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Safar M E - - 1994
Clinical and experimental data have shown that antihypertensive drugs do not cause the same change in arterial compliance for an equipotent blood pressure reduction. However, there is not clear data on the effect of sodium and diuretics on the visco-elastic properties of the hypertensive arterial wall. Cross-sectional epidemiologic studies suggest ...
Grobbee D E - - 1994
The effects of dietary electrolytes on blood pressure may start as early as the prenatal period as there is evidence to suggest that a high maternal calcium, magnesium, and potassium intake is reflected in lower infant blood pressure levels. One randomized trial in newborn infants suggested that, in this early ...
Tsai H F - - 1994
We evaluated the interactive effects of noxious stimuli and elevation in systemic arterial pressure on the responsiveness of spontaneously active neurons in the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGC) of male, adult Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. In NRGC neurons that responded to both nociception (tail clamp) and transient hypertension elicited ...
McKnight J A - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: Increasing dietary sodium intake increases blood pressure in some subjects with essential hypertension. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) has a potential role in modifying these changes. The purpose of this study was to observe the blood pressure and plasma ANF responses to low and high sodium diets in subjects with ...
De Vecchi A F - - 1994
Hypotension and orthostatic hypotension are frequently observed in CAPD patients. In the present paper the possible causes of these complications were reviewed, and the roles of sodium and water were pointed out. In addition, we reported our experience using different sodium concentrations in CAPD dialysis fluid. In 38 CAPD patients ...
Madhavan S - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of race on the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. METHODS: We examined the blood pressure levels and 24-h urinary sodium excretion of 808 (355 Black, 453 Caucasian) union members who participated in a workplace hypertension control program. The 808 study subjects, who met ...
Greco D S - - 1994
Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were measured by femoral artery puncture every other day in 2 groups (n = 4) of partially nephrectomized (approx 75%) dogs fed 2 concentrations of dietary sodium beginning 9 weeks after partial nephrectomy was completed. In a double crossover design, dogs were fed ...
Retta T M - - 1994
Hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, particularly in the African-American population. Although there have been indications since the beginning of this century that blood pressure might be influenced by dietary factors, this has been generally ignored, and the mainstay of hypertension treatment has ...
Spiller R C - - 1994
The normal gut is adapted to intermittent feeding with complex macromolecular substrates of low sodium content. The high permeability of the upper small intestine to sodium, together with sodium rich saliva and pancreaticobiliary secretions results in large sodium fluxes into the lumen. These substantial sodium influxes are matched by equally ...
Nestel P J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine the blood pressure responses in elderly normotensive men and women to dietary sodium and to the diunsaturated fatty acid dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA), which is derived from linoleic acid. DESIGN: Blood pressure responses were assessed in 66 subjects (36 male, 30 female; mean age 65 years) on two ...
Houtman P N - - 1993
We have studied the relationship between sodium-lithium countertransport, determined in childhood, and family history of hypertension. Countertransport was measured in healthy children and those with secondary hypertension. There was no significant difference in countertransport between these two groups. In the normal children (n = 52, median age 6.8 years), there ...
Pawloski-Dahm C M - - 1993
Excess dietary sodium is a major contributing factor to the incidence and severity of hypertension. However, the precise mechanism or mechanisms by which salt contributes to the severity of hypertension are unknown. The region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a principal brain stem locus critical for the regulation ...
Draaijer P - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: Nailfold capillary density was measured at rest and after 4 min circulatory arrest in order to investigate the relationship between sodium-sensitive hypertension and microvessel density. DESIGN: Seventeen sodium-sensitive and 28 sodium-resistant young borderline hypertensive males and 10 normotensive controls were studied. All of the subjects ate a diet containing ...
van Buren M - - 1993
We studied the effects of a single dose (100 mg orally) and repeated administration (100 mg o.d. for 7 days) of FK453, a novel adenosine-1 receptor antagonist, on renal sodium handling and blood pressure in eight patients with essential hypertension. Within 60 minutes after administration of FK453, sodium excretion increased ...
Lacour C - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The hypotensive and hormonal responses of an AT1-subtype angiotensin II receptor antagonist, SR 47436, were investigated and compared with those of DuP 753 (losartan), the leading AT1-receptor antagonist, and captopril and enalapril, two major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, in conscious, sodium-replete and sodium-depleted non-human primates. DESIGN AND METHODS: ...
Draaijer P - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the relationship between vascular compliance and sodium sensitivity. DESIGN: Arterial and venous compliance was determined in 17 sodium-sensitive and 28 sodium-resistant, young, borderline hypertensive males and in 10 age-matched normotensive controls, during regular sodium intake. METHODS: The carotid, femoral and brachial arteries were studied using ...
Weinberger M H - - 1993
A variety of techniques have been used by different investigators to characterize blood pressure responses to changes in sodium balance. Despite the arbitrary nature of the definition of salt sensitivity, many of these studies have demonstrated consistency in the factors associated with the heterogeneous responses to the methods used. This ...
Rosskopf D - - 1993
An enhancement of sodium-proton exchange activity is a frequently observed ion transport abnormality in essential hypertension. The cellular basis for this has not yet been elucidated. Due to the lack of a specific cell culture system it has been impossible to distinguish between intrinsic cellular abnormalities and influences exerted by ...
Papanek P E - - 1993
A genetic model of essential hypertension in the dog was studied to describe the phenotypic expression of the arterial pressure, as well as to determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), hormone, and renal excretory responses to four different levels of sodium intake (5, 40, 120, 240 mEq/day) ...
Kumanyika S K - - 1993
Phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention was a multicenter, randomized trial of the feasibility and efficacy of seven nonpharmacologic interventions, including sodium reduction, in lowering blood pressure in 30- to 54-year-old individuals with a diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89 mm Hg. Six centers tested an intervention ...
Ditto B - - 1993
Two cold pressor tests were administered to 18 healthy normotensive males on two occasions, after 2 weeks of dietary sodium loading and after 2 weeks of maintaining their normal diet. While the addition of an extra 10 g/day of sodium to the diet had no overall effect on resting cardiovascular ...
Tucker D C - - 1993
The hypothesis that simultaneous exposure to a high (8%) sodium chloride diet and behavioral stress (air jet noise) would act synergistically to increase blood pressure was investigated in male borderline hypertensive rats. Rats were fed either a 1% or an 8% sodium chloride diet beginning at 6 weeks of age. ...
Egemen N - - 1993
The efficacy of sodium nitroprusside in resolving cerebral vasospasm was evaluated with multicisternal injections. Twelve animals received fresh, unheparinized arterial blood via three injections (15 ml total) into the cisterna magna. Selective vertebral arteriography was performed on Day 0, and blood injections were performed on the second and third days ...
Bennett S - - 1993
Variation in urinary electrolyte and creatinine concentrations was studied in untimed, casual specimens obtained from 65 adult Gambian males over a 15-month period during which up to nine specimens were obtained from each subject. Measurements of blood pressure were made at the times when specimens were collected. The within-person variation ...
Scuteri A - - 1993
Hypertension among the elderly generally represents a salt- sensitive state. However this salt-sensitivity does not appear to result from age-related increase in either sodium or salt intake. Since 20 years new trends seem to relate the role of sodium in the genesis of hypertension to a primary abnormality of electrolyte ...
Rector W G WG - - 1993
PURPOSE: To test the peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis of sodium retention in cirrhosis. This states that sodium retention is triggered by arterial underfilling and predicts that development of sodium retention will be associated with significant and related declines in indices of arterial filling that reverse when sodium retention resolves. DESIGN: ...
Vassar M J - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of 250 mL of a 7.5% sodium chloride solution, both with and without added dextran 70, for the prehospital resuscitation of hypotensive trauma patients. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized trial. SETTING: Six trauma systems served by helicopter transport. PATIENTS: Injured patients with systolic blood pressures less than ...
Strazzullo P - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport and blood pressure in a randomly selected sample of untreated male workers and to evaluate the influence of a set of metabolic abnormalities commonly associated with hypertension on this relationship. DESIGN: A cross-sectional investigation of a randomly selected sample of untreated ...
Mufunda J J Department of Physiology, University of Zimbabwe, - - 1993
This study examined the role of endothelin (ET), the thromboxane A2 (TXA2)-prostacyclin (PGI2) ratio (TXA2/PGI2), plasma renin activity (PRA) and urinary aldosterone excretion (ALDO) in urban hypertensive patients and in the sodium pressor response in normotensives. Twenty-seven urban hypertensive patients and the same number of normotensive controls were studied on ...
Whitworth J A - - 1993
From our perspective, Priscilla Kincaid-Smith's major achievement in the field of hypertension relates to the pathogenesis of vascular lesions. Our own studies of the hypertension of renal parenchymal disease have suggested a role for impairment of the cortisol-cortisone shuttle and decreased activity of the enzyme complex 11-beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase. We have ...
Korolkiewicz K Z - - 1993
1. Thermoregulatory responses (metabolic rate, rectal and ear skin temperatures, respiratory rate) were measured after treatment with two antihypertensive drugs, i.e. when sodium nitroprusside (6 mg/kg/2 hr) or prazosin (0.75 mg/kg/3 hr) were applied to normothermic or febrile rabbits under thermoneutral conditions (19 +/- 1 degree C). 2. Both drugs ...
Beilin L J - - 1993
In humans any effects of dietary saturated fats or omega-6 polyunsaturates on blood pressure appear to be mediated by changes in caloric intake and long-term weight changes. In contrast, omega-3 fatty acids have a mild antihypertensive effect which is seen most clearly in untreated subjects with higher blood pressures, in ...
Hill A J - - 1993
A prospective trial to compare the effects of the synthetic dopaminergic (DA1) agonist, fenoldopam (FEN), with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for control of blood pressure following coronary artery bypass graft surgery was carried out in 20 patients. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either FEN or SNP when the systolic arterial ...
Sinaiko A R - - 1993
The roots of essential hypertension extend back into the first two decades of life, suggesting that effective intervention during those years may lead to a reduction in the incidence of adult hypertension. Decreasing the dietary sodium/potassium ratio offers a potentially effective approach to blood pressure reduction. This study tested the ...
Fotherby M D - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of 80 mmol/day reduction in dietary sodium intake on clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in elderly hypertensive subjects. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial lasting 10 weeks, following a 4-week run-in period. SUBJECTS: Seventeen untreated subjects with essential hypertension [systolic blood pressure (SBP) > ...
Madeddu P - - 1993
The contribution of endogenous kinins to the regulation of blood pressure, urinary volume, and renal sodium excretion was evaluated in Wistar rats on high sodium intake by using the new bradykinin receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (D-Arg,[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8]-bradykinin). Neither Hoe 140 (3 nmol/hr s.c. for 4 weeks) nor its vehicle altered systolic ...
Rosskopf D - - 1993
Recent studies have revealed that an enhancement of sodium-proton exchange is a frequently observed ion transport abnormality in essential hypertension. An altered antiport activity not only is measurable in blood cells of hypertensive subjects ex vivo but also is detectable in skeletal muscle in vivo. Several lines of argument suggest ...
Brimacombe J R - - 1993
A 22-year-old female with Bartter's syndrome presented at 40 weeks' gestation for elective cesarean section under general anesthesia. Her usual medication was ibuprofen and potassium supplements. Preoperative potassium was 3.3 mmol/L, and in anticipation of difficulties in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base management, a central line and urinary catheter were inserted ...
Staessen J A - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: The relationships between blood pressure and the urinary excretion rates of sodium and potassium during the day and at night were investigated. METHODS: A total of 160 participants (135 normotensive subjects and 25 untreated patients with essential hypertension) were examined using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and timed urine collections ...
Shafique M - - 1993
Twenty-two patients receiving long term diuretic treatment for arterial hypertension (19) and congestive heart failure (3) received magnesium chloride 10 mmol/day for four months. Both systolic and diastolic pressures decreased significantly, by a mean of 13 +/- 9 mmHg. No significant changes were recorded in serum or urinary electrolytes except ...
Hunt S C - - 1993
Decreased urinary kallikrein excretion has been shown to be related to hypertension. Kallikrein levels also have been shown to be determined primarily by genes, with 51% of the total variance being due to a single gene. However, there exists strong spouse-spouse correlation, indicating that common environment plays a significant role. ...
Weinberger M H - - 1993
In order to assess the congruity of two different methods for the characterization of blood pressure responsivity to alterations in sodium and extracellular fluid volume balance, we studied 40 normotensive and hypertensive humans. All subjects were initially studied with a protocol of rapid sodium and volume expansion induced by intravenous ...
Chau N P - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and 24-h urinary electrolytes in young subjects with normal blood pressure or borderline hypertension. DESIGN: ABP shows a circadian profile. We question whether high- and low-level pressure spans might have a relationship with urinary salt output. METHODS: ABP was monitored ...
Shichiri M - - 1993
To elucidate the effect of protein and phosphorus restriction on hemodynamics in chronic renal failure, 14 patients were placed on a low-protein very-low-phosphorus diet (LPVLPD) and observed for metabolic and hemodynamic changes. For three weeks after initiation of the LPVLPD, the patients displayed a positive sodium balance in spite of ...
Nishikawa T - - 1993
This study has examined the acute haemodynamic effects of 7% sodium bicarbonate solution 1 mmol kg-1 (1.2 ml kg-1) administered into the right atrium over 5 s in 25 anaesthetized dogs allocated randomly to respiratory (arterial pH (pHa) 7.18, PaCO2 10.1 kPa (n = 8)) or metabolic acidosis (pHa 7.27, ...
Hartmann A - - 1993
Hypertension associated with ciclosporin A may be mediated by sodium and volume retention. Therefore, the effects of an antihypertensive therapy (6 weeks) with nitrendipine (10-20 mg twice daily) or lisinopril (10-20 mg once daily) on office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and left ventricular function were evaluated in a ...
Krzesinski J M JM Nephrology-Hypertension Unit, C.H.U. Sart-Tilman (Bât. B35), - - 1993
The effectiveness of non pharmacological treatment of chronic arterial hypertension has been evaluated in 116 treated or not primary hypertensive out-patients. Those receiving diuretics were however excluded. This population was requested to follow for 3 months a modification of their usual diet characterized by salt restriction combined with energy intake ...
Dangas N - - 1993
This experimental study was designed to investigate the possibility of an interaction between elevated intravesical pressure and urinary sodium excretion. Fourteen male New Zealand rabbits were used. After performing a ureterocutaneous diversion, urinary sodium excretion was measured in two situations: with the bladder empty and with the bladder overdistended and ...
Fanconi S - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cardiovascular effects of sodium bicarbonate in neonates with metabolic acidosis. DESIGN: Prospective, open, non-randomized, before-after intervention study with hemodynamic measurements performed before and 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after bicarbonate administration. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit, tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Sequential sample of 16 ...
Stone R A - - 1993
In some species serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to act as a central modulator of the cough reflex. To investigate whether serotonergic mechanisms influence the control of the human cough reflex, we have induced cough responses before and during infusions of 5-HT; its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which, in contrast to ...
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