Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 616
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Andrade R S - - 1995
We studied the effect of lung preservation on the surfactant system in rats. Lung surfactant is necessary to maintain normal lung mechanics, and hence normal lung function. We evaluated lung mechanics with pressure-volume (P-V) curves, and analyzed biochemical changes of surfactant in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Additionally, we determined wet ...
Cordasco E M EM - - 1995
Accidental spread of potentially toxic gases, fumes, and particulate chemicals has been reported recently in various cities throughout the country and appears to be on the increase throughout the world in the past few years. Moreover, cerebral trauma, septic shock (ARDS), and environmental pulmonary edema from drug intoxication have been ...
Major D - - 1995
Tracheal instillation of perfluorochemical liquid (PFC) lowers surface tension in the lung and thus might reduce barotrauma commonly associated with conventional gas ventilation (GV) in highly immature and hypoplastic lungs. It could be a promising alternative treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) when GV alone is proving inefficient. The authors ...
Gutiérrez J A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemodynamic effects of high mean proximal airway pressures (Paw) during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in non-neonatal pediatrics patients with severe respiratory failure. DESIGN: Prospective and retrospective study. SETTING: Pediatric ICU in a university-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: 8 non-neonatal pediatric patients with severe respiratory failure ventilated with HFOV ...
King R J - - 1995
Pathophysiologic and biochemical (surfactant protein and phospholipid) features were studied in a baboon model of hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and superimposed infection. A total of 20 baboons were delivered by hysterotomy at 76% of gestation (140 d of gestational age) and were randomized into four groups, consisting of two control ...
Salman N H - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether oxygenation and lung mechanics are preserved during perfluorocarbon associated gas exchange of 24 hrs duration and after evaporation of perfluorocarbon. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental animal trials. SETTING: Animal laboratory in a university setting. SUBJECTS: Ten normal, neonatal piglets weighing 2.5 to 4.5 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Ten piglets were ...
Huang Y C - - 1995
Prolonged exposure to O2 causes diffuse alveolar damage and surfactant dysfunction that contribute to the pathophysiology of hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant would improve lung function during O2 exposure in primates. Sixteen healthy male baboons (10-15 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated for 96 h. The animals ...
Sjöstrand U H - - 1995
OBJECTIVES: To study the ability of different ventilatory approaches to keep the lung open. DESIGN: Different ventilatory patterns were applied in surfactant deficient lungs with PEEP set to achieve pre-lavage PaO2. SETTING: Experimental laboratory of a University Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. ANIMALS: 15 anaesthetised piglets. INTERVENTIONS: One volume-controlled ...
Golan A - - 1995
Pulmonary hypertension was associated with nonresponse to surfactant in six premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of a discrepancy between the X-ray findings and the severity of the clinical status as reflected by hypoxia despite maximal ventilatory support. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension ...
Aguilar-Nascimento J E - - 1995
The influence of intraoperative lavage with various solutions was tested on the healing of experimental colonic anastomoses performed in the presence of obstruction. After 24 h of ligature obstruction to the pelvic colon, male Wistar rats (n = 108) underwent colonic resection and primary anastomosis, using lavage with one of ...
Anker A L - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To study the use of exogenous surfactant in a rabbit fresh-water near-drowning model. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled experiment, 21 rabbits were anesthetized, paralyzed, and subjected to near drowning with 6 mL/kg of distilled water. Vital signs, arterial blood gases, and pulmonary compliance were measured at predetermined intervals. The ...
Mizuno K - - 1995
The effect of the addition of surfactant protein (SP)-B or SP-B plus SP-C (SP-BC) to a surfactant made from bovine lung (Survanta) was evaluated in 27-d-gestation preterm rabbits. The animals were treated with Survanta, Survanta + 2% SP-B, Survanta + 3% SP-BC, or sheep surfactant. They were then ventilated with ...
Leach C L - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) by means of a medical-grade perfluorochemical liquid, perflubron (LiquiVent), in premature lambs with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Further, to determine the compatibility of perflubron with exogenous surfactant both in vitro and in vivo during PLV. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study, ...
Enhorning G - - 1995
The hypothesis was tested that after extrusion of the liquid columns that often block the lumen of conducting airways, the latter will remain open because of well-functioning pulmonary surfactant preventing the liquid columns from returning. The extirpated lungs of 22 Wistar rats were studied. Via a tracheal tube a very ...
Fetter W P - - 1995
We describe four newborns (gestational ages 29-37 weeks; birthweights 1380-3040 grams) who were mechanically ventilated for respiratory insufficiency because of bacterial sepsis. A beneficial effect of bovine surfactant (Alvofact, dosages 50 or 100 mg/kg) was found, as shown by decreases in mean airway pressures and oxygen demands. No side effects ...
Karamanoukian H L - - 1995
The pathophysiology of the lamb model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) involves pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and surfactant deficiency. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a highly selective pulmonary vasodilator. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of inhaled NO on pulmonary gas exchange, acid-base balance, and pulmonary ...
Milner A D - - 1995
The finding of a lag of up to 24 h between the response to exogenous surfactant in infants with respiratory disease syndrome as assessed by blood gases and improvements in respiratory system compliance has generated considerable interest. Studies have shown that there is rapid increase in functional residual capacity after ...
Rossaint R - - 1995
Despite more than 25 years of extensive research the mortality of ARDS patients remains high. Besides the often deleterious course of the underlying disease, another reason for this high mortality lies in the aggressive ventilatory regimen which is required to maintain arterial blood gases in a more or less normal ...
Cummings J J - - 1995
Twenty lambs at 127 days' gestation (term is 145 days) were randomly assigned to receive Infasurf (Calf Lung Surfactant Extract, ONY Inc., Amherst, NY) as an intratracheal bolus (3 mliter kg-1) either into a fluid-filled lung before ventilation (n = 10), or after ventilation for 5 min (n = 10). ...
Imai Y - - 1994
Inflammatory chemical mediators, platelet-activating factor (PAF), thromboxane (TX) B2, and 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha, were extracted from lung lavage fluid after conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) to clarify the relation between mode of ventilation and lung injury in surfactant-depleted rabbit lungs. Anesthetized adult rabbits were tracheostomized, ...
Hertzog J H - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on pulmonary artery pressure and on total protein, phospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol content in the bronchoalveolar lavage-accessible space of the isolated perfused rat lung, and to evaluate the role of the lung in the clearance of TNF-alpha from ...
Landsperger W J - - 1994
Two human monoclonal antibodies, directed against the type a and type b flagellar proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, inhibited bacterial motility in vitro specifically and in a concentration-dependent manner. In order to determine if this decreased bacterial motility was associated with a decreased pathogenicity, the ability of these human antiflagellar monoclonal ...
Miserocchi G - - 1994
In anesthetized paralyzed term newborn rabbits at various postgestational ages (from birth up to 16 days), we measured by micropuncture technique the hydraulic pressure of the pulmonary interstitium (Pip), the extrapleural parietal interstitium, and the pleural liquid. Birth data refer to cesarian-delivered nonbreathing rabbits. Pip increased from 0.5 +/- 2 ...
Verder H - - 1994
In southern Scandinavia most babies with respiratory distress syndrome are initially treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. We performed a multicenter trial to investigate whether the addition of a single dose of porcine surfactant administered during a short intubation before the occurrence of serious deterioration could reduce the subsequent ...
Wiswell T E - - 1994
In vitro data have shown a concentration-dependent inhibition of surfactant by meconium, while anecdotal reports demonstrate improved oxygenation after surfactant replacement in babies with meconium aspiration syndrome, particularly in conjunction with high-frequency jet ventilation. We randomized 70 newborn piglets to either conventional or high-frequency jet ventilation, followed by insufflation of ...
Dizon-Co L - - 1994
Increased phospholipase A2 activity demonstrated in some forms of lung injury may contribute to surfactant dysfunction. Phospholipase A2-resistant analogs of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with surfactant properties might therefore be useful lipid components of treatment surfactants for certain lung injuries. The in vivo function of surfactants containing DPPC or the phospholipase-resistant analogs ...
Klöpping-Ketelaars W A - - 1994
We studied the possibility of improving lung volume and therefore clinical outcome in premature newborn lambs by increasing the inspiratory volumes during the first minute after birth. Sixteen lambs from eight were delivered by hysterotomy after 130-131 days' gestation. In eight lambs the lungs were inflated with a bag with ...
Häfner D - - 1994
Repetitive lung lavage of adult rats leads to lung injury similar to ARDS resulting in poor gas exchange, protein leakage and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) into the alveolar spaces (J Appl Physiol 1983; 55: 131-138). In a previous dose response comparison we have demonstrated that poor gas exchange could ...
Ogawa A - - 1994
To study the in vivo activity of the surfactant apoproteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C), we administered surfactants with defined apoprotein compositions to prematurely delivered rabbit pups. Rabbits given simple phospholipid mixtures containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol supplemented with both SP-B and SP-C or either protein alone had significantly greater lung compliance during ...
Pinkerton K E - - 1994
The effect of exogenous surfactant treatment on lung and type II cell structure of ventilated lambs of 137-138 days gestational age was studied. Thirty-four lambs were delivered and randomized to control or 100 mg/kg of natural sheep surfactant treatment groups. Lungs from one group of lambs not treated with surfactant ...
Nesti F D - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: To test whether perfluorocarbon-associated gas exchange (gas ventilation of the perfluorocarbon-liquid filled lung) could support oxygenation better than conventional positive pressure breathing in a piglet model of gastric aspiration-induced adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled study. SETTING: A critical care research laboratory in a university ...
Bowen W - - 1994
Arterial-alveolar partial pressure differences for oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen were measured before and after surfactant replacement therapy on 15 occasions in 14 ventilator-dependent preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD). Eight treatments resulted in a significant improvement in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) 2 hr after treatment; 7 ...
Klöpping-Ketelaars W A - - 1994
We studied the effect of sustained inspiratory inflations (SI) on the cardiovascular system by measuring mean central venous pressure (MCVP), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and heart rate (HR), before and during sustained lung inflations in premature lambs (128-133 days' gestation). SI consisted of four inflations of 5 s at ...
Sugiura M - - 1994
Both ventilator pattern and neutrophil activation influence lung injury in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We therefore questioned whether ventilator pattern independently affects neutrophil accumulation and function in early ARDS. Thirty-five New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized, paralyzed, and prepared using sterile techniques. Fifteen surfactant-depleted animals were randomized and ventilated ...
Novick R J - - 1994
Previous work in our laboratory has documented alterations in surfactant composition and function after prolonged lung graft storage and transplantation in dogs (Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;148:208-15). To determine whether exogenous surfactant therapy was beneficial, we pretreated 13 canine double lung blocks with prostacyclin, flushed them with 4 degrees C ...
Suen H C - - 1994
We designed an accurate method to study respiratory static volume-pressure relationships in small fetal and neonatal animals on the basis of Archimedes' principle. Our method eliminates the error caused by the compressibility of air (Boyle's law) and is sensitive to a volume change of as little as 1 microliters. Fetal ...
Lewis J F - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in the endogenous surfactant system in adult sheep rendered septic via cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). Forty-eight hours after CLP, septic animals had significant increases in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (p < 0.01), cardiac index (CI) (p < 0.01), and ...
Scheffers E C - - 1994
Patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have unilateral or bilateral hypoplasia of the lungs including delayed maturation of the terminal air sacs. Because these lungs are highly susceptible to barotrauma and oxygen toxicity, even in full-term newborns, continued research into optimal ventilatory regimen is essential to improve survival rate and ...
Ueda T - - 1994
Developmental differences in the intrinsic characteristics of surfactant have not been evaluated. Therefore, heavy-subtype surfactant was recovered from alveolar washes of 132-, 139-, and 148-day preterm lambs, 2- to 3-day-old newborn ventilated lambs, and adult sheep. The density of heavy-subtype surfactant and surfactant protein-A-to-saturated phosphatidylcholine ratios increased significantly with developmental ...
Sepp?nen M P - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To determine the course of systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in association with ductal shunting and cardiac output (CO) in preterm neonates. DESIGN: During the acute phase of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with and without surfactant treatment, serial Doppler ultrasound examinations were performed at the ages of 2, 12, ...
Nieman G F - - 1994
The pathophysiology of smoke inhalation includes surfactant inhibition and pulmonary vascular injury leading to a high permeability pulmonary oedema. It has been shown in surfactant deficient animal models that methods of ventilation (i.e. high-frequency ventilation - HFV) avoiding a large pressure excursion (i.e. pressure change from end expiration to peak ...
Smits A W - - 1994
Examination of lung washings from primitive air-breathing fishes (ropefish, bichirs, and gar) revealed a lipid-based surfactant with an average disaturated phospholipid-to-total phospholipid ratio five times lower than in mammals. The lung lavage of fishes was exceptionally rich in cholesterol, resulting in average cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratios three times higher, and cholesterol-to-disaturated phospholipid ...
Chan J O - - 1994
Our hypothesis was that surfactant instilled into the trachea, followed by body positioning maneuvers utilized to enhance drug distribution, could alter hemodynamic function and stimulate the release of catecholamines. We conducted a prospective randomized study designed to compare the immediate physiologic effects of the first dose of Exosurf Neonatal (5 ...
Huang Y C - - 1994
Surfactant dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and we hypothesized that surfactant treatment would improve experimental ARDS produced by continuous exposure to hyperoxia. Twelve healthy male baboons (10-15 kg) were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated with 2.5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) for 96 h. ...
John J - - 1994
BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that large tidal volume ventilation accelerates the alveolar clearance of insoluble particles and this may be related to accelerated surfactant evacuation from the alveolus into the airway. The aim of this study was to investigate if the effect of large tidal volume ventilation is ...
Wilcox D T - - 1994
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of surfactant deficiency on the pathophysiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Pregnant ewes were operated on at 80 days of gestation for creation of a diaphragmatic hernia in the lambs. Twenty-one lambs survived to be delivered by cesarean section and ...
John J - - 1994
We studied the effect of 3 h of large tidal volume ventilation on alveolar clearance of 0.63-micron fluorescent latex particles in rabbits during pentobarbital anesthesia. After particle deposition, six animals were killed as controls, six were subjected to large tidal volume ventilation with a peak pressure of 27 cmH2O, and ...
Orgeig S - - 1994
Mammalian lungs secrete a mixture of surface-active lipids (surfactant), which greatly reduces the surface tension of the fluid coating the inner lung surface, thereby reducing the risk of collapse upon deflation and increasing compliance upon inflation. During foetal lung maturation, these lipids become enriched in the primary and active ingredient, ...
Bongrani S - - 1994
Immature newborn rabbits delivered at a gestational age of 27 days were tracheotomized and treated, via the tracheal cannula, with clinically recommended doses of natural or synthetic surfactant (Curosurf and Exosurf, respectively). Littermates received 0.1% tyloxapol, 5% Tween 20, or saline. The dose volume of Curosurf was 2.5 ml/kg, that ...
Zayek M - - 1993
We previously showed that inhaling nitric oxide (NO) for up to 30 minutes selectively dilates the pulmonary circulation and improves oxygenation in newborn lambs with persistent pulmonary hypertension. In the current study we determined whether inhaling NO for 23 hours increased the survival rate of newborn lambs with persistent pulmonary ...
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