Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 617
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Soditt V - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Case report on the effect of inhaled prostacyclin in a preterm infant (28 weeks gestational age) with respiratory distress syndrome complicated by marked hypoxemia due to persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Treatment with surfactant, hyperventilation, and elevation of systemic blood pressure had failed to improve oxygenation. MEASURES: A ...
Verbrugge S J - - 1997
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a condition characterized by a high permeability oedema due to loss of the integrity of the alveolo-capillary barrier with impairment of normal surfactant function, resulting in an increased collapse tendency of the alveoli. Mechanical ventilation on such alveoli with repeated alveolar collapse and subsequent ...
Plötz F B - - 1997
The long-term outcome of infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome can be improved by optimizing surfactant therapy and minimizing the risk for pulmonary barovolutrauma and oxygen toxicity. The authors hypothesized that this may be achieved with low frequency ventilation and extracorporeal CO2 removal (LFV-ECCO2R), in combination with intratracheal instillation of ...
Gommers D - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The inhalation of nitric oxide increases oxygenation by improving the ventilation/perfusion ratios in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and those ratios in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is evidence that inhaled nitric oxide is ineffective when the lung remains atelectatic and poorly inflated. This study aimed to ...
Mrozek J D - - 1997
We compared the effects of surfactant and partial liquid ventilation (PLV), and the impact of administration order, on oxygenation, respiratory system compliance (Crs), hemodynamics, and lung pathology in an animal lung injury model. We studied four groups: surfactant alone (S; n = 8); partial liquid ventilation alone (PLV-only; n = ...
Liu M - - 1997
The pulsating bubble surfactometer has been commonly used to measure the minimum surface tension of lung surfactant. The complexity of the original transinterface pressure tracings and its possible physiological meanings remain undefined. In the present study, we compared surface properties between calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE) and Tween 20, a ...
Krause M - - 1997
We determined if surfactant treatment effect can be enhanced by mechanical volume recruitment during surfactant administration by measuring functional residual capacity, tidal volume, the alveolar portion of tidal volume, dynamic compliance of the respiratory system, a/A ratio, and PaCO2 by measuring before and after surfactant administration to rabbits with lung ...
Kaisers U - - 1997
The aim of this study was to determine the prolonged effects of sequential doses of a highly purified perfluorocarbon (FC 3280) on gas exchange and survival time in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The study was prospective, randomized and controlled. Twelve pigs (body weight 30 +/- 5 (mean +/- ...
Yu X Q - - 1997
To investigate whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in surfactant-induced systemic and pulmonary vasodilatation in newborn piglets with surfactant deficiency, 2-6-d-old piglets were subjected to repeated saline lung lavages. They were then randomly assigned to one of two groups (seven in each group): the N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) group received ...
Nelle M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Mechanical ventilation may impair cardiovascular function if the transpulmonary pressure rises. Studies on the effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) on cardiovascular functions have yielded conflicting results. This study was done to compare alterations in left ventricular output and blood flow velocities in the anterior cerebral artery, internal carotid ...
Wilcox D T - - 1997
Laboratory evidence has recently confirmed clinical reports suggesting that the surfactant system is abnormal in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Autopsy series show that, although both lungs are affected by the maldevelopment, the ipsilateral lung is more severely affected. The aim of this study was to examine the surfactant status in ...
Dijk P H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were, to select a nebuliser first, that operates safely in a neonatal ventilator setting and, second, that is most efficient. Thirdly, we studied the particle sizes of the surfactant aerosol. Fourthly, we studied where the nebulised surfactant is deposited in the tubing system of ...
Moen A - - 1997
Surfactant instillation may affect systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this effect is specific to surfactant or if it can be triggered by instillation of the same volume of saline. Piglets 3-5-d-old were subjected to repeated lung lavage using 20 mL/kg 0.9% saline ...
Mars M - - 1997
Direct intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurement in children is an important investigation, the use of which may be inhibited by the invasive nature of the procedure and the large 18-gauge (G) needles that have hitherto been recommended. These large needles contribute to patient, parental, and physician anxiety. This study compares ICP ...
Artmann G M - - 1997
When a discocytic erythrocyte (RBC) was partially aspirated into a 1.5-microns glass pipette with a high negative aspiration pressure (delta P = -3.9 kPa), held in the pipette for 30 s (holding time, th), and then released, it underwent a discocyte-echinocyte shape transformation. The degree of shape transformation increased with ...
Shen C T - - 1997
This study intended to evaluate the relationship between the prognosis for premature newborns (PM) with patient ductus arteriosus (PDA) and their Doppler echocardiographic findings. From January 1989 to December 1995, of 369 premature newborns in their first postnatal week, 196 underwent ductal evaluations echocardiographically: 47 of these 196 cases were ...
Schipper J A - - 1997
The influence of surfactant administration on cerebral and systemic circulation and on lung function was evaluated in 12 premature mechanically ventilated infants (mean birth weight 1,560 +/- 770 g, mean gestational age 30.0 +/- 3.2 weeks) with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving surfactant replacement therapy. We measured mean cerebral blood ...
Zobel G - - 1997
This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled design to evaluate gas exchange, lung mechanics, and pulmonary hemodynamics during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) combined with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in acute respiratory failure (ARF) with pulmonary hypertension (PH). ARF with PH was induced in 12 piglets weighing 9.7-13.7 kg by repeated ...
Rebello C M - - 1997
We asked if the amount of SP-B (range 37-410 micrograms/ml) in surfactants used to treat preterm lambs at 123 days of gestation correlated with postnatal lung function or the SP-B content of surfactant recovered by alveolar washes after 10 h ventilation. Ventilation was initiated using a low tidal volume strategy ...
Henry M D - - 1997
We have compared treatment responses of two surfactants in two animal models of respiratory distress syndrome. Preterm rabbits at 27 days gestation and premature lambs at 126 days gestation were treated with natural sheep surfactant Survanta (Ross Laboratories), or no surfactant and then were ventilated with the same ventilation style ...
Sulkowska M - - 1997
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypobaric hypoxia on the changes observed within lung parenchyma, particularly in the surfactant system-forming structures. The experiment used male Wistar rats, 180-220g b.w. The animals were kept in a hypobaric chamber for 3, 10 and 30 days. Pressure ...
Bloomfield G L - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of delayed administration of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on acute lung injury after the onset of gram-negative sepsis. DESIGN: Nonrandomized controlled study. SETTING: University medical center laboratory. SUBJECTS: Yorkshire swine. INTERVENTIONS: Five groups of swine were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and studied for 5 hours. After ...
John J - - 1997
The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of alveolar distention and surfactant dysfunction on alveolocapillary barrier function are different and additive. Pulmonary clearance of aerosolized technetium-99m-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) was used to characterize barrier function after perturbing the surfactant system with the detergent dioctyl sodium ...
Van der Touw T - - 1997
We examined the effects of separate applications of saline and a synthetic lung surfactant preparation (Surf; Exosurf Neonatal) into the supraglottic airway (SA) on the anteroposterior pharyngeal diameter (Dap) and the airway pressures required to close (Pcl) and reopen (Pop) the SA in five awake normal supine subjects. Dap, Pcl, ...
Schindler M B - - 1996
The pathogenesis of chronic neonatal lung disease involves the combined iatrogenic insults of oxygen toxicity and barotrauma in addition to lung inflammation. Newer ventilator strategies using smaller tidal volumes (3-7 mL/kg) in order to avoid overdistension, higher positive end-respiratory pressure and lower peak inspiratory pressures decrease barotrauma. Earlier reduction of ...
Buchanan S A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Decreased airway compliance after lung transplantation has been observed with severe ischemia-reperfusion injury. Further, it has been shown that the surfactant system is impaired after lung preservation and reperfusion. We hypothesized that surfactant replacement after allograft storage could preserve airway compliance during reperfusion. METHODS: Rabbit lungs were harvested after ...
Wagner M H - - 1996
Following surfactant instillation in infants treated for respiratory distress syndrome, a mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) decrease is often observed. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. In this study various circulatory parameters were recorded continuously after surfactant instillation to elucidate the role of pulmonary vascular resistance as one possible ...
Discher B M - - 1996
To determine if lateral phase separation occurs in films of pulmonary surfactant, we used epifluorescence microscopy and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to study spread films of calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE). Both microscopic methods demonstrated that compression produced domains of liquid-condensed lipids surrounded by a liquid-expanded film. The temperature dependence ...
Björklund L J - - 1996
The effect of natural surfactant on respiratory system mechanics in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is incompletely understood, possibly because the analysis has usually been confined to the tidal breath. We studied 11 paralyzed neonates weighing 540 to 1,850 g before and approximately 30 min after surfactant, which was ...
Widner L R - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To document the effect of administering artificial surfactant into the trachea, either by instillation or aerosolization, on acute lung injury experimentally induced with kerosene in sheep. DESIGN: Randomized, prospective, controlled study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Sheep (n = 24), weighing 8.5 to 25.2 kg (average 16.6). INTERVENTIONS: In anesthetized, ...
O'Toole S J - - 1996
Surfactant therapy given before the onset of ventilation (surfactant prophylaxis) has been shown to improve oxygenation, ventilation, and pulmonary hemodynamics in the lamb model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of surfactant administered after the onset of ventilation ("surfactant rescue"). Ten ...
Steinhorn D M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of partial liquid ventilation on phospholipid metabolism. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled laboratory study. SETTING: University-affiliated animal research facility. SUBJECTS: Mature New Zealand white rabbits (n = 17). INTERVENTIONS: The rabbits were sedated, anesthetized, and instrumented with tracheostomy and the insertion of an arterial catheter. The rabbits ...
Pinquier D - - 1996
Mechanical ventilation using a modified endotracheal tube, allowing bypass and washout of the endotracheal dead space (McETV), was compared with conventional controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) in healthy and in surfactant-depleted rabbits. In healthy animals, shifting from CMV to McETV led to an increase in PaO2 (89 +/- 16 versus 104 ...
Enhorning G - - 1996
To investigate the contribution of pulmonary surfactant to a low airflow resistance through narrow conducting airways, a system was developed with which it was possible to determine the resistance meeting a steady flow of air at 0.5 mL/min. The airflow, delivered by an infusion pump, entered the extreme periphery of ...
Foust R R - - 1996
Evidence of surfactant inactivation by meconium has led to the use of exogenous surfactant therapy in the management of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Liquid assisted ventilation has been shown to improve the cardiopulmonary function in lungs with high surface tension. We compared exogenous surfactant therapy with liquid assisted ventilation in ...
Tarczy-Hornoch P - - 1996
Total liquid ventilation (LV) lowers airway pressures and potentially reduces barotrauma in models of hyaline membrane disease. LV eliminates surface tension by eliminating the air-perfluorochemicals (PFC) interface but does not eliminate interfacial tension (IT) at the lung/PFC interface. We hypothesized that pretreatment with exogenous surfactant before LV would shift the ...
Pappert D - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To define the effect of N-nitroso-N-methyl-urethane (NNNMU) on pulmonary gas exchange, compliance and the biochemical and functional properties of the lung surfactant system. DESIGN: Four days after inducing lung injury, gas exchange and pulmonary compliance were studied and a bronchoalveolar lavage was taken. SETTING: Experimental laboratory of a university ...
Lu M Y - - 1996
Systemic air embolism is a rare but fatal complication of the ventilatory support. We reported a case with this complication after surfactant therapy. This 1175 gm neonate was born at the gestational age of 28 weeks. Endotracheal intubation was performed after birth for positive pressure ventilation. Surfactant therapies (Exosurf Neonatal) ...
Suzuki S - - 1996
It is unknown how the in vivo alveolar surface area-to-volume ratio (S/V) changes in low-pressure pulmonary edema. Here, the S/V is the area of the air-tissue interface per unit total volume (air plus tissue). We hypothesized that in oleic acid (OA)-induced edema inactivation of the pulmonary surfactant may increase surface ...
Wood P G - - 1996
We have previously reported that levels of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs of the lizard Pogona vitticeps increase with increasing body temperature. Static lung compliance decreases with increasing body temperature, and is only marginally affected by the presence of surfactant. Here, we examined the effects of surfactant, temperature, ventilatory pattern ...
Tütüncü A S - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of partial liquid ventilation (i.e., mechanical ventilation in combination with intratracheal administration of perfluorocarbon) on lung function, with particular attention to the integrity of the alveolocapillary membrane in healthy adult animals. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Laboratory at the Department of Experimental Anesthesiology, Erasmus ...
Fulkerson W J - - 1996
The adult respiratory distress syndrome is an acute clinical illness characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and refractory hypoxemia. Injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier and lung inflammation lead to intrapulmonary shunting of blood, surfactant depletion, and pulmonary vascular obstruction. Numerous mediators contribute to the pathologic response. Conventional therapy includes treating underlying ...
Prokop A - - 1996
In a prospective clinical study we examined whether bronchoscopically controlled suctioning is preferable to the blind suctioning of mucus aspirates for bacterial identification of intensive care unit patients with pneumonia. Forty patients with clinical and radiologic signs of pneumonia underwent both bronchoscopically controlled and blind endotracheal lavage. Bronchoscopically controlled suctioning ...
Segerer H - - 1996
Surfactant bolus instillation may be associated with a drop in blood pressure. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been found in surfactant preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate rapid tracheal infusion of surfactant during 5 min as an alternative to bolus instillation and to examine whether a PAF receptor ...
Kobayashi T - - 1996
We biologically assessed functions of several reconstituted surfactants with the same minimum surface tension (2-3 mN/m) as "complete" porcine pulmonary surfactant (natural surfactant) but with longer surface adsorption times. Administration of natural surfactant (adsorption time 0.29 s) into the lungs of surfactant-deficient immature rabbits brought a tidal volume of 16.1 ...
Miyazawa N - - 1996
To investigate how pulmonary surfactant influences alveolar structure in vivo, we examined the alveolar surface area-to-lung volume (S/V) ratio of the lung parenchyma of a live dog by light-scattering stereology before and after saline lavage. We measured the backscattered light pattern produced by applying a laser beam to the pleural ...
Miserocchi G - - 1995
By micropuncture technique we measured pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pip) from birth up to 6 h postnatal age in anesthetized and paralyzed cesarian delivered term (31 days gestation) and premature (27 to 30 days gestation) rabbits. In term cesarian delivered rabbits Pip followed the time course of vaginally delivered rabbits, namely, ...
Houmes R J - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of partial liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbons on hemodynamics and gas exchange in large pigs with induced acute lung injury (ALI). DESIGN: Randomized, prospective, double-control, experimental study. Experimental intensive care unit of a university. MATERIALS: Eighteen large pigs (50 +/- 5 kg body weight) with an ...
Moura A - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The infusion sleeve is a novel drug-delivery catheter system designed to deliver an agent under controlled conditions into the arterial wall at the site of angioplasty. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the delivery agent via the infusion sleeve in ex vivo and in vivo models. ...
Wollert S - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of intestinal mucosal injury during faecal peritonitis in pigs, the relation of such lesions to haemodynamic variables, intramucosal pH (pHi), and endothelial adherence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study. SETTING: University department of surgery, Sweden. SUBJECTS: 57 Juvenile pigs. INTERVENTIONS: Pigs had faecal ...
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