Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1558
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Schwietzer G K - - 1995
Cyclosporine-associated hypertension (CAH) may be mediated in part by sodium and volume retention. To investigate this issue, we studied the effects of a calcium antagonist, nitrendipine (NIT, 10-20 mg b.i.d.), and a converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril (LIS, 10-20 mg o.d.), on blood pressure (office BP, 24 hr ambulatory BP), excretion ...
Majid D S - - 1995
Alterations in intrarenal nitric oxide (NO) formation during changes in renal arterial pressure (RAP) have been suggested as a mechanism mediating pressure natriuresis. To test this hypothesis further, we examined the relation between RAP and the urinary excretion rate of nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-; NO metabolites) in anesthetized sodium-replete dogs before (n ...
Young D B - - 1995
High rates of potassium intake are associated with protection from cardiovascular diseases in populations consuming primitive diets and in vegetarians living in industrialized cultures. In studies in humans and in animals, a strong inverse association between potassium intake and hypertension and stroke has been described. However, acceptance of the putative ...
Wong F - - 1995
The aim of this study was to assess baroreceptor function in well-compensated cirrhosis by determining the forearm vascular, renal, and humoral responses to sustained baroreceptor deactivation. The effect of sodium status on baroreceptor function was also assessed. Eight cirrhotic patients and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were studied twice after ...
Lasser V I - - 1995
Identifying effective, nonpharmacologic means of preventing or significantly delaying the onset of hypertension would be a major advance in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the first phase of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP I), adults with high-normal diastolic blood pressure were randomly assigned to one of seven ...
Mu J Y - - 1995
The possibility that the small intestine is of importance for the development of arterial hypertension is discussed in relation to the presence of an intestinal sodium sensor and an intestinal natriuretic factor. We propose that an intestinal sodium sensor upon activation releases a factor that evokes renal excretion of sodium. ...
Harper R M - - 1995
We examined ventral medullary surface activity using light reflectance procedures after blood pressure alterations induced by phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside in 23 pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized cats. Images of reflected 660-nm light were collected and digitized at 1- to 3-s intervals after baseline and intravenous saline, 5-40 micrograms/kg phenylephrine, or sodium nitroprusside ...
Modesti P A - - 1995
Blood pressure changes induced by migration from Somalia to Italy were studied in 25 normotensive clinical healthy blacks (aged 29 +/- 6 years) who had immigrated from Mogadishu to Florence. Basal and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, venous compliance, and daily urinary electrolyte excretion were measured on arrival and 6 months ...
Reams G - - 1995
To assess the effects of chronic dietary sodium restriction and blood pressure reduction on glomerular function and structure during the pathogenesis of hypertensive renal disease, experiments were conducted in uninephrectomized (UNX) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) using the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist manidipine. Male SHRs underwent UNX at age 10-11 weeks and ...
Kwok K E - - 1995
A closed-loop adaptive control system, based on the generalized predictive control law with a terminal matching condition, has been developed for computerized drug delivery. The control law is a minimization of the squares of prediction errors over a small future prediction horizon plus weighted square of the prediction error at ...
Weinberger M H - - 1995
The role of extracellular fluid status and sodium balance in various forms of hypertension often has been difficult to define precisely because of the limitations of direct measurements of these factors. Isotopic measurements of various fluid volume compartments in the body have suffered from being insensitive and imprecise. Estimates of ...
Tian H G - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between blood pressure and sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in a cross-sectional study by 24-h urine collections and food weighing with 3-day food records in 328 males and 335 females in Tianjin, People's Republic of China. RESULTS: A very high sodium intake and sodium:potassium ratio ...
Draaijer P - - 1995
Recently, we demonstrated a reduction in the compliance of the carotid, femoral and brachial arteries in sodium-sensitive subjects who had consumed a regular sodium intake of approximately 120 mmol per day, as compared to both sodium-resistant borderline hypertensive subjects and normotensive controls. Venous compliance was not different between the two ...
Bany-Mohammed F M - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Many clinicians believe that prolonged tourniquet application lowers the serum bicarbonate concentration in samples drawn from that limb, but this effect has never been examined prospectively. OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of prolonged tourniquet application before phlebotomy on serum bicarbonate concentration in healthy adults. METHODS: We drew blood samples ...
Yamagata T - - 1994
The effects of intravenous infusion of KW-3902 (8-(noradamantan-3-yl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine), a novel adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, on urine volume, urinary excretion of electrolytes and renal hemodynamics were examined in anesthetized dogs. KW-3902 at 10 and 30 micrograms/kg/min for 20 min inhibited the decline of renal blood flow induced by intrarenal arterial injection of ...
Rodriguez B L - - 1994
Epstein and Eckoff in 1967 devised a scheme to summarize population differences in the rise of mean values of systolic blood pressure by age in accordance with their slopes and levels. For the first time, the validity of this scheme can be examined with data from a single study, INTERSALT. ...
Sinaiko A R - - 1994
The objective of this study was to compare serum calcium levels, dietary calcium intake, and urinary calcium excretion between junior high students with high-normal and low-normal blood pressure. The study was conducted in 11- to 14-year-old children recruited after blood pressure screening of 5th to 8th grade Minneapolis and St. ...
Zoccali C - - 1994
1. We have assessed the relationship between salt intake and 24 h ambulatory arterial pressure in middle aged men with essential hypertension. 2. During the run-in phase (1 month) we estimated the habitual sodium intake (the average Na excretion of two 24 h urine collections) of each participant (n = ...
Greenberg S - - 1994
INTRODUCTION: The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been shown to possess elevated efferent sympathetic nerve activity, and renal denervation delays the development of hypertension in this genetic strain. Evidence that the renal sympathetic nerves have direct effects on tubular function suggests that one of the mechanisms for increasing arterial pressure ...
Plum-Wirell M - - 1994
The aim of this study was to evaluate if a nutritional dose of magnesium given orally changes the blood pressure in untreated hypertensive patients and if orally-given magnesium had any influence on serum and muscle magnesium and potassium. A randomized, double-blind crossover study design was followed with magnesium 15 mmol/day ...
Kirchhoff K - - 1994
The effect of human urodilatin (hURO) on kidney function has been examined in stable recirculating isolated perfused rat kidney. The concentration-dependent effects of urodilatin (URO) on isolated perfused rat kidney were analyzed at different perfusion pressures. The experiments show that at perfusion pressures of 100 or 130 mm Hg, 100 ...
Reusser M E - - 1994
Five micronutrients have been shown to directly influence blood pressure: sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride. The data presented here are based on accumulated findings from epidemiologic, laboratory, and clinical investigations, many of which focused primarily on a single nutrient. However, as also discussed here, nutrients are not consumed in ...
Krause W - - 1994
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, the cardiac and hemodynamic effects of iopromide alone were compared with those of two combination preparations (iopromide plus sodium and iopromide plus the prostacyclin analog iloprost) and with ioversol after left ventricular bolus administration in rats. METHODS: The tracheae of anesthetized male Wistar rats ...
Herlitz H - - 1994
To investigate the effects of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide on erythrocyte sodium and potassium in relation to their effects on BP, 28 men (mean age 46 years, range 22-64 years) with previously untreated essential hypertension (casual DBP > or = 95 mmHg) were randomised to enalapril (n = 14) or hydrochlorothiazide ...
Dash S C - - 1994
Blood pressure and nutritional profiles in the 'Oraon' tribal community of India living in rural and urban areas were studied between 1981-85 after a house to house survey of 4523 rural tribal people (RT) and 935 of their urban tribal counterparts (UT). Prevalence of hypertension was found to be 4.8/1000 ...
Glatter K A - - 1994
Hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of volume-dependent hypertension have invoked an endogenous sodium pump inhibitor or digitalis-like factor (DLF) to link altered sodium homeostasis to the rise in blood pressure. Our goal was to develop a clinical protocol that achieved predictable, sustained volume expansion, with the premise that renal failure patients ...
Padgham C - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated lithium-sodium countertransport in erythrocytes of normal female volunteers during different phases of the menstrual cycle or during administration of oral contraceptives. METHODS: Ten normally menstruating, and eight oral contraceptive using, normal female subjects were studied over at least one cycle. Erythrocyte lithium-sodium countertransport was determined using. ...
Vejlstrup N G - - 1994
Active sodium transport contributes to liquid clearance from the alveoli. We hypothesized that the magnitude of active transport of alveolar liquid depends on the extent to which the alveolar epithelium is stretched and, consequently, on the degree of alveolar inflation. In a study on 38 adult rabbits, the left lung ...
Costa E de A Ede - - 1994
This paper analyses the association between blood pressure and sodium excretion in 3975 individuals aged 20-74 years, selected in a probability sample survey of private households carried out in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sodium and creatinine titrations were performed in casual urine samples collected at the time of BP ...
Pasquié J L - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of dietary sodium with or without chloride on the development of hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats with two-kidney, one clip hypertension were fed three different diets for 4 weeks after clipping: free access to sodium chloride, sodium citrate ...
Mukaddam-Daher S - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the influence of prostaglandins on the steady-state relationship of mean arterial pressure and urinary sodium excretion. STUDY DESIGN: Ten nonpregnant and nine pregnant ewes were chronically prepared with indwelling catheters and maintained in metabolism cages. All the ewes received a continuous intravenous infusion ...
Elliott P - - 1994
High sodium intake, low potassium intake, high body mass index and high alcohol intake are established risk factors for high blood pressure (BP) in populations. For sodium, an overview of randomised controlled trials gave the estimate that reduction in sodium of around 70 mmol per day lowered BP on average ...
Meland E - - 1994
The aims of this present study were firstly to examine whether diet compliance and blood pressure effect could be enhanced by self monitoring with a titrator strip (Quantab 1176) measuring the urine chloride concentration. This was achieved by an open, randomized parallel group design. The study also sought to evaluate ...
Zhou B - - 1994
The relationship of diet to blood pressure was studied in a total of 705 men and women aged 40-59 from three Chinese population samples having different mean blood pressure and dietary sodium and animal protein intake. Two groups were farmers from Shanxi in northern China, and Guangxi in southern China, ...
Hepburn N C - - 1994
The pentavalent antimonial sodium stibogluconate is the mainstay of anti-leishmanial therapy. Sodium stibogluconate is less cardiotoxic than antimony and the trivalent derivatives, but has been associated with dose-related electrocardiographic changes. The effect of the currently-used regimen of sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 20 days) on cardiac function is uncertain. We ...
Ho G Y - - 1994
This study examined the relationship of plasma renin activity (PRA) to the likelihood of maintaining blood pressure control after discontinuation of antihypertensive medication. Patients whose blood pressure was previously treated and controlled in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program were enrolled in the Dietary Intervention Study of Hypertension. After stratification ...
Santoro A - - 1994
Dialysis induced hypovolemia plays an important role in triggering intradialytic hypotension. The authors developed an automatic system (BVAC) with feedback changes in the ultrafiltration rate (UFR) and dialysate conductivity (DC) to match blood volume (BV) intradialytic profiles with the desired trajectories. The system consists of three subunits: (1) an optical ...
Gibb W J - - 1994
Under certain conditions, drugs that partially block transmembrane potassium currents in ventricular myocytes predispose patients to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Although the precise mechanisms by which potassium blockade initiates tachyarrhythmias are unknown, it is believed that early afterdepolarizations (EADs) may play a role. Using the Luo-Rudy kinetic model of the ventricular action ...
Dyer A R - - 1994
This report further examines the relation of body mass index (BMI) to associations of 24-hour urinary sodium, potassium, and sodium-potassium ratio with blood pressure in INTERSALT, a 52-center international study of electrolytes and blood pressure. Analyses without adjustment for BMI indicated average systolic pressure greater by 6.00 mm Hg per ...
Panzenbeck M J - - 1994
We tested the hypothesis that baroreflex attenuation during sodium depletion is due to increased prostaglandin (PG) levels. We studied baroreflex sensitivity before and after PG synthesis inhibition in conscious cynomolgus monkeys. Arterial pressure and pulse interval (PI) were measured during intravenous infusions of phenylephrine (1-20 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, n = 6) and ...
Majid D S - - 1994
The sodium excretory responses (UNaV) to acute changes in renal arterial pressure (RAP) during blockade of distal nephron sodium transport were evaluated in seven sodium-replete anesthetized dogs. The major distal sodium entry pathways were blocked by intrarenal infusion of amiloride (AM, 10(-5) mol/L) and bendroflumethiazide (BZ, 10(-6) mol/L). Infusion of ...
Morris M C - - 1994
This chapter reviews the evidence from epidemiologic studies and controlled clinical trials dealing with dietary fats and blood pressure. Trials studying the effect on blood pressure of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil show a dose-response hypotensive effect that may be restricted to patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, ...
Dyer A R - - 1994
This is the first of two reports dealing with the reliability of measurements of 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure and estimates of electrolyte-blood pressure associations in INTERSALT, an international study of the relations of electrolyte excretion and other factors to blood pressure, involving more than 10,000 persons from ...
Manning R D RD - - 1994
The goal of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide has a long-term role in the control of renal hemodynamics and the relation between arterial pressure and urinary sodium excretion. Studies were conducted over a 25-day period in seven conscious dogs equipped with indwelling vascular catheters and an electromagnetic ...
Dyer A R - - 1994
This is the second of two reports dealing with the reliability of measurements of 24-hour urinary electrolyte excretion and blood pressure and estimates of electrolyte-blood pressure associations in INTERSALT, an international study of the relations of electrolyte excretion and other factors to blood pressure, involving more than 10,000 persons from ...
Burnier M - - 1994
Renal tubular sodium handling was investigated prospectively in 48 normotensive subjects, 53 untreated hypertensive patients, and 13 patients with white coat hypertension using endogenous trace lithium as a marker of proximal sodium reabsorption. A 12-hour daytime ambulatory blood pressure recording was performed in all patients to confirm the diagnosis of ...
Zhou C - - 1994
The effect of oral calcium supplementation (1000 mg/day) on hypertension was studied in 57 borderline and mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study for 14 weeks. Twenty-five patients from the above groups (11 from the calcium-treated group and 14 from the placebo group) were studied in a crossover ...
Whitworth J A - - 1994
Hypertension is a common feature of both Cushing's syndrome, which is relatively rare, and iatrogenic steroid administration, which is much more common. Cardiovascular mortality and morbidity are very significant in patients with both naturally occurring and iatrogenic disease. The mechanism of glucocorticoid induced hypertension in man remains undefined. Contrary to ...
Jula A M - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies on human hypertension have suggested an association between sodium intake and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects on LVH of a nonpharmacological treatment program based mainly on sodium restriction were examined by serial echocardiography in a 12-month controlled, randomized study that included 76 previously ...
Singer D R - - 1994
BACKGROUND: The role of cardiac extrinsic innervation in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure is controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a double-blind study of endocrine and blood pressure responses to 5 days of low- (LS, 10 mmol/d) and 5 days of high- (350 mmol/d) sodium intake in ...
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