Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 617
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Zhou Z H - - 2000
Improvement of pulmonary perfusion and blood oxygenation and prevention of acute lung injury (ALI) may rely on ventilation strategy. We hypothesized that application of a combined surfactant, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), and pressure support ventilation (PSV) should more effectively protect the lungs from injury. Anesthetized and intubated adult rabbits weighing ...
Malloy J L - - 2000
The present study examined the effects of mechanical ventilation, with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), on the alveolar surfactant system in an animal model of sepsis-induced lung injury. Septic animals ventilated without PEEP had a significant deterioration in oxygenation compared with preventilated values (arterial PO(2)/inspired O(2) fraction 316 +/- ...
Kusuda S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The rapid improvement of lung function after exogenous surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) can affect the functions of several other systems, which includes cerebral blood flow volume (CBF). To evaluate the change in CBF after treatment with exogenous surfactant, we measured CBF in a newborn piglet model ...
Armstrong L - - 1999
Pulmonary fibrosis is a well-recognized feature of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Using immunoassays of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), fluid we investigated the synthesis of type I procollagen (PICP) and type I/II collagen degradation products (COL2-3/4C(short) neoepitope) in patients with ARDS, acute lung injury (ALI), subjects with risk factors for ARDS ...
Barrington K J - - 1999
The object of this study was to determine the effects of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with and without inhaled nitric oxide (NO) over a 4-h period on lung mechanics, gas exchange, and hemodynamics in an animal model of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Twenty-four fentanyl-anesthetized piglets were instrumented and administered a ...
Davies M W - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect on oxygenation and lung damage of partial perfluorocarbon liquid high frequency oscillatory ventilation (PL-HFOV) versus high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) alone, in rabbits with acute lung injury, using high lung volume strategy HFOV. METHODS: Twelve adult New Zealand white rabbits were initially ventilated with HFOV ...
Mildenhall L F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The benefit of surfactant administration in preterm newborns is well described. The increase in lung compliance and other effects that it produces might however be dangerous in a transportation situation. This study examined the safety of surfactant (primarily Exosurf; Burroughs-Wellcome Research, Triangle Park, NC, USA) administration in preterm babies ...
Claridge J A - - 1999
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a technique with limited use in adult patients. The main purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate HFOV on adult trauma patients with refractory lung dysfunction. Refractory lung dysfunction was defined as a PaO2:FiO2 ratio <75 for 1 hour despite maximum support via conventional ...
Möller J C - - 1999
The aim of the study is to investigate which of two treatment options of saline lavage induced ARDS in rabbits is better in terms of oxygenation and prevention of barotrauma: combined high peak pressure ventilation with surfactant administration and inhaled nitric oxide or veno-venous ECMO combined with low peak inspiratory ...
Holopainen R - - 1999
To investigate the possible protective effects of nitric oxide (NO) inhalation in newborns with meconium aspiration, 18 10-12-d-old piglets were studied for 6h after an intratracheal bolus (3 ml/kg) of a 65-mg/ml mixture of human meconium. Twelve of the piglets were treated with continuous NO inhalation at a dose of ...
Coalson J J - - 1999
A borderline viability model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)/chronic lung disease of infancy (CLD) with pathophysiologic parameters consistent with those in extremely immature humans with BPD/CLD is described. After prenatal steroid treatment of pregnant dams, 12 premature baboons were delivered by cesarean-section at 125 d (term gestation, 185 d), treated with ...
Gommers D - - 1999
The aim of this study was to compare high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) with and without surfactant in the treatment of surfactant-deficient rabbits. A previously described saline lung lavage model of lung injury in adult rabbits was used. The efficacy of each therapy was assessed by ...
Ruano M L - - 1999
The interaction of pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) labeled with Texas Red (TR-SP-A) with monolayers containing zwitterionic and acidic phospholipids has been studied at pH 7.4 and 4.5 using epifluorescence microscopy. At pH 7.4, TR-SP-A expanded the pi-A isotherms of film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). It interacted at high concentration at ...
Vázquez de Anda G F GF Department of Anaesthesiology (Room Ee 2393), Erasmus University Rotterdam, P. O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The - - 1999
To demonstrate in experimental animals with respiratory insufficiency that under well-defined conditions, commercially available ventilators allow settings which are as effective as high-frequency oscillatory ventilators (HFOV), with respect to the levels of gas exchange, protein infiltration, and lung stability. Prospective, randomized, animal study. Experimental laboratory of a university. 18 adult ...
Savov J - - 1999
Mechanical ventilation of the lung could affect surfactant turnover by alteration of its secretion, recycling, and degradation. In vitro studies of surfactant subfractions recoverable from lavage fluid have led to predictions about surfactant physiology in vivo that include morphological transformations. We used electron microscopy to study in situ lipid forms ...
Ochs M - - 1999
Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) result in surfactant dysfunction. Whether the impairment of surfactant is a consequence or a cause of intraalveolar edema formation is still unknown. The cumulative effects of lung perfusion, ischemic storage, and subsequent reperfusion on surfactant ultrastructure and pulmonary function were studied in a rat isolated perfused ...
Michna J - - 1999
Ventilation style influences lung injury and the amount of large-aggregate biophysically active surfactant in adult lungs. We asked how positive end-expiratory pressures (PEEP) would influence clinical responses and surfactant pools in surfactant-treated preterm lambs ventilated for 7 h with tidal volumes (VT) of 10 ml/kg. The 126-d gestation preterms were ...
Sakai T - - 1999
To determine whether low mean airway pressure (MAP) and/or stroke volume (SV) settings cause lung injury during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), we investigated the influence of various combinations of MAP and SV on the amplitude of the pressure swing at four different sites in the normal lung of rabbits. ...
Verbrugge S J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a rat model of ventilation-induced lung injury whether metabolic changes in the lung are reflected by an increased purine concentration (adenosine, inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate; an index of adenosine-triphosphate breakdown) of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and whether purine can, thus, indirectly serve as a marker ...
Schmalisch G - - 1999
Several studies have demonstrated that ambroxol stimulates surfactant synthesis and has antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects. We investigated the effect of ambroxol on lung function in newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) weighing <1,500 g. In all, 102 newborns were enrolled (52 received ambroxol and 50 placebo). After extubation, lung function ...
Calkovska A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Deterioration of lung function in meconium aspiration syndrome may in part be due to inactivation of endogenous surfactant. We evaluated the efficacy of high-frequency ventilation (HFV) and the combination of HFV and surfactant therapy in the management of respiratory failure induced by experimental meconium aspiration in adult rats. METHODS: ...
Klyachko N L - - 1999
Malic dehydrogenase (MDH) studied in water and reversed micelles upon pressure application revealed a difference in catalysis. Whereas MDH in water appeared to be not sensitive to the pressure increasing, the catalytic activity of MDH in reversed micelles showed bell-shaped dependencies both on pressure and surfactant hydration degree, w0. The ...
Discher B M - - 1999
We have shown previously that lateral compression of pulmonary surfactant monolayers initially induces separation of two phases but that these remix when the films become more dense (1). In the studies reported here, we used fluorescence microscopy to examine the role of the different surfactant constituents in the remixing of ...
Hartog A - - 1999
We have compared three treatment strategies, that aim to prevent repetitive alveolar collapse, for their effect on gas exchange, lung mechanics, lung injury, protein transfer into the alveoli and surfactant system, in a model of acute lung injury. In adult rats, the lungs were ventilated mechanically with 100% oxygen and ...
Bersten A D - - 1998
1. Although abnormalities in pulmonary surfactant were initially implicated in the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 30 years ago, most subsequent research has focused on mediators of the parenchymal acute lung injury (ALI) and the associated increase in alveolocapillary permeability. 2. Surfactant is essential for normal breathing ...
Cochrane C G - - 1998
As a model of the meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) of human infants, adult rabbits and newborn rhesus monkeys received intratracheal instillation of human meconium to induce pulmonary injury. Injured rabbits were ventilated with 100% O2 and divided into four treatment groups, receiving: 1) bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) with dilute KL4-Surfactant; 2) ...
Abubakar K - - 1998
Although intrapulmonary fibrin deposition is a pathognomonic feature of acute lung injury, it remains uncertain whether thrombin inhibitors affect clinically important outcomes. We hypothesized that both heparin and antithrombin (AT) concentrate improve gas exchange during experimental respiratory distress syndrome. We also tested whether combination therapy is more beneficial than monotherapy. ...
Luchetti M - - 1998
BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that surfactant treatment helps to improve severe bronchiolitis by restoring surfactant system activity. This study aims to assess the effect of surfactant on gas exchange, peak inspiratory pressure and duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) stay in children with severe bronchiolitis. METHODS: Twenty ...
Germann P G - - 1998
The time course of histopathological changes in a rat lung lavage model of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was analyzed by sacrificing animals 10, 30, 60, 180, and 210 min after the last lung parenchyma lavage which was performed with physiological saline solution. This lavage depleted the lung from ...
Lutz C J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of treating endotoxin-induced lung injury with single dose exogenous surfactant and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). DESIGN: Prospective trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a university medical center. SUBJECTS: Nineteen certified healthy pigs, weighing 15 to 20 kg. INTERVENTIONS: Pigs were anesthetized and surgically prepared for hemodynamic and ...
Bersten A D - - 1998
Pulmonary surfactant abnormalities have consistently been documented in patients with acute lung injury (ALI), however, there is little evidence directly correlating them to altered respiratory mechanics. To explore this further, surfactant composition was measured in lung aspirate fluid collected on 15 occasions from 10 patients with ALI. The composition was ...
Fernández-Ruanova M B - - 1998
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of modified porcine surfactant (Curosurf) given either by a simplified slow delivery technique or by the standard bolus method, on pulmonary gas exchange, lung mechanics, and surfactant distribution in rats with respiratory failure produced by lung lavage. Twelve rats with ...
Mrozek J D - - 1998
Surfactant followed by partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbon (PFC; LiquiVent) improves oxygenation, lung compliance, and lung pathology in lung-injured animals receiving conventional ventilation (CV). In this study, we hypothesize that high-frequency oscillation (HFO) and CV will provide equivalent oxygenation in lung-injured animals following surfactant repletion and PLV, once lung ...
Krause M F - - 1998
Marked hypoxia secondary to intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting is a characteristic of respiratory failure in human neonates and can sometimes be complicated by additional extrapulmonary right-to-left shunting. To investigate the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on intrapulmonary shunting, two typical pulmonary diseases of the newborn (respiratory distress syndrome and meconium ...
Ervin M G - - 1998
Abnormalities of premature newborn adaptation after preterm birth result in significant perinatal mortality and morbidity. We assessed the effects of short-term (24 h) fetal betamethasone exposure on preterm newborn baboon pulmonary and cardiovascular regulation and renal sodium handling during the first 24 h after birth. Male fetal baboons (Papio) (124-day ...
Thome U - - 1998
Measurement of mean lung volume (MLV) in high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) may be useful for optimizing the high lung volume strategy, but has not been available until now. We have measured MLV by means of the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) washout method in 13 premature infants ventilated with HFO because of ...
Carraway M S - - 1998
Recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) through upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules is a proposed mechanism of injury in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that pretreatment of baboons with a monoclonal antibody to human E- and L-selectin (EL-246) during sepsis would decrease PMN influx into tissues and ...
Abdiche M - - 1998
In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily ...
Svartengren M - - 1998
An animal model has been used and further developed to examine and evaluate differences in regional deposition patterns of an Evans Blue dye (EB) tracer aerosol. This was done by using different carrier gas composition of either He-O2 (80% helium, 20% oxygen) or air (79% nitrogen, 21% oxygen) in histamine-provoked ...
Fatani A J - - 1998
The present study was undertaken to investigate the involvement of kinins in the cardiovascular- and respiratory effects of LQQ venom. Blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration were studied in anaesthetised rabbits, in the presence and absence of aprotinin and icatibant, a B2 bradykinin antagonist. Plasma bradykinin concentrations were ...
Hamdan A H - - 1998
We studied the changes in acceleration time/right ventricular ejection time ratio (AT/RVET; indicative of changes in pulmonary artery pressure) calculated from Doppler ultrasound examinations performed before and 1, 6, and 12 h after the first and second doses of surfactant following the administration of each of three different surfactants during ...
Weg J G - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothorax and other air leaks - any extrusion of air outside the tracheobronchial tree - have been attributed to high ventilatory pressures or volumes and linked to increased mortality. METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective trial of aerosolized synthetic surfactant ...
Davis A J - - 1998
We evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant surfactant protein-C (rSP-C) surfactant in vitro and in vivo, using ventilated preterm lambs and rabbits. The surface tension measured with a Wilhelmy balance of the rSP-C surfactant was lower than the surface tension of natural sheep surfactant (containing SP-B and SP-C). The rSP-C ...
Ikegami M - - 1998
We investigated whether the style of ventilation would influence respiratory physiology or surfactant metabolism in surfactant-treated preterm lambs. Preterm lambs were delivered at 131 +/- 1 d gestation and treated with an organic solvent extract of sheep surfactant (100 mg/kg). The lambs were randomized to ventilation peiods of 2 h, ...
Holopainen R - - 1998
To investigate the effects of aspirating different meconium concentrations on the pulmonary circulation in 10- to 12-day-old piglets, 30 catheterized animals were studied. The piglets received an intratracheal bolus of 3 ml/kg of a mixture of human meconium in saline with concentrations of 20 mg/ml (light, n = 7), 40 ...
Davidson A - - 1998
Gas ventilation following instillation of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid, partial liquid ventilation (PLV), improves gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics in neonatal animals and humans with severe respiratory distress. The effect of PLV on cardiac contractility, performance, pulmonary blood flow and ductal shunt has not been fully described. To this end, we ...
Krause M F - - 1998
'Rescue' surfactant treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) results in two mechanisms: stabilization of alveoli already being ventilated and recruitment of alveoli collapsed before surfactant administration. Mechanical recruitment of alveoli from this collapsed compartment might enhance the immediate effects of surfactant treatment. To test this hypothesis 15 ...
Ito Y - - 1998
We evaluated the effects of various ventilation strategies on the efficacy of exogenous surfactant therapy in lung-injured adult rabbits. Lung injury was induced by repetitive whole-lung saline lavage followed by mechanical ventilation. Three hours after the final lavage, 100 mg lipid/kg bovine lipid extract surfactant was instilled. After confirmation of ...
Tashiro K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of surfactant in the mechanism and treatment of acute lung injury caused by inhalation of fabric protector. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: University laboratory. INTERVENTIONS: In vitro experiment: a porcine surfactant suspension (10 mg.ml-1) was exposed to a fabric protector aerosolized with an ultrasonic nebulizer ...
Lambert H J - - 1998
AIM: To examine the effect of intravascular volume expansion for the treatment of hypovolaemia in sick preterm neonates. METHODS: An intravenous infusion of 20 ml per kg of 4.5% albumin was given to 14 preterm neonates. The effects on systolic blood pressure, central peripheral temperature difference (c-pT), and plasma arginine ...
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