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Staessen J - - 1991
The usefulness of whole-day, daytime (waking to retiring time) and overnight urine samples for assessing the relationship between blood pressure and sodium intake was examined in 301 male London civil servants, aged from 37 to 58 years old. Systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP) averaged 126/78 mmHg and the ...
Simón M A - - 1991
It has been proposed that in liver cirrhosis portal hypertension causes splanchnic vasodilation and this induces blood volume expansion to maintain blood pressure. The current study was designed to explore the homeostatic response to sodium restriction, a maneuver aiming to contract blood volume, in compensated cirrhosis. Mean blood pressure, sympathetic ...
Kette F F Department of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Chicago Medical School, IL - - 1991
--To investigate the effects of hypertonic buffer solutions on coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) and resuscitability during experimental closed-chest cardiac resuscitation. --Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. --Mammalian research laboratory. --Forty-four domestic pigs. --Cardiac arrest was induced by ventricular fibrillation in mechanically ventilated pigs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Precordial compression was started at the ...
Alving K - - 1991
1. The influence of nedocromil sodium on the nasal and bronchial effects induced by allergen, platelet-activating factor (PAF), capsaicin, histamine and bradykinin aerosol challenge in ascaris-sensitized and pentobarbitone-anaesthetized pigs was studied. Blood flow changes in the bronchial and nasal circulation were measured with ultrasonic flow probes around the supplying arteries, ...
Jacobsen E A - - 1991
In order to study the electrophysiologic and hemodynamic effects of sodium addition to low-osmolality contrast media during coronary arteriography, eight dogs with surgically opened thoraces were studied. Epicardial monophasic action potentials (MAP) were recorded from the contrast perfused area, using suction electrodes. Six milliliters of iohexol, iohexol with addition of ...
Ledingham J M - - 1991
After nephrectomy, the level of arterial pressure is determined by the permitted degree of fluid volume expansion. With kidneys present, the fundamental requirement for fluid volume homeostasis is met by maintaining the balance between sodium and water intake and output. When one-kidney, one-clip (1-K,1-C) hypertension develops on a free diet, ...
Ames R P - - 1991
Hyperlipidemia is prevalent in hypertension, but the cause of this association is unknown. Treatment of hypertension with thiazide diuretics accentuates the hyperlipidemia, perhaps by causing potassium or sodium depletion. To assess the role of hypokalemia in thiazide hyperlipidemia, I measured lipid concentrations while using a spironolactone-thiazide regimen to prevent potassium ...
Smith H T - - 1991
The data regarding the value of manipulating electrolytes in hypertension are controversial. It appears there are subsets of hypertensive patients who respond with lowering of blood pressure in conjunction with changes in intake of sodium, potassium, and calcium. The information regarding phosphorus and magnesium is less convincing. This paper examines ...
Wu Y - - 1991
In this study, 24-h urine specimens were collected on 3 consecutive days from 181 adolescents (94 boys and 87 girls), aged 12-16 years, in a rural district--Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province, and sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium levels were determined. Dietary intake of the four electrolytes and blood pressure were measured in ...
Friedman S M - - 1991
We have recently shown that changes in blood sodium concentration within the limited range of +/- 15 mmol/l induce changes in blood pressure which are directly related to intracellular sodium concentration and inversely related to the transmembrane sodium gradient. It followed from this that the blood pressure response to an ...
Lind L - - 1991
Both experimental and epidemiological studies support the idea of magnesium supplementation in essential hypertension. We added 15 mmol Mg to a free diet in 71 subjects with mild essential hypertension or a high-normal blood pressure in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study over 6 months. The treatment, which raised urinary magnesium excretion ...
Salonen J T - - 1991
Although obesity and alcohol intake as well as dietary sodium, potassium and magnesium are the major non-genetic determinants of blood pressure levels, interest has recently been stimulated in the function of fatty acids and antioxidants in the aetiology of hypertension. In the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study both ...
Campese V M - - 1991
The role of dietary sodium in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension has stimulated a great deal of interest and investigation in recent years. There are epidemiologic studies in the literature that suggest a link between dietary sodium intake and the prevalence of hypertension. However, not all patients are prone to ...
Karppanen H - - 1991
The mineral elements sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium play a central role in the normal regulation of blood pressure. In particular, these mineral elements have important interrelationships in the control of arterial resistance. These elements, especially sodium and potassium, also regulate the fluid balance of the body and, hence, influence ...
Nosadini R - - 1991
The rate of red blood cell sodium-lithium countertransport is elevated only in a subgroup of patients with essential hypertension. We have therefore compared renal and cardiac function and morphology in two groups of hypertensive patients with high (n = 23) or normal (n = 22) sodium-lithium countertransport (mean +/- SEM: ...
Krishna G G - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of potassium depletion on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, crossover study, with each patient serving as his or her own control. SETTING: Clinical research center at a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twelve patients with hypertension. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were placed on 10-day ...
McCarron D A - - 1991
Epidemiologic findings continue to add to the body of evidence supporting a relationship between calcium intake and blood pressure. These findings also indicate that there is a threshold of the potential protective effect of adequate calcium intake, below which the risk of hypertension increases at a greater rate. The set ...
Sato Y - - 1991
This study attempted to evaluate the effect of anion associated with sodium loading on the development of angiotensin II (AII)-induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension was induced by intraperitoneal infusion of AII(125 ng/min) for 12 days via miniosmotic pump (systolic blood pressure on day 12, 143 +/- 3 mm Hg). High ...
Creager M A - - 1991
Sodium may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension by impairing arterial baroreceptor reflex function. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine whether a high sodium diet depresses arterial baroreceptor reflex function in normotensive humans, and 2) determine whether alterations in baroreceptor reflex function are related to changes in ...
Singer D R - - 1991
When the function of the renin system is inhibited, blood pressure becomes more dependent on changes in sodium and water balance. Diuretics alone and sodium restriction alone are additive to converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. However, it is not known if these two ways of reducing sodium balance are additive in ...
Gómez-Marín O - - 1991
The Sosium-Potassium Blood Pressure Trial in Children (NaKS), is a clinical trial in a healthy, free living population of children and adolescents. It is designed to test the hypotheses that a reduction in dietary sodium and/or an increase in potassium intake will decrease the rate of rise in blood pressure ...
Textor S C - - 1991
Studies of normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents offer the potential to identify inherited abnormalities that contribute to essential hypertension. We compared renal and systemic hemodynamic responses to saline infusion between normotensive sons of two hypertensive parents (SOHT) and sons of two normotensive parents (SONT) selected from the general population of ...
Sen S - - 1991
Sodium has been identified as a causal factor in the development of hypertension in experimental animal models as well as in clinical human subjects. Sodium is also known to play a role in modulating myocardial mass and its pattern of myosin isozyme distribution. In the rodent model, the accumulation of ...
Behbehani K - - 1991
Automation of drug delivery for control of mean arterial blood pressure is highly desirable in a number of clinical applications. An integrating self-tuning control strategy for control of mean arterial blood pressure using sodium nitroprusside is presented. Next to robust performance, the most attractive feature of the controller is its ...
Doktor H S - - 1991
The sodium dependence of recovery of cytoplasmic pH (pHi) after an acid load was studied in platelets from 15 patients with untreated essential hypertension (mean arterial pressure 117 +/- 2.3 mmHg, mean +/- SE) and in 15 normotensive controls (mean arterial pressure 90 +/- 2.2 mmHg). Proton flux was measured ...
Nebbia C - - 1991
In pigs and other food producing animals, relatively little is known about the mode of action of excess selenium. This study reports the cardiovascular effects brought about in anaesthetised Landrace pigs by 2 mg selenium kg-1 bodyweight intravenously as either sodium selenite or dimethylselenide. Sodium selenite dosing was characterised by ...
Pedrinelli R - - 1991
To evaluate the importance of an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor in the pathogenesis of low renin human hypertension, the urinary excretion of a digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) was measured in eight patients with primary aldosteronism (n = 5, with adenomas) during two sequential 1-week periods of low- (20 mmol/l NaCl) ...
Cappuccio F P - - 1991
Both epidemiologic and clinical studies have suggested that an increase in potassium intake may lower blood pressure. However, the results of prospective clinical trials looking at the effect of oral potassium supplements on blood pressure have yielded conflicting results. For this reason, we reviewed 19 clinical trials examining the same ...
Cobiac L - - 1991
1. The effects on blood pressure of dietary fish oil, sodium restriction and a combination of both strategies were examined in a short-term dietary intervention study of 50 healthy elderly subjects (average age 67 years) with mean initial systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 133 and 77 mmHg, respectively. 2. ...
Seto S - - 1991
Changes in sodium-22 turnover and total body potassium (TBK) were studied during acute (within 2 weeks after clipping) and chronic (12-14 weeks after clipping) phases in two-kidney, one-clip (2k, 1c) hypertensive rabbits by using a whole body counter. Sodium-22 injected intravenously was eliminated more rapidly in hypertensive rabbits than in ...
Iso H - - 1991
The relation between dietary calcium and blood pressure was examined in 1,928 men, ages 40-69 years, from five geographic and two occupational populations in Japan. Dietary calcium intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall in systematic samples of participants of population-based cardiovascular surveys from 1983 to 1987. The means of ...
Frost C D - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the estimates of the size of the association between blood pressure and sodium intake derived from studies of individuals within populations can be quantitatively reconciled with our estimates derived from comparisons of the average blood pressure and sodium intake between different populations. DESIGN: Examination of data ...
Law M R - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the quantitative relation between blood pressure and sodium intake. DESIGN: Data were analysed from published reports of blood pressure and sodium intake for 24 different communities (47 000 people) throughout the world. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Difference in blood pressure for a 100 mmol/24 h difference in sodium ...
Passmore J C - - 1991
The effect of selective dietary sodium and (or) chloride loading on blood pressure and renal blood flow (RBF) in the rat angiotensin II (AII) model of hypertension was determined. AII (200 ng/min) or saline was infused intraperitoneally. Diets were provided with either high or low concentrations of sodium, chloride or ...
Weinsier R L - - 1991
PURPOSE: Although weight reduction generally lowers blood pressure, it is unclear whether the response is due to concurrent dietary changes or to reduced body mass itself. In this study, the independent effects of energy restriction and weight reduction were examined prospectively in 24 obese, hypertensive, normoglycemic women whose dietary intake ...
Churchill S E - - 1991
The purpose of this study was to characterize the renal response to central volume expansion using lower body positive pressure (LBPP) in the adult male squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and water and plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured during a control day, 7 days of LBPP, ...
Camargo M J - - 1991
We studied the effects of the nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, DuP 753, on blood pressure, body weight, plasma renin activity, sodium excretion, and mortality in male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp) fed a 4% NaCl diet for 12 weeks. The rise in blood pressure, due to high sodium intake, ...
Löwik M R - - 1991
Associations between blood pressure and nutrition-related variables (body mass index, dietary intake, and 24-hr excretion of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium in the urine) were investigated in men (n = 138) and women (n = 117) 65-79 years old not using drugs known to affect blood pressure and not on ...
He J - - 1991
The relations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium to blood pressure were investigated in four groups of men (119 high-mountain Yi farmers, 114 mountainside Yi farmers, 89 Yi migrants, and 97 Han people) with a wide range of electrolyte intake in Puge County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Electrolytes ...
Sanchez R A - - 1991
We studied total exchangeable sodium, ion transport activity at maximal rate, and erythrocyte Na+ content in response to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in mild-to-moderate essential hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Twenty-five patients (mean age 56 years, range 40-62 years) who had abnormal red blood cell Na(+)-K(+)-Cl- cotransport or red ...
He J - - 1991
The Yi People Study was conducted in Puge County, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China. Four population groups were surveyed for risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Included were two groups of Yi farmers living either in a high mountainous area in extremely remote villages at or above 2,750 meters elevation, ...
López C - - 1991
It has been proposed that the initial event of sodium retention in cirrhosis is a peripheral arteriolar vasodilation causing underfilling of the arterial vascular compartment and stimulation of the renin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems. To test this hypothesis, systolic blood pressure, sodium balance and urinary excretion of sodium and aldosterone ...
Barden A - - 1991
To determine the early effect of potassium loading on blood pressure regulatory mechanisms, the effect of 4 days' supplementation with 80 mmol/day KCl on blood pressure and vasodilator hormone release was examined using a double-blind crossover design in normotensive women with a baseline potassium excretion of 51.8 +/- 2.7 mmol/day. ...
Stenvinkel P - - 1991
In 10 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 10 controls of similar age quantitative segmental handling of sodium was estimated by lithium clearance. In the CF group, there was a tendency for an increased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased absolute proximal sodium reabsorption. The fractional distal sodium reabsorption was ...
McGarvey S T - - 1991
We studied the association between the prenatal diets of 212 mothers assessed by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and the blood pressure of their infants. Prenatal potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes were measured and adjusted for total caloric intake. Infant blood pressure was measured at 2-3 days and at 1, ...
Howe P R - - 1991
The relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in adolescents was examined in a dietary intervention study. One hundred schoolchildren aged 11-14 years and representing the top, middle and bottom deciles of the blood pressure range completed a crossover protocol requiring them to raise and lower their sodium intake for ...
Shah J - - 1991
Several investigators have demonstrated the antihypertensive properties of potassium in various models of hypertension. The present studies were conducted to determine whether central mechanisms contribute to these salutary effects of potassium. In Inactin-anaesthetized rats, intracerebroventricular administration of KCl solutions (0.375, 0.75 and 1.25 mumol/5 microliters) produced concentration-dependent reductions in arterial ...
Carney S L - - 1991
Eleven patients on a normal diet with mild to moderate essential hypertension satisfactorily treated with diverse hypotensive agents entered a randomized double-blind cross-over study to evaluate the effect of additional sodium chloride (100 mmol slow sodium) compared with placebo on blood pressure control over a 6 week period. Despite excellent ...
Boegehold M A - - 1991
Recent evidence indicates that the anion accompanying sodium plays an important role in determining the magnitude of the blood pressure increase in response to a high dietary intake of NaCl. The purpose of this review is to describe studies of blood pressure responses to selective dietary sodium loading (without chloride) ...
Hoag J E - - 1991
Long-term treatment with cromolyn sodium will reduce airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with bronchial asthma. Short-term use of cromolyn sodium (less than 6 weeks) is effective in preventing seasonal increases in allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness. Cromolyn sodium therapy for greater than 12 weeks appears to be beneficial in reducing baseline hyperresponsiveness. The effect ...
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