging ...
Lind L - - 1991
The relationships between serum potassium and urinary excretion of potassium and blood pressure were determined in an unmedicated adult population with a wide range of blood pressure (mean arterial blood pressure 100-130 mm Hg, n = 71). Inverse correlations between both serum potassium concentration and urinary excretion of potassium and ...
Osborn J L - - 1991
The long-term regulation of arterial pressure requires the maintenance of a balance between sodium and water intake and sodium and water excretion. Normal salt and water balance leads to stable body fluid volumes and the maintenance of normal renal function is critical to establishing extracellular fluid volume homeostasis. This review ...
McCarron D A - - 1991
This commentary sets forth the hypothesis that the putative beneficial or detrimental effects of specific electrolytes on blood pressure regulation in fact reflect highly integrated responses to interactions among these cationic and anionic species. In this paradigm, the impact of any given intake of an electrolyte on arterial pressure will ...
Elliott P - - 1991
The observational data relating salt and blood pressure (excluding INTERSALT) are reviewed. Important methodological difficulties and biases are inherent to both across- and within-population studies and confuse their interpretation. Across-population studies are positive but rely on data drawn from the international literature based on a variety of unstandardized field methods; ...
McCarron D A - - 1991
The intervention trials intended to assess prospectively the efficacy of increasing calcium intake to lower blood pressure have in general been inconclusive in their results. If, however, they are evaluated in terms of what had been suggested by the epidemiological surveys as to the conditions that would have to be ...
Balsano F - - 1991
In the first part of the text the main elements of renal physiology are mentioned as well as the role played by sodium-modulating hormones in the preservation of sodium and water homeostasis. A personal contribution concerns the release as well as the circadian rhythm of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and ...
Oksendal A N - - 1991
The effects of adding NaCl to the non-ionic contrast medium iohexol (Omnipaque) were investigated in the isolated rat heart. Iohexol (150 mgI/ml) with 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 145 mM NaCl added and the ionic dimeric compound ioxaglate (Hexabrix 160 mgI/ml) containing approximately 75 mM NaCl were examined. Coronary flow ...
Kesteloot H - - 1991
The relationship between dietary cations and blood pressure is complex. Epidemiological evidence points to a significant independent positive relationship between dietary sodium and blood pressure. The same evidence favours the existence of a significant negative relationship between dietary potassium and blood pressure. On a molar basis 1 mmol of potassium ...
Kawano Y - - 1991
To examine if chronic sodium loading on the brain produces sustained increases in blood pressure, water intake, and sodium excretion, hypertonic (0.5 M and 1.5 M) and isotonic (0.15 M) NaCl solutions were infused into the third ventricle of Sprague-Dawley rats at a rate of 5.5 microliters/hr for 7 days. ...
Sullivan J M - - 1991
Several laboratories have examined the relation between salt intake and blood pressure in both experimental animals and humans. The human studies have used widely varying methodologies and different criteria for sodium sensitivity. Nonetheless, these studies have produced convincing data that the blood pressure of some individuals is far more sensitive ...
Aoki K - - 1991
We evaluated the effects of an increased serum potassium level, the result of a potassium infusion, on the pressor response to infused calcium in normotensive men. Potassium infusion (0.38 mmol/kg per h for 2 h) increased serum potassium by 1.1 mmol/l with no changes in blood pressure, cardiac output or ...
Göbel B O - - 1991
Essential hypertension is characterized by polygenic inheritance and quantitative and/or qualitative abnormalities of membrane transport systems may function as intermediate phaenotypes. The present review attempts to evaluate the importance of sodium transport systems such as the sodium pump, cotransport and countertransport as aetiological or pathogenetic factors involved in primary hypertension. ...
Overlack A - - 1991
In several trials, a blood pressure lowering effect of potassium chloride could be demonstrated. However, it is not known if other potassium salts are also effective. In a randomized cross-over trial, 12 patients with essential hypertension were treated for 8 weeks with placebo and 120 mmol potassium per day. Potassium ...
Zwiauer K - - 1991
In order to investigate the association of urinary excretion of sodium and potassium with blood pressure, 72 prepubertal healthy children between 8 and 9 years were investigated in a cross sectional study. We determined anthropometric data, diastolic (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium ...
Grobbee D E - - 1991
This article addresses the methodology of sodium sensitivity assessment. There have been reports to suggest that a high sodium intake is a cause of elevated blood pressure and trials to indicate that a reduction in sodium intake may reduce blood pressure that is already high; the implications of these findings ...
Hiraide A - - 1991
Metabolic changes in six severely affected tetanus patients suffering from characteristic labile hypertension (maximum systolic blood pressure greater than 200 mmHG, maximum diurnal change in systolic pressure greater than 100 mmHg) were investigated. Daily urinary excretion of urea nitrogen increased gradually from the onset of opisthotonus, reached a peak value ...
Shapiro J I - - 1990
Rats subjected to ammonium chloride-induced metabolic acidosis were given alkalinization therapy with either sodium bicarbonate or Carbicarb. Ammonium chloride-induced severe metabolic acidosis had minimal effect on mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. This acidosis resulted in a small but statistically significant fall in intracellular liver pH (pHi) as measured ...
Vik-Mo H - - 1990
It has recently been suggested that the addition of sodium to low osmolality contrast media may reduce the incidence of ventricular fibrillation and conduction disturbances during coronary angiography. In a randomized, double blind study of 30 patients undergoing coronary angiography we therefore examined the electrophysiological and hemodynamic effects of the ...
Bruce N G - - 1990
The relationships between blood pressure and the concentrations of urinary sodium, potassium and creatinine have been examined using casual urine specimens collected from a random sample of 1,556 men aged 40-59. Partial correlations with systolic blood pressure after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, and town showed ...
Picolet H - - 1990
To determine a possible influence on sodium balance or blood pressure of a normal treatment with dydrogesterone, a randomized cross-over double-blind study was performed on 22 healthy young women. Each woman had (in random order) 1 cycle of treatment with dydrogesterone (20 mg/day during the last 12 days of the ...
Nakagawa M - - 1990
Urinary immunoreactive endogenous digitalis-like substance (EDLS) excretion was studied in gradually reduced renal mass rats (RRM). Urinary EDLS increased immediately after the start of 1% NaCl ingestion, then it returned to the basal level 2 weeks later. Both urinary sodium excretion and urinary EDLS were significantly higher in 3/6 and ...
Kimura G - - 1990
The differences between sodium sensitive and sodium retaining hypertension were theoretically considered using a water tank model of body fluid volume-blood pressure regulation. If an outlet valve is attached to a tank with a base area corresponding to the reciprocal of total peripheral resistance (TPR) and water is poured into ...
Orwoll E S - - 1990
To better understand the effects of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on blood pressure, we examined systolic and diastolic blood pressures in 65 men treated with 1000 mg Ca/d and 1000 IU cholecalciferol/d or placebo for 3 y. Subjects were normotensive and had no medical condition and took no medication known ...
Reid A F - - 1990
This study investigated the ability of two diuretics, amiloride and frusemide, to prevent the development of ACTH induced hypertension in conscious sheep. Infusion of amiloride (20 mg/day) or frusemide (50 mg/day) for three days into normotensive sheep did not have any significant effects on blood pressure. Amiloride blocked ACTH-induced hypertension ...
Pan W H - - 1990
The relationships between salt, urinary calcium and blood pressure were studied in 401 middle-aged Chinese men. Seven overnight urine samples were collected. Three consecutive blood pressure measurements were made on two occasions. The 24-h urinary sodium estimate was positively associated with both mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P less ...
Bååth L - - 1990
The influence on contractile force (CF) and the propensity for ventricular fibrillation (VF) from infusing the non-ionic contrast medium iohexol during normal (75 cm H2O) and reduced perfusion pressure (35 cm H2O) were investigated in the isolated rabbit heart. Both during normal and reduced perfusion pressure iohexol (150 mg I/ml) ...
Elliott P - - 1990
Standardised data on blood pressure, 24 h urinary electrolyte excretion, body mass index (BMI) and alcohol intake were collected as part of the INTERSALT study in 598 men and women aged 20-59 years, selected randomly from three population groups in the United Kingdom. For the three centres combined, mean systolic ...
Koopman H - - 1990
In a general primary care practice the feasibility and the effects of dietary counselling in mild and moderate hypertension were studied for a period of 18 months. Significant decreases in blood pressure and sodium excretion compared to baseline occurred, while serum lipids showed transient improvement. Of the original 35 participants, ...
Cutler J A - - 1990
We reviewed the research literature on the epidemiologic relationship between blood pressure levels and calcium, with an emphasis on dietary intake. A conceptual framework for causal inference is summarized; then the designs and results of observational and intervention studies are presented. Of 25 reports of observational studies relating intake of ...
Mikami H - - 1990
Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary calcium deficiency may lead to the development of hypertension. This article reviews findings in human trials on calcium intervention with special reference to the responses of blood pressure and biochemical variables. Calcium supplementation consistently resulted in decreased blood pressure in a subset ...
Little P - - 1990
An 8-week combination low sodium, low fat, high fibre diet was compared to the individual components of this diet in a controlled trial using 193 patients already on treatment for essential hypertension. No significant changes were observed in the high fibre group. The low sodium group showed a decrease in ...
Norsk P - - 1990
Because results in literature are discrepant with regard to the effects of water immersion (WI) on the release of norepinephrine (NE) in humans, the following study was performed. Simultaneous measurements of plasma NE, central cardiovascular variables, and renal sodium excretion were conducted in eight normal male subjects on 2 study ...
Matsuoka H - - 1990
Blood pressure (BP) becomes more sodium and body fluid sensitive as renal function deteriorates. Thus, hypertension in chronic renal failure is mostly of the sodium sensitive type. We studied whether the increased sodium sensitivity (SS) can be restored to normal on the maintenance phase of hemodialysis (HD) therapy. Body weight ...
Krishna G G - - 1990
Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies suggest that potassium is an important regulator of blood pressure. Surveys conducted in widely divergent geographic locations indicate higher prevalence of hypertension in populations ingesting diets low in potassium. Amelioration of hypokalemia lowers blood pressure in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension in rats and in essential hypertensive patients ...
Luft F C - - 1990
To test the hypothesis that NaCl and NaHCO3 have divergent effects on blood pressure, we carried out a randomly allocated, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 10 mildly hypertensive and 10 normal subjects. They ingested a fixed daily basal diet of 60 mmol sodium and chloride, 60 mmol potassium and 14 mmol ...
Passmore J C - - 1990
It has been reported that both sodium and chloride ions must be ingested to induce the elevated blood pressure of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-sensitive hypertension. This study was designed to determine the separate roles of the sodium and chloride ions in the altered hemodynamics underlying the high blood pressure. DOCA pellets ...
Kjeldsen S E - - 1990
In the present study we aimed at evaluating the intracellular concentrations of magnesium, potassium and sodium in 50-year-old, otherwise healthy white men with never treated, essential hypertension (n = 12) and in normotensive control subjects (n = 12) matched for age, sex, race, height, weight and smoking habits. Intraerythrocyte magnesium ...
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