Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 608
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Kandler M A - - 2001
The effect of aerosolized perfluorocarbon (PFC) (FC77) on pulmonary gas exchange and lung mechanics was studied in a surfactant depleted piglet model. Sixty minutes after induction of lung injury by bronchoalveolar lavage, 20 piglets were randomized to receive aerosolized PFC (Aerosol-PFC, 10 ml/kg/h, n = 5), partial liquid ventilation (PLV) ...
Franz A R - - 2001
The aim of this study was to examine whether preserved spontaneous breathing (SB) supported by proportional-assist ventilation (PAV) would improve cardiac output (CO) during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in rabbits with and without lung disease if compared with time-cycled, volume-controlled ventilation (CV) combined with muscle paralysis (MP). PLV was initiated ...
Mehta S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in adult patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and oxygenation failure. DESIGN: Prospective, clinical study. SETTING: Intensive care and burn units of two university teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: Twenty-four adults (10 females, 14 males, aged 48.5 +/- ...
Thome U H - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that partial liquid ventilation (PLV) would improve oxygenation in nonparalyzed, surfactant-deficient rabbits breathing spontaneously while supported by proportional assist ventilation (PAV). This ventilation mode compensates for low pulmonary compliance and high resistance and thereby facilitates spontaneous breathing. DESIGN: Randomized trial. SETTING: University animal research facility. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six ...
Harrington D T - - 2001
In an earlier neonatal porcine model of smoke inhalation injury (SII), immediate postinjury application of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) had dramatic beneficial effects on lung compliance, oxygenation, and survival over a 24-h period. To explore the efficacy of PLV following SII, we treated animals at 2 and 6 h after ...
Warnecke G - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The combined application of exogenous surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide was evaluated for prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the lung. METHODS: Left lungs were selectively perfused in 18 minipigs in situ with cold preservation solution. After 90 min of warm ischemia, the lungs were reperfused and the right pulmonary ...
Crane J M - - 2001
Films of pulmonary surfactant in the lung are metastable at surface pressures well above the equilibrium spreading pressure of 45 mN/m but commonly collapse at that pressure when compressed in vitro. The studies reported here determined the effect of compression rate on the ability of monolayers containing extracted calf surfactant ...
Seri I - - 2001
Although close to half of the newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units receive treatment for "hypotension," the normal physiologic blood pressure range ensuring appropriate organ perfusion in the neonate is unknown. Thus, the decision to treat hypotension in the newborn is based on statistically defined gestational and postnatal age-dependent ...
Sommerer A - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To determine possible additive effects of combined high-dose partial liquid ventilation (PLV) and almitrine bismesylate (ALM) on pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, controlled animal study in an animal research facility of a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: ALI ...
Vazquez de Anda G F - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: It has been demonstrated that pulmonary surfactant plays a role in the pathophysiology of ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI). Therefore, we investigated whether exogenous surfactant might restore lung function and lung mechanics in an established model of VILI. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, animal study. SETTING: Experimental laboratory of a university. SUBJECTS: ...
Veldhuizen R A - - 2001
Mechanical ventilation of the lung is an essential but potentially harmful therapeutic intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The objective of the current study was to establish and characterize an isolated mouse lung model to study the harmful effects of mechanical ventilation. Lungs were isolated from BalbC mice ...
Bauer T T - - 2001
Bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) may be followed by a systemic inflammatory response. Previous reports have suggested pneumonia as a predisposing condition and systemic cytokines as possible mediators. To test this hypothesis, systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were studied before and at 12 h and ...
Krause Martin F. - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxemic respiratory failure in the newborn infant due to severe parenchymal lung disease is caused by large, intrapulmonary, right-to-left shunting. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to reduce shunting and improve oxygenation-however inconsistently-in a variety of neonatal lung diseases such as meconium aspiration pneumonitis, bacterial pneumonia, surfactant deficiency, and ...
Adams J A - - 2000
The hemodynamic effects of periodic acceleration (pG(z)), induced in the spinal axis with noninvasive motion ventilation (NIMV), were studied in a piglet model of pulmonary hypertension associated with meconium aspiration. Animals (n = 12) were anesthetized, paralyzed, intubated, and supported by conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Thirty minutes after tracheal instillation ...
Yoder B A - - 2000
Acute lung injury models demonstrate that high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) improves lung function, mechanics, and histopathology with reduced inflammatory mediators. Neither human HFOV trials nor premature animal studies have adequately evaluated these factors during prolonged HFOV. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of prolonged HFOV with ...
Degraeuwe P L - - 2000
This study was designed to compare the efficacy and potential protective or injurious effects of tidal liquid ventilation (TLV), liquid-assisted high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (LA-HFOV), and high PEEP conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Preterm lambs (124-126 days gestation), prophylactically treated with natural surfactant, were allocated to one ...
Suman O E - - 2000
Airway function deteriorates significantly on cessation of exercise or isocapnic hyperventilation challenges but is largely preserved during the challenge in humans and guinea pigs. PGE(2), an endogenous bronchodilator, might be responsible for the preservation of lung function during hyperventilation (HV). We hypothesized that PGE(2) might have a protective effect during ...
Koivusalo A - - 2000
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Gastric or rectosigmoid intramural pH (pHi) is considered a reliable indicator of splanchnic perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rectosigmoid pHi reflects the severity of bowel damage in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). METHODS: A total of 36 neonatal piglets, (median age, 3; range, 1 to ...
Kaisers U - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of an inhaled endothelin A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist on hemodynamics and pulmonary gas exchange in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, and controlled study in a university laboratory. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Sixteen pigs were ventilated in a volume controlled mode during ...
Krol S - - 2000
This study focuses on the structural organization of surfactant protein B (SP-B) containing lipid monolayers. The artificial system is composed of the saturated phospholipids dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) in a molar ratio of 4:1 with 0.2 mol% SP-B. The different "squeeze-out" structures of SP-B were visualized by scanning probe ...
Vazquez de Anda G F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that under well-defined conditions, pressure-controlled ventilators (PCV) allow settings that are as good as high-frequency oscillatory ventilators (HFOV) at preserving the function of exogenous surfactant in lung-lavaged rats. DESIGN: Experimental, comparative study. SETTING: Research laboratory of a large university. SUBJECTS: Sixteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (280-310 g). ...
Bendel-Stenzel Ellen M. - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To compare the physiologic and pathologic effects of conventional ventilation (CV) and high-frequency ventilation (HFV) during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perflubron after surfactant treatment with the results of HFV plus surfactant in an animal lung-injury model created by saline lavage. We also studied the dose effects of perflubron ...
Veldhuizen R A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the lung injury induced by certain mechanical ventilation strategies is associated with changes in the pulmonary surfactant system. DESIGN: Analysis of the pulmonary surfactant system from isolated rat lungs after one of four different ventilatory strategies. SETTING: A research laboratory at a university. SUBJECTS: ...
Göthberg S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Conventional mechanical ventilatory support (CV) contributes to lung injury in premature lambs with respiratory distress syndrome, a disease that is characterized by progressive deterioration of gas exchange and increased lung inflammation. Lung recruitment strategies, such as high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV), improve gas exchange and ...
Wagner M H - - 2000
To investigate the effect of an intratracheal surfactant fog on oxygenation, blood pressure, distribution, and recovery rate as a pilot study to intratracheal surfactant aerosol. Prospective, randomized study. University laboratory. A total of 15 New Zealand White rabbits. The anesthetized ventilated rabbits were surfactant-deprived by repeated lung lavages and then ...
Bauer K - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) with a high lung volume strategy is an experimental mode of ventilating preterm infants aimed at achieving maximal alveolar recruitment Higher mean airway pressures are used during HFOV than during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV), and the intrathoracic volume increase is relatively constant. Both factors increase ...
Knight P R - - 2000
Previously we have demonstrated that prolonged exposure to 100% ambient oxygen leads to a marked loss in functional lung volume and lung compliance, hypoxemia, and surfactant system abnormalities similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, 50% oxygen administration is believed to be safe in most clinical settings. In the ...
Merz U - - 2000
Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) improves oxygenation in various animal models of respiratory insufficiency. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional ventilation (CV), high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), and PLV combined with CV or HFOV on gas exchange and histopathology. Thirty anaesthetised newborn piglets (mean weight ...
Fehrenbach A - - 2000
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury results in the impairment of surfactant activity. The hypothesis that the differences in lung preservation quality obtained by EuroCollins (EC) and Celsior (CE) solutions were related to surfactant alterations was tested. To avoid extensive structural damage and edema formation, which can secondarily affect the surfactant system, lungs ...
MacIntyre N R - - 2000
Surface active material is important in the function of both the infant and adult lung. In the premature infant, surfactant depletion results in the requirement for very high distending pressures to open alveoli. As a consequence, shunt, hypoxemia, and right ventricular dysfunction occur. Surfactant replacement, especially by the direct instillation ...
Frevert C W - - 2000
CD14, a pattern recognition receptor found on myeloid cells, is a critical component of the innate immune system that mediates local and systemic host responses to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial products. Previous studies in normal animals have tested the effect of CD14 blockade on the systemic response to i.v. LPS. ...
Hartog A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether mechanical ventilation using "the open lung concept" during surfactant depletion can attenuate the deterioration in pulmonary function. DESIGN: Experimental, comparative study. SETTING: Research laboratory of a large university. SUBJECTS: Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 280-340 g. INTERVENTIONS: Twelve rats were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated with 100% ...
Alpard S K - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To develop a predictable, dose-dependent, clinically relevant model of severe respiratory failure associated with a 40% total body surface area, full-thickness (third-degree) cutaneous flame burn and smoke inhalation injury in adult sheep. DESIGN: Model development. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Adult female sheep (n = 22). INTERVENTIONS: Animals were divided ...
Simma B - - 2000
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) has been shown to reduce lung injury and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). We hypothesized that HFO leads to decreased endothelin 1 (ET-1) and endothelin 3 (ET-3) release when compared to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in lung-lavaged rabbits. Prospective, randomized, controlled animal study. In 26 adult New ...
Bahlmann H - - 2000
To evaluate the effect of aerosolized modified natural surfactant in adult rats with respiratory failure. Lung-lavaged adult rats were treated with aerosolized surfactant, aerosolized saline or a bolus of surfactant. Surfactant was labelled with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and human serum albumin was given intravenously for evaluation of lung protein leakage. Blood ...
Kukkonen A K - - 2000
The efficacy of a natural porcine surfactant and a synthetic surfactant were compared in a randomized trial. In three neonatal intensive care units, 228 neonates with respiratory distress and a ratio of arterial to alveolar partial pressure of oxygen <0.22 were randomly assigned to receive either Curosurf 100 mgkg-1 or ...
Nikischin W - - 2000
Descriptions of the effects of intratracheally applied surfactant on respiratory system compliance (C(rs)) have been somewhat controversial because the commonly used methods for assessing pulmonary function were designed for a linear pressure/volume (P/V) relation of the respiratory system. In infants with lung disease a linear P/V relation cannot be expected. ...
Ikegami M - - 2000
We asked whether lung injury and surfactant metabolism differed in preterm lambs after a 1-h period of hyperventilation to P(CO2) values of 25-30 mm Hg. The lambs then were surfactant treated and conventionally ventilated (CV) or high-frequency oscillatory ventilated (HFOV) for an additional 1 or 8 h. The results were ...
Sison C - - 2000
Our aim was to study whether inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) moderates respiratory failure induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) without severe pulmonary hypertension. The following successive treatments, interrupted by 20-30-min rest periods, were given to piglets: iNO (20 ppm for 20 min), exogenous surfactant, iNO, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and iNO. ...
Nakamura T - - 2000
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that lavage with exogenous surfactant before partial liquid ventilation in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) would improve debris removal, and therefore the effectiveness of partial liquid ventilation. METHODS: 12 newborn piglets were randomised into 4 groups, partial liquid ventilation or gas ventilation, with and without surfactant ...
Ochs M - - 2000
Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a major problem in clinical lung transplantation, is associated with surfactant dysfunction. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that preservation related improvements in post-ischaemic lung function are associated with improved ultrastructural preservation of pulmonary surfactant. Rat lungs were flush perfused with modified Euro-Collins solutions (ECS), ...
Roll C - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess changes in cerebral haemodynamics and oxygenation induced by surfactant administration using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: Eighteen premature infants, mean birth weight 960 g (range 550-1560 g), mean gestation age 28 weeks (range 25-30 weeks), were studied during 27 surfactant administrations. ...
Zhou Z H - - 2000
Improvement of pulmonary perfusion and blood oxygenation and prevention of acute lung injury (ALI) may rely on ventilation strategy. We hypothesized that application of a combined surfactant, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), and pressure support ventilation (PSV) should more effectively protect the lungs from injury. Anesthetized and intubated adult rabbits weighing ...
Malloy J L - - 2000
The present study examined the effects of mechanical ventilation, with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), on the alveolar surfactant system in an animal model of sepsis-induced lung injury. Septic animals ventilated without PEEP had a significant deterioration in oxygenation compared with preventilated values (arterial PO(2)/inspired O(2) fraction 316 +/- ...
Kusuda S - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The rapid improvement of lung function after exogenous surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) can affect the functions of several other systems, which includes cerebral blood flow volume (CBF). To evaluate the change in CBF after treatment with exogenous surfactant, we measured CBF in a newborn piglet model ...
Armstrong L - - 1999
Pulmonary fibrosis is a well-recognized feature of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Using immunoassays of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), fluid we investigated the synthesis of type I procollagen (PICP) and type I/II collagen degradation products (COL2-3/4C(short) neoepitope) in patients with ARDS, acute lung injury (ALI), subjects with risk factors for ARDS ...
Barrington K J - - 1999
The object of this study was to determine the effects of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with and without inhaled nitric oxide (NO) over a 4-h period on lung mechanics, gas exchange, and hemodynamics in an animal model of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Twenty-four fentanyl-anesthetized piglets were instrumented and administered a ...
Davies M W - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect on oxygenation and lung damage of partial perfluorocarbon liquid high frequency oscillatory ventilation (PL-HFOV) versus high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) alone, in rabbits with acute lung injury, using high lung volume strategy HFOV. METHODS: Twelve adult New Zealand white rabbits were initially ventilated with HFOV ...
Mildenhall L F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The benefit of surfactant administration in preterm newborns is well described. The increase in lung compliance and other effects that it produces might however be dangerous in a transportation situation. This study examined the safety of surfactant (primarily Exosurf; Burroughs-Wellcome Research, Triangle Park, NC, USA) administration in preterm babies ...
Claridge J A - - 1999
High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a technique with limited use in adult patients. The main purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate HFOV on adult trauma patients with refractory lung dysfunction. Refractory lung dysfunction was defined as a PaO2:FiO2 ratio <75 for 1 hour despite maximum support via conventional ...
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