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Results 451 - 500 of 1558
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Madeddu P - - 1996
We evaluated if a rat strain inbred for low urinary kallikrein excretion differs from normal-kallikrein Wistar rats regarding blood pressure levels in basal conditions and during alterations in sodium balance. Blood pressure was measured in unanesthetized rats on normal sodium intake. Then, blood pressure sensitivity to salt was evaluated over ...
Wong F - - 1996
The status of the central blood volume in cirrhosis is controversial. A combination of sodium restriction and upright posture, which redistributes intravascular volume to dependent parts of the body should further aggravate a contracted central blood volume reduction. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of upright ...
Fukudome Y - - 1996
We examined circadian variations in blood pressure, pulse rate, and other physiological variables, including hormone levels, in 16 patients in a persistent vegetative state (mean age -/+ SE; 66.1 -+/ 3.9 yr). Cerebrovascular accident was responsible for brain damage in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients. Blood pressure was measured ...
Shushakov V V - - 1996
The action of helium (up to 101 abs. atm.) under high pressure on ionic currents through the cellular membrane was studied in experiments on isolated neurons of a gastropod. A method of intracellular dialysis which is new for physiological investigations under hyperbaric conditions was used. A substantial decrease in the ...
Strømholm T - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of sodium nitroprusside on cerebral haemodynamics during cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta in pigs. DESIGN: Non-randomised controlled animal study. SETTING: University hospital, Norway. MATERIAL: 17 Pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Cross-clamping of the descending thoracic aorta for 30 minutes. In 8 pigs sodium nitroprusside was given to ...
Saito F - - 1996
We analyzed the hypotensive mechanisms of a thiazide-type diuretic, mefruside, on the basis of the pressure-natriuresis relationship. We performed a 5-week study in eight patients with essential hypertension who were given a high sodium diet (15 to 18 g NaCl per day) during the 1st and 5th weeks, a severely ...
Anderson D E - - 1996
Previous studies found that regular confinement of dogs in an experimental environment preceding onset of an avoidance task was associated with increases in blood pressure and decreases in heart rate and respiration rate that were not prevented by adrenergic antagonists. The present study investigated a) whether divergent changes in blood ...
Weiler E W - - 1996
Inhibitors of sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the study presented here, an attempt was made to determine whether differences in the plasma levels and the removal rates of high-molecular weight (HMW) and low-molecular weight (LMW) forms of Na-K-ATPase inhibitors might relate to ...
Abbott K - - 1996
The present study was designated to assess the effects of two different dyhydropyridine calcium antagonists (DHPCAs) on proteinuria in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The hypothesis that similar levels of blood pressure reduction with two different DHPCAs produce similar degrees of proteinuria reduction was tested. In a prospective randomized ...
Adrogué H J - - 1996
Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that dietary constituents are among the causative factors that contribute to the higher prevalence and severity of hypertension in African Americans as compared with European Americans. Given the difficulty of cleanly separating a change in one dietary nutrient from concomitant changes in others, it has ...
Dufour E - - 1996
The effects of high hydrostatic pressures on the kinetics of hydrolysis of type III collagen from calf skin by collagenase and cathepsin B were studied. Collagen hydrolysates sampled at different time intervals (0-90 min) and at different pressures (0.1-300 MPa) were analysed by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The rate ...
Chan T Y - - 1996
1. Increased salt sensitivity has been reported in first-degree relatives of hypertensive patients. To determine if the enhanced effect of oral salt intake on blood pressure in such individuals is related to abnormal renal dopamine (DA) or sympathetic nervous system responses, we studied the effects of two different sodium intakes ...
Cianciaruso B - - 1996
The renal response to sodium restriction was evaluated, and the concurrent changes of the plasma levels of aldosterone (ALDO) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), in healthy patients (NOR), in normotensive patients with non-nephrotic chronic glomerulonephritis and normal renal function (GN), and in patients with glomerulonephritis and moderate renal failure (GFR, ...
Mühlhauser I - - 1996
The objectives of the study were to assess the effects of moderate sodium restriction on blood pressure in insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with nephropathy and high normal or mildly hypertensive blood pressure (primary objective), and to document possible associated changes of exchangeable body sodium, body volumes, components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone ...
van Paassen P - - 1996
Many patients with essential hypertension respond to a high dietary sodium intake with a rise in blood pressure. Experimental evidence suggests that the renal hemodynamic response to sodium determines, at least partially, this rise in blood pressure. Our aim was to clarify the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the ...
Karppanen H - - 1996
Efforts in Finland to implement the recommended non-pharmacological and pharmacological principles for the control of hypertension, stroke and ischaemic heart disease have been accompanied by an approximately 10 mm Hg fall in the population average of diastolic blood pressure, and about 60% decrease in deaths from both stroke and ischaemic ...
O'Callaghan C J - - 1996
Epidemiological evidence has linked essential hypertension with impaired tissue sensitivity to insulin (i.e. insulin resistance) and actions which could contribute to elevated blood pressure include renal sodium and water retention, sympathetic nervous system stimulation and effects on vascular smooth muscle cell growth and cation balance. Although insulin has pressor effects ...
Paganini E P - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Haemodynamic stability in intensive care unit (ICU) patient with acute renal failure (ARF) during intermittent dialytic support has been the focus for several variations to dialysis delivery. Indeed this has been noted by many as a possible cause for prolonged renal dysfunction created by repeated hypotensive renal insult, as ...
Navar L G - - 1996
Recent developments have led to renewed interest in the mechanisms that mediate the changes in sodium excretion in response to changes in arterial pressure, a phenomenon termed pressure-natriuresis. Pressure-natriuresis occurs in the absence of changes in filtered load and thus, the changes in sodium excretion are caused by changes in ...
Kesteloot H - - 1996
A blood pressure survey was performed in isolated Pygmy communities and Bantu population samples living either in close relationship with the Pygmies or in separate areas within the same region. The Pygmies are still living as hunter-gatherers, whereas the Bantus rely on agriculture for food provision. Mean blood pressures in ...
Doris P A - - 1996
Evidence for a 'third factor' in the regulation of urinary sodium excretion has directed a search for a natriuretic agent which functions by inhibition of Na,K-ATPase. Such an agent may also be involved in the genesis of hypertension and provide an important pathophysiological link between increased sodium intake, reduced renal ...
Schorr U - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of sodium chloride- and sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water on blood pressure and parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism in elderly normotensive individuals. METHODS: We examined 21 healthy men and women aged 60-72 years in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. After reducing dietary salt intake ...
Thompson G D - - 1996
Race and level of physical activity may be important factors affecting cardiovascular responsiveness to acute sodium intake. We examined the effects of a 4-day sodium loading procedure on heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, 24-hour electrolyte excretion, and extracellular fluid volume (ECF) in African-American (n = ...
Corea M - - 1996
In 5 conscious dogs the diurnal patterns of urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) were investigated, initially during 1 control day and, thereafter, during 4 days of servo-controlled reduction of renal perfusion pressure (rRPP). The individual dog's mean arterial blood pressure was reduced to 80% of the blood pressure on the control ...
Hummler E - - 1996
Blood pressure regulation is an integrated physiological phenomenon known to be influenced by many biological processes and by a variety of environmental factors. Epidemiological studies nevertheless suggest that up to 30% of the variation in blood pressure could be due to genetic factors. Thus, mutations in genes that control blood ...
McCarron D A - - 1995
High blood pressure, one of the most common chronic diseases in industrialized societies, is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, heart failure, renal disease and stroke. Data from both epidemiologic surveys and clinical trials have shown that calcium metabolism is altered in persons with hypertension, indicating a primary role ...
Sacks F M - - 1995
Dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium have each been reported to lower blood pressure, but the extent of blood pressure reduction in epidemiological studies and clinical trials has tended to be small and inconsistent. We hypothesized that combinations of these mineral supplements would lower blood pressure and that the ...
Drenth J P - - 1995
We studied the clinical symptoms in nine children (seven females and two males; mean age 11.6 years) with severe but transient acute secondary erythermalgia. The classical symptoms at presentation were episodic attacks of painful burning hands and feet which felt warm with congested appearance of the feet. Each attack lasted ...
Levey W A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To compare the blood pressure responses of men with hypertension consuming low-sodium (Na) metabolic diets differing in dietary calcium (Ca) for two 6-week periods. SUBJECTS: White men who had hypertension, were nonsmokers, and were sedentary. INTERVENTION: This study consisted of two separate 6-week metabolic feeding periods. In the first ...
Hakamata Y - - 1995
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated the effects of long-term administration of high-colloid oncotic pressure on ischemic brain edema in Mongolian gerbils. METHODS: Animals that exhibited stroke after 35 minutes of unilateral forebrain ischemia were used. The gerbils were divided into albumin- (1 g/kg body wt, 25% albumin; n = 30) ...
Hatton D C - - 1995
Manipulations of dietary calcium have been repeatedly shown to alter blood pressure in animal models of human essential hypertension. Supplemental dietary calcium lowers blood pressure, whereas restricted calcium diets tend to elevate blood pressure. The mechanisms responsible have not been identified, but numerous possibilities have been proposed. Many of the ...
Cappuccio F P - - 1995
The objectives of the study were to assess whether the epidemiologic data support a relation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, to obtain a quantitative estimate of the difference in blood pressure for a given difference in dietary calcium intake, and to assess the public health implications. A meta-analysis ...
He J - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between dietary macronutrients and blood pressure. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Liangshan, southwestern China. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and twelve Yi farmers living in a remote mountainous area, and 264 Yi migrants and 251 Han people living in an urban setting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Blood pressure ...
Pörsti I - - 1995
Low dietary intake of calcium has been found to be a risk factor for the development of hypertension in a number of epidemiological studies. Moreover, increased dietary calcium intake has been reported to beneficially influence on blood pressure in both humans and animal models of hypertension, suggesting the relative calcium ...
Siffert W - - 1995
An enhancement of sodium-proton exchange in blood cells of patients with primary hypertension has been described by various investigators. The present review summarizes some of the most recent findings regarding the enhanced sodium-proton exchanger activity in primary hypertension and discusses the potential mechanisms that may contribute to or explain these ...
Taddei S - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether microalbuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion between 30 and 300 mg/24 h, is associated with endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertensive patients. DESIGN: We correlated urinary albumin excretion with vasodilatation in response to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) agonists in the forearm vascular bed in essential ...
Batislam E - - 1995
Various treatment modalities have been used in Primary Nocturnal Enuresis (PNE) and pharmacotherapy is widely accepted. Prostaglandins increase detrusor pressure, decrease urethral pressure and lead to sodium excretion. They also antagonize hydro-osmotic effect of vasopressin by competing with this hormone. According to these functions of prostaglandins it is suggested that ...
Moore T J - - 1995
This article reviews the potential effects of dietary constituents and manipulations on blood pressure. Dietary approaches with documented efficacy are discussed, as are the effects of other nutritional factors, which, after study, demonstrate no proven change on blood pressure. The effects of dietary ions (micronutrients) and of individual dietary macronutrients ...
Wu X - - 1995
Weanling male inbred Dahl rats (Jr salt-sensitive (S) and salt-resistant (R) strains) were placed on high (4%, HK) and low (0.2%, LK) potassium diets for 4 weeks. Both diets contained 8% sodium chloride, 2.5% calcium, 0.8% magnesium, and 2.0% phosphorous. Balance studies were carried out during the final week on ...
Klag M J - - 1995
People living in unacculturated societies have a low average blood pressure and little rise in blood pressure with age. In a community-based survey in southwestern China, the authors assessed the contribution of urinary cation excretion to differences in blood pressure between an unacculturated group (Yi farmers) and migrants to an ...
Dolson G M - - 1995
Potassium depletion is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and frequently is encountered in patients with end-stage renal disease. Since the treatment of end-stage renal disease might result in K+ depletion and postdialysis hypokalemia, we investigated the relationship between acute K+ removal by hemodialysis and changes in blood ...
Westman E C - - 1995
This article reviews the literature regarding the cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco use. Articles were identified using a MEDLINE search of the English-language literature from 1966 to 1992 and a manual search of bibliographies of identified articles. From 875 articles regarding smokeless tobacco, 12 pertinent articles were identified. Smokeless tobacco ...
Beckmann S L - - 1995
There is still a need of support for nonpharmacologic treatment of uncomplicated, mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. We investigated whether a low sodium-based diet implemented by a nutritionist could lower blood pressure and affect sympathetic activity. Middle-aged, otherwise healthy men with never-treated essential hypertension (n = 95) were randomized to an intervention ...
Miller S B - - 1995
Parental history of hypertension, dietary sodium, and psychological stress have all been implicated in the development of essential hypertension and may interact in elevating disease risk. The mechanism by which this might occur is unclear, but it may be related to changes in the peripheral vasculature. The present study examined ...
Hardman T C - - 1995
A study was undertaken in 298 normotensive, normolipidaemic and normoglycaemic subjects to define the range of erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity in this cohort and to determine the associations between countertransport activity and markers of vascular risk. Countertransport activity showed a positively skewed non-normal distribution with a median (95% confidence interval) ...
Lijnen P - - 1995
An adequate matching for race, sex, stage of the menstrual cycle, family history of hypertension, and the amount of sodium and other electrolytes in the diet should be a prerequisite for valid conclusions when interpreting the erythrocyte concentration and fluxes of sodium in essential hypertensive patients in comparison with normal ...
Butler T V - - 1995
Calcium supplementation prevents hypertension in Dahl S (DS) rats. Because abnormal pressure natriuresis may contribute to the development of hypertension, we examined the effect of calcium on pressure natriuresis. DS and Dahl R (DR) rats maintained on a 4% sodium diet containing either 0.5% or 2% calcium for 4 weeks ...
Romero-Vecchione E - - 1995
The objective of this work was to compare urinary dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, sodium and potassium excretion in a group of normotensive Piaroa Amazonic ethnia who do not use salt in their regular food intake, against a group of urban normotensive citizens known to have a high salt intake in their ...
Stein C M - - 1995
Studies in animals suggest that nitric oxide production is increased under conditions of salt loading and that this increase protects against the development of salt-induced hypertension. To determine the effect of dietary sodium intake on nitric oxide-mediated vascular responses, we studied seven healthy male volunteers twice 4 weeks apart while ...
Rollnik J D - - 1995
To examine the role of stress on renal sodium excretion, we studied 27 normotensive and 21 hypertensive subjects. All subjects were placed on a standardized sodium diet. After water loading (2290 ml in 3 1/2 hr) they completed a 30 min baseline and a 30 min stress period (competitive videogame). ...
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