Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 615
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Gunkel J H - - 1993
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Surfactant replacement is a powerful therapy for newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, but limited observations suggest that alterations of cerebral blood flow can accompany the use of several available surfactants. An early European multicenter controlled study with beractant demonstrated an increased rate of intracranial hemorrhage in treated ...
Jefferies A L - - 1993
Surfactant therapy and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) may minimize damage to the pulmonary epithelium of surfactant-deficient newborns. Using pulmonary clearance of insufflated, aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA (molecular weight 492) as an index of lung epithelial permeability, we examined the effects of 300 mg bovine lipid extract surfactant (S) administered at birth to ...
Daniels C B - - 1993
We previously showed that the lung of the central Australian lizard, Ctenophorus nuchalis, contains a large amount of surfactant, the composition of which varies with body temperature. We now show that the specific compliance of the lungs of these lizards remains constant regardless of whether they were maintained at 10, ...
Feldbaum D M - - 1993
Pulmonary surfactant deactivation is an important factor in the pathophysiology caused by wood smoke inhalation. Surfactant replacement is beneficial in treatment of surfactant-deficient neonates and possibly the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, the effect of exogenous Exosurf treatment for acute wood smoke injury was examined in four ...
Pérez Fontán J J - - 1993
To test the hypothesis that lowering the concentrations of surfactant molecules at the gas-liquid interface increases viscoelastic dissipation in the lungs, the amplitude and time course of stress relaxation were quantified before and after lavage of the lungs with warm saline in five newborn and five 8-wk-old anesthetized piglets. Stress ...
Froese A B - - 1993
We evaluated four ventilator patterns after the administration of 80 mg/kg bovine lipid extract surfactant (LES) to anesthetized, paralyzed, saline-lavaged New Zealand white rabbits. Two ventilator types were compared: high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) versus conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), each at high (HI) and low (LO) end-expiratory lung volumes (EELV); ...
Ghazanshahi S D - - 1993
A recent multicenter study of preterm infants concluded that high-frequency ventilation (HFV) applied at 15 Hz, in comparison with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), did not lead to reduced incidence of barotrauma, contrary to previous expectations. The primary goal of the present theoretical study was to determine whether computed estimates of ...
Davey A M - - 1993
In order to evaluate further the physiological and inflammatory changes of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), 25 newborn piglets (1-2 days old, 1.5 +/- 0.4 kg) were studied. Piglets were briefly ventilated with 100% oxygen and then received an intratracheal bolus of 3 mL/kg of a 20% suspension of human meconium. ...
McGorum B C - - 1993
Local transendoscopic endobronchial antigen challenge, which has proved to be a valuable clinical and research technique in the study of human pulmonary hypersensitivity, was evaluated in control and asymptomatic COPD--affected horses. Transendoscopic endobronchial challenges with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Micropolyspora faeni extract at 60 and 600 micrograms/ml and mouldy hay extract ...
Kääpä P - - 1993
To evaluate the acute effects of surfactant replacement therapy on pulmonary circulation in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, we studied 25 infants before and for 1 hour after either synthetic surfactant administration (n = 15) or endotracheal suctioning (n = 10). The noninvasive Doppler method was used to estimate systolic pulmonary ...
Dulchavsky S A - - 1993
Sepsis may cause pulmonary dysfunction and altered metabolism; triiodothyronine (T3) replacement improves lung function and surfactant pool. We evaluated the biophysical effects of T3 replacement during sepsis-induced hypothyroidism. Male Holtzman rats underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy (S); treatment was administered consisting of T3 (3 ng/h) or ...
Plötz F B - - 1993
The sometimes limited effect of surfactant therapy in neonates might be explained in part by an non homogeneous distribution of the surfactant after endotracheal instillation. This distribution can be improved significantly by increasing the fluid volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two methods for ...
Leviton A - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent the reduced risk in preterm newborns of intracranial hemorrhage attributed to antenatal corticosteroids (ANCS) reflects reductions in the incidence of respiratory distress and its correlates. METHODS: In a sample of 239 very low birth weight newborns recruited for a clinical trial of phenobarbital prophylaxis ...
Gommers D - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To study the immediate effects of exogenous surfactant therapy on blood gases, lung volumes, and lung mechanics in adult rabbits with experimentally induced respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Laboratory and animal facility of a large university. SUBJECTS: Twelve adult New Zealand white rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: Respiratory ...
Fauser A - - 1993
Blood pressure was retrospectively studied in all 22 extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW) (birth weight median 720 g, range 450-1020 g) who were admitted between July 1989 and October 1991 and received dexamethasone on days 2-25 (median 10) because of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or since lung function had not improved ...
Kelly E - - 1993
Surfactant administration causes a rapid and dramatic improvement in gas exchange, but paradoxically, studies have failed to show an improvement in the mechanical properties of the lung. We have measured dynamic and static (passive flow-volume technique) compliance before and after a single dose of bovine lipid extract surfactant in 22 ...
Hallman M - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of neonatal care practices on the efficacy of exogenous human surfactant. Two hundred newborns (gestational age 24.0 to 29.9 weeks, lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio less than 2 or absent phosphatidylglycerol, and requirement of mechanical ventilation at birth) participated in a randomized bicenter ...
Häfner D - - 1993
During pressure- or volume-controlled ventilation different surfactant preparations were compared in an improved rabbit fetus model. Based on a self-designed software program, this model enables on-line registration of lung mechanics and heart rate in up to ten fetuses. Using a commercially available bovine lung surfactant (SURVANTA) as standard, we compared ...
Rider E D - - 1993
The in vivo function of surfactants reconstituted using natural surfactant lipid and protein constituents was evaluated in 27-day-gestation preterm rabbits. The animals were treated with protein-free surfactant lipids (LH-20), LH-20 + 5% SP-A, LH-20 + 1% SP-B, LH-20 + 1% SP-C, LH-20 + 5% SP-A + 1% SP-B + 1% ...
Lewis J F - - 1993
Adult sheep (35 +/- 3 kg) underwent saline lung lavage and 1.5 h of mechanical ventilation to induce acute lung injury. Animals received 100 mg lipid/kg body wt of tracheally instilled surfactant (Inst Surf) or either nebulized surfactant (Neb Surf) or nebulized saline (Neb Saline) and were killed 3 h ...
Emery E F - - 1993
Hypertension at follow-up is a recognized association of chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants. The aim of this study was to assess the timing of maximum effect of the presence of CLD on blood pressure levels and the duration of its effect. Eighteen infants with CLD and 36 without ...
Paterson J F - - 1992
As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation ...
Vilstrup C - - 1992
The immediate effects on lung volume, ventilation homogeneity, and lung mechanics of tracheal instillation of surfactant were studied in premature lambs, gestational age 120-122 d, with respiratory distress syndrome. Six lambs received surfactant by tracheal instillation 25 min after delivery by cesarean section; five received only vehicle and served as ...
Rider E D - - 1992
The effect of ventilation strategy on in vivo function of different surfactants was evaluated in preterm rabbits delivered at 27 days gestational age and ventilated with either 0 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at tidal volumes of 10-11 ml/kg or 3 cmH2O PEEP at tidal volumes of 7-8 ml/kg after ...
Suzuki H - - 1992
The relationship between oxygenation and lung volume during high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) was studied. We ventilated anesthetized, tracheostomized adult rabbits that were rendered surfactant-deficient by lung lavage. Lung volume was measured by the 'disconnection technique'. In the first experiment, HFOV was commenced after conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) for 1 ...
Galan H L - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: Currently, treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the preterm newborn incorporates exogenous surfactant administration. Because fetuses make breathing motions, we proposed that intra-amniotic administration of an exogenous surfactant, Exosurf, to the preterm rabbit fetus results in uptake of Exosurf into the lungs and improves pulmonary mechanical properties compared ...
Pfenninger J - - 1992
Eight premature infants ventilated for hyaline membrane disease and enrolled in the OSIRIS surfactant trial were studied. Lung mechanics, gas exchange [PaCO2, arterial/alveolar PO2 ratio (a/A ratio)], and ventilator settings were determined 20 minutes before and 20 minutes after the end of Exosurf instillation, and subsequently at 12-24 hour intervals. ...
K??p? P - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of surfactant replacement therapy on the pulmonary artery pressure in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, "before-after" trial. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit at a referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Ten preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Administration of two or four doses of an ...
Grigg J - - 1992
Two groups of intubated newborn babies were studied to determine the clinical effects of interrupted bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by suction catheter (S-BAL) and the similarities to adult fibreoptic BAL of fractional processing of sequential lavage fluid (BALF). Both groups were lavaged by two aliquots of 1 ml.kg-1, instilled via a ...
Davis J M - - 1992
The short-term distribution kinetics of exogenous surfactant distribution after intratracheal instillation was investigated in surfactant-deficient neonatal piglets during assisted conventional mechanical ventilation and by high-frequency jet ventilation using exogenous calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE) labeled with 99mTc. Surfactant deficiency was induced by repeated bronchoalveolar lavage in piglets (1.2 +/- 0.4 ...
Coker P J - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: To study the individual and combined effects of surfactant inactivation and mechanical ventilation on pulmonary microvascular permeability and lung compliance. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled trial. An isolated, perfused, lung model of surfactant inactivation and mechanical ventilation at 15, 30, and 45 cm H2O peak inspiratory pressure was developed in young ...
Cummings J J - - 1992
Four pulmonary surfactant preparations (natural sheep surfactant, Exosurf, Infasurf, and Survanta) were compared with no treatment in 29 newborn lambs at 126 +/- 1 days gestation. Fetuses were delivered by Cesarean section under general anesthesia and treated with either the manufacturer's recommended dose of a commercial surfactant, 100 mg phospholipid/kg ...
Hellström-Westas L - - 1992
During surfactant treatment of respiratory distress syndrome, 23 premature newborns were investigated with continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (cerebral function monitors). Simultaneously, arterial blood pressure and transcutaneous blood gas values were recorded. A short (less than 10 minutes) but significant decrease in cerebral activity was seen in almost all neonates immediately after ...
Bos J A - - 1992
We measured clearance of 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and ...
Glick P L - - 1992
The high mortality for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been attributed to a combination of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesize that a surfactant deficiency may in part be contributing to the pathophysiology of CDH. This study documents the functional, quantitative, and qualitative aspects of the surfactant status of ...
Sun B - - 1992
Following maternal treatments with 50 mg/kg/day ambroxol for 2 or 3 days before delivery at 28 days gestation, preterm rabbits were ventilated to evaluate lung function. Subsequently, surfactant saturated phosphatidylcholine (SatPC) pool sizes were measured. One half of the ambroxol treated and control rabbits were given surfactant at delivery. Although ...
Svenningsen N W - - 1992
Preliminary measurements of functional residual capacity (FRC) with the sulphurhexafluoride technique and static pressure volume diagrams were performed in newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome receiving endotracheal instillation of natural porcine surfactant (Curosurf, 100 or 200 mg/kg). Within the first hour after surfactant treatment there was an increase in FRC ...
Delpierre S - - 1991
Gas mixtures containing oxygen and nitrogen or dense inert gases (sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, or argon, Ar) were inhaled by anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rabbits and cats. SF6 and Ar were compared to nitrous oxide (N2O), a dense inert gas well known for its anaesthetic properties. Concentrations in these gases were 50% ...
Hallman M - - 1991
There is a wide variability in the therapeutic responsiveness to exogenous surfactant, a drug that has become generally available for the treatment of lung immaturity and respiratory distress syndrome. Recent studies have demonstrated evidence that therapies decreasing lung edema improve the effectiveness of surfactant substitution. In addition, exogenous surfactant may ...
Lueddeckens G - - 1991
Theophylline (p less than 0.05) and ketotifen (p greater than 0.05) markedly reduced, but the lipoxygenase inhibitors and PAF receptor antagonists were without any influence on the endothelin-1 (ET-1 1 nmol/kg i.v.) induced increase of pulmonary inflation pressure of anaesthetised and ventilated guinea-pigs. The ET-1 induced increase in mean arterial ...
Rodwell L T - - 1991
Asthmatic subjects were challenged with aerosols of hyper- and hypotonic saline 15 min (Group A) and 90 min (Group B) after inhaling clemastine. Measurements were made of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) before and after medication and after challenge. When the FEV1 values (% predicted) were compared on ...
Lewis J - - 1991
Three days after subcutaneous injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurethane (NNNMU) to induce lung injury, adult rabbits were mechanically ventilated and lung function was evaluated. Each animal then received either nebulized Survanta (Neb Surv), nebulized saline (Neb Saline), nebulized gas alone (Neb Gas), or tracheally instilled Survanta (Inst Surv). The ventilation efficiency index ...
Goldsmith L S - - 1991
To determine whether changes in lung volume may be responsible for the clinical improvement in preterm infants given exogenous surfactant, we measured functional residual capacity (FRC), lung mechanics, and partial pressure of oxygen in seven ventilated neonates (birth weight 1080 +/- 361 gm (mean +/- SD); gestational age 28.3 +/- ...
Sandberg K - - 1991
Prophylactic treatment with ovine surfactant was evaluated in preterm lambs at risk for development of hyaline membrane disease. Eight mechanically ventilated newborn lambs were treated before delivery and 10 served as controls (gestational age 129-131 d). Lung mechanics, functional residual capacity, alveolar ventilation, efficiency of ventilation, and distribution of ventilation ...
Oyarzun M J - - 1991
Few studies have been done to establish the ventilatory factors affecting alveolar surfactant under resting conditions. Experiments in which ventilatory variables were recorded for 4 h were performed in 12 adult cats breathing spontaneously under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia. After the animals were killed and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were performed, the ...
Wathes C M - - 1991
A containment laboratory unit for research with aerosols of group 2 pathogenic microorganisms is described. The design criteria are based on current UK guidelines, which imply containment at group 3 level during aerosol production, storage, exposure of animals and sampling. Within the aerosol laboratory, primary containment is provided by a ...
Schulze A - - 1991
It has been suggested that high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFV) might improve gas exchange and reduce the risk of pressure-related side-effects compared to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Whereas most studies have used arbitrarily set frequencies for HFV, we evaluated the effects of HFV near resonant frequency (fr). Anaesthetised and tracheotomized ...
van Daal G J - - 1991
The effect of intratracheal surfactant administration was studied in rats with adult respiratory distress syndrome associated with infection with nebulized Sendai virus. Thirty-six hours after infection, animals (n = 7) showed severely impaired gas exchange and acidosis during artificial ventilation (PaO2 = 152.2 +/- 18.7, PaCO2 = 65.3 +/- 19.2, ...
Jackson J C - - 1991
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) permits adequate gas exchange but avoids the large phasic pressure-volume excursions of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV); such avoidance may reduce the lung injury associated with hyaline membrane disease (HMD). We hypothesized that premature monkeys ventilated from birth with HFOV would have reduced lung injury compared to ...
Kobayashi T - - 1991
Modified natural porcine surfactant was mixed with edema fluid sampled from the airways of hyperoxia-exposed adult rabbits. By varying the concentration of surfactant lipids (10, 25, and 50 mg/mL) and edema fluid proteins (0-280 mg/mL), we obtained a series of preparations with protein to surfactant lipid weight ratios ranging from ...
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