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Results 601 - 650 of 1548
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Suzuki A - - 1993
Effects of high-pressure treatment on the ultrastructure and thermal behaviour of beef intramuscular collagen were investigated to clarify the pressure effects on background toughness attributed to the presence of connective tissue in the muscle. No significant differences in the ultrastructure, electrophoretic pattern, thermal solubility and thermogram of differential scanning calorimetric ...
Kynast-Gales S A - - 1992
The effect of consumption of 400 mg vs 1,500 mg of dietary calcium per day was examined in 13 male volunteers who had been diagnosed as hypertensive. Dietary calcium consumption was varied by manipulation of the intake of dairy products over 4-week periods. Caffeine intake (mean = 500 mg/day) was ...
Khraibi A A - - 1992
Renal interstitial hydrostatic pressure (RIHP) has been implicated in the regulation of sodium excretion. Studies using vasodilators and other maneuvers to increase RIHP have found a significant correlation between RIHP and sodium excretion. Since correlative studies do not prove a cause-and-effect relationship, it is not known whether the rise in ...
Hamlyn J M - - 1992
PURPOSE: To review the evidence that ouabain and other digitalis-like factors are present in the human circulation under normal circumstances and in various disorders of fluid and electrolyte balance that are associated with hypertension. CONTENT: Recent evidence on a number of ouabain-related issues includes (1) evidence for the existence of ...
Matsuura H - - 1992
In order to clarify the direct effects of high blood pressure on erythrocytic intracellular sodium concentration ([Na+]i) and sodium transport systems, a static pressure of 2.5 atm was applied to whole blood in plastic syringes at room temperature for 5 and 24 h. In the control samples, 5 h incubation ...
Ascherio A - - 1992
BACKGROUND: An effect of diet in determining blood pressure is suggested by epidemiological studies, but the role of specific nutrients is still unsettled. METHODS AND RESULTS: The relation of various nutritional factors with hypertension was examined prospectively among 30,681 predominantly white US male health professionals, 40-75 years old, without diagnosed ...
Rutherford P A - - 1992
Inheritance is a major determinant of increased sodium-lithium countertransport (SLC) activity in hypertension. However, hyperlipidaemia can also cause increased SLC activity in some individuals and it is difficult to distinguish this effect from the effect of hypertension. Erythrocyte SLC activity and its kinetic determinants sodium affinity (km) and maximum velocity ...
Cappuccio F P - - 1992
Epidemiological studies of diet and blood pressure support the concept that some dietary nutrients are strongly related to blood pressure and are amenable to modifications, with a likely impact on the incidence of hypertension and of related vascular events. For other potential nutrients, the evidence is more difficult to obtain. ...
Linz W - - 1992
Cardiovascular effects of the novel potassium channel opener (3S,4R)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-4-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-6- phenylsulfonylchromane hemihydrate (Hoe 234, CAS 132014-21-2) were investigated in rats, dogs and monkeys. In all species and independent of the route of administration Hoe 234 lowered systemic blood pressure accompanied with increases in heart rate. In rats after intravenous (i.v.) application ...
Foy B D - - 1992
Sodium spectroscopy and imaging sequences designed to emphasize fast T2 decay or the multiple quantum signal have previously demonstrated a high contrast between normal and pathologic tissue which may be due to changes in intracellular versus extracellular sodium distribution. Since alterations in the amount of signal with fast T2 decay ...
Falkner B - - 1992
The relationship of blood pressure sensitivity to sodium with plasma insulin concentration was examined in young adult (22 to 28 yr) blacks (N = 45). The study included normotensive and borderline hypertensive subjects. Blood pressure sensitivity to sodium was determined by the change in mean blood pressure after 14 days ...
Deal J E - - 1992
Between 1975 and 1985, 454 patients with hypertension were admitted to the Renal Unit of the Hospital for Sick Children. A total of 110 (24%) patients presented with severely raised blood pressures deemed to require emergency management. At presentation 84/110 had symptoms and signs of long standing hypertension with neurological ...
Woo J - - 1992
The prevalence of hypertension and the relationship between blood pressure, age, body mass index (BMI) and urinary cations from casual urine specimens were examined in 1,513 Chinese employees of a public utility company and non-medical personnel of a district hospital. The prevalence of hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure greater ...
Leenen F H - - 1992
To assess the interaction of dietary sodium and the antihypertensive response to a calcium antagonist, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were given a diet of regular or increased (120 v 342 mumol Na+/g food) sodium intake from 4 until 16 weeks of age. Nifedipine was added at 10 weeks of age. ...
Whitworth J A - - 1992
ACTH and adrenocortical steroids have been known to raise blood pressure since their introduction into clinical practice. Our experimental studies in normal subjects show that ACTH reproducibly increases blood pressure in association with a rise in cardiac output, plasma and extracellular fluid volumes and exchangeable sodium. The rise in pressure ...
Yamada K - - 1992
1. The effects of intravenous injection of Fab fragments of anti-digoxin IgG (Digibind) on the changes in blood pressure, urine volume and urinary sodium excretion after intracerebroventricular infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid with normal or high sodium concentration were examined in anaesthetized rats. 2. The biological efficacy of Digibind was ...
Durlach J - - 1992
Magnesium deficit may be considered as a cardiovascular risk because of its aetiopathogenic role in the genesis of atherogenous dyslipidaemias and the so-called "idiopathic" mitral valve prolapse. It does not, however, constitute a major antihypertensive factor, though it may sometimes be an accessory co-factor. Plasma magnesium is generally normal in ...
Sharma A M - - 1992
Blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension is raised by sodium chloride but not by nonchloride sodium salts. Although a high sodium chloride diet is known to augment the pressor response to norepinephrine and angiotensin II, the effect of nonchloride sodium salts on pressor responsiveness has not been studied so ...
Osborn J W - - 1992
To determine the extent to which baroreceptor function is a determinant of salt-dependent hypertension, we studied the cardiovascular and renal responses to increasing dietary sodium chloride in sinoaortic-denervated (n = 9) and sham-denervated (n = 9) Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were instrumented with an arterial catheter for measurement of arterial pressure ...
Zhu K - - 1992
Most intrapopulation epidemiologic studies have been unable to find a significant association between sodium intake and blood pressure. The researchers have offered 2 opposing explanations: the hypothesis of the genetic susceptibility to sodium and the hypothesis of a weak association in general population. The evidence for and against each hypothesis ...
Hamet P - - 1992
Nutritional calcium and sodium are considered to be important regulators of blood pressure. This study was performed on 182 randomly selected Canadians from Montréal to test the relative contribution of these ions to systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as their interaction with other demographic indices. Multiple analysis of ...
Severini C - - 1992
Extracts of the skin of the Australian myobatrachid frog Pseudophryne coriacea (PS) displayed striking, reversible and, in part, dose-dependent effects on the systemic blood pressure and the heart of the rabbit. Similarly to the results obtained in the rat, the blood pressure response in the rabbit consisted in an initial ...
Grosmaire E K - - 1992
Postoperative hypertension, a common occurrence after cardiac surgery, is frequently controlled by sodium nitroprusside infusions. Computer-controlled administration of this drug has been shown to be superior to manually controlled systems for maintaining the patient's blood pressure within an optimal range. The impact of this technology on patients, nurses, and hospitals ...
Kirby R F - - 1992
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an important animal model of human essential hypertension. During the first month of life, increased retention of sodium is present in the SHR which appears to be mediated by the renin-angiotensin system. The present review will discuss the role that increased activity of the ...
Zito M - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Old age is associated with impairment of the normal homeostatic response to cardiovascular stress. The purpose of our study was to determine whether a physiologic stress, such as sodium depletion, produces different, age-dependent effects on the blood pressure and heart rate profile in old and young subjects. DESIGN: Blood ...
Martin J F - - 1992
A supervisory adaptive controller has been designed for the closed-loop control of mean arterial pressure during cardiac surgery, using sodium nitroprusside. This controller consists of a pole-placement and proportional-plus-integral feedback regulator, multiple-model adaptation, and a supervisor. The pole-placement and proportional-plus-integral regulator was designed to meet aggressive step response characteristics. Multiple-model ...
Harmsen E - - 1992
In humans, high sodium intake not only increases the blood pressure, and thus can cause left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), but also appears to increase LVH independent of this increase in blood pressure. In both normo- and hyper-tensive rats the hypertrophic effect of increased dietary sodium intake on the heart has ...
Martin J F - - 1992
This paper presents a dual approach to adaptive control of arterial blood pressure using sodium nitroprusside. In the clinical environment, a controller must be aggressive to achieve specific step response characteristics (less than 10 min settling time, less than 10 mm Hg overshoot), yet conservative enough to prevent overreactions to ...
Mufunda J - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of acute alterations in sodium intake upon the blood pressure and hormone levels of young Zimbabwean men. DESIGN: Blood pressure, 24-h urinary electrolyte excretion and plasma concentrations of angiotensin II, aldosterone, and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured in ...
Haythornthwaite J A - - 1992
The present study examined the blood pressure effects of a high sodium intake administered during two levels of behavioral stress. In this double-blind study, 32 medical students were randomly assigned to receive either sodium chloride (high sodium) or placebo tablets (usual sodium). Resting blood pressure and body weight were recorded ...
Kenny D - - 1992
Dietary fish oil supplementation has received considerable interest as a non-pharmacological adjuvant in the treatment of several diseases, especially hypertension. However, epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence conflict. A hypothesis is proposed that fish oil, may have a variable effect on vascular reactivity and consequently, blood pressure. A mechanism is proposed ...
Smith S R - - 1992
Epidemiologic surveys, experimental studies in animals, and clinical trials in young and middle-aged patients with hypertension indicate that dietary potassium lowers blood pressure. The mechanism of the antihypertensive effect is not well defined. Variations in serum potassium within the physiologic range may directly affect vascular smooth muscle tone. Potassium may ...
Haibara A S - - 1992
The present study investigates the participation and interaction between cholinergic and opiate receptors of the medial septal area (MSA) in the regulation of Na+, K+ and water excretion, drinking and blood pressure regulation. Male Holtzman rats were implanted with stainless steel cannulae opening into the MSA. Na+, K+ and water ...
Stingo A J - - 1992
Studies were performed in two groups of anesthetized dogs (n = 5 per group) to determine the cardiovascular and renal actions of synthetic C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Systemic infusion of CNP (group 1; 10 and 50 ng.kg-1.min-1 iv) resulted in marked cardiovascular hemodynamic effects characterized by a decrease in mean ...
Hall J E - - 1992
In normal subjects, high sodium intake causes little change in mean arterial pressure (MAP). However, MAP is sodium sensitive after reduction of kidney mass. The present study examined the role of increased renal artery pressure and decreased angiotensin II (ANG II) formation in maintaining sodium balance during high sodium intake ...
Laurenzi M - - 1992
The relation between the maximal velocity of red blood cell sodium-lithium countertransport and blood pressure/hypertension has been studied in 2,748 men and women aged 25-74 years who participated in the 1983-85 baseline examination of the Gubbio Population Study, an epidemiologic investigation performed in a hill town of north central Italy. ...
Cobiac L - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of dietary fish oil supplementation with sodium restriction on blood pressure in the elderly. DESIGN: In a double-blind dietary intervention lasting 4 weeks, parallel comparisons of blood pressure were made in volunteers assigned to one of four treatment groups: fish oil and low sodium; fish oil ...
Leddin D J - - 1992
The suitability of the young pig for studies of intestinal transport was investigated by determination of net water, sodium, and potassium absorption, and morphometry in jejunum and ileum. Active net absorption was seen in both jejunum and ileum. There was no difference in absorption between segments and there was a ...
Knöbl P N - - 1992
Although the therapy of airway obstruction with theophylline is well established, unwanted side effects can occur: overdosage and reactions to ethylendiamine, an additive to increase the solubility of theophylline. Frequent measurements of the theophylline blood levels and the use of ethylendiamine free preparations can avoid such problems. Therefore, we studied ...
Trevisan M - - 1992
The relationship between erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport (Na-Li CT) and body fat distribution is analyzed in a sample (n = 101) of normotensive and untreated hypertensive men participating in an epidemiological study of coronary heart disease risk factors. Na-Li CT is significantly and positively associated with both subscapular skinfold and waist ...
Yokozawa T - - 1992
To evaluate the antihypertensive effect of magnesium lithospermate B isolated from Salviae miltiorrhizae radix, determinations of blood pressure and urinary excretions of sodium, potassium, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and kallikrein, which have been proposed to play an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, were made in rats with sodium-induced ...
Josephson S - - 1992
A partial obstruction of the left ureter was created in weanling (3-week-old) rats. Renal function was studied after 7-9 weeks and compared to that in age-matched controls. Arterial blood pressure was found substantially increased. During normal hydration, the hydronephrotic kidney had low excretions of urine, potassium, osmoles and, especially, sodium. ...
Tominaga T - - 1991
To determine the role of sex hormones and sodium intake in hypertension seen in postmenopausal woman, 12 women (aged 50 to 59 years) in whom blood pressure increased for the first time to above 150/90 mmHg after cessation of menstruation were examined in comparison with 7 age-matched postmenopausal normotensive women ...
Butwell N B - - 1991
Increased myocardial contractile tension has been described as being associated with increased heart rate. This phenomenon is believed due to greater sodium influx than efflux, resulting in accumulation of intracellular sodium. Sodium-23 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with extracellular shift reagents offers near-continuous measurements of intracellular sodium that may ...
Cusi D - - 1991
The mechanisms of cyclosporine A (Cs A) nephrotoxicity are not clear, but may be associated with high blood pressure and high serum uric acid levels even when kidney function is still normal. To evaluate proximal tubular resorption and its relationship with erythrocyte cation transport systems that are known to be ...
Swales J D - - 1991
The role of meta-analysis of published reports in elucidating the link between sodium and blood pressure was examined. The risk of systematic bias produced by selective publication and inclusion of inadequately controlled trials may lead to spurious conclusions. In addition, the assumption of linearity in order to produce quantitative predictions ...
Mathieu D - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether correction of acidemia using bicarbonate improves hemodynamic variables and tissue oxygenation in patients with lactic acidosis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, cross over study. Each patient sequentially received sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride. The order of the infusions was randomized. PATIENTS: Ten patients with metabolic acidosis, increased ...
Haddy F J - - 1991
This review first summarizes evidence from animals and humans for and against a role for dietary sodium in the genesis and treatment of hypertension. The evidence for its role is strongest in those subjects with impaired ability to excrete sodium because of organic renal disease or mineralocorticoid excess. Here, restriction ...
Seely S - - 1991
The daily requirement of a young adult for calcium is 300-400 mg, the quantity consumed in many third-world countries. The dietary intake can be doubled or trebled by consumption of milk, thus half a litre of milk, consumed by many individuals daily in prosperous countries, adds 600 mg. The need ...
Nicholson J P - - 1991
To investigate the calcium dependence of salt-induced hypertension we concurrently measured blood pressure and serum ionized calcium in conscious normotensive female dogs undergoing five infusions: 1) sodium chloride (0.9%) 2) calcium chloride (10 mg/kg), 3) combined sodium chloride and calcium chloride, 4) nicardipine (1 micrograms/kg/min), and 5) combined sodium chloride ...
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