Search Results
Results 151 - 200 of 608
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Ingimarsson J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In animals with acquired surfactant-deficiency, a recruitment maneuver by increased tidal volumes enhances the effect of exogenous surfactant. In contrast, in the preterm lamb model, hyperinflation early after birth impairs the effect of surfactant prophylaxis. Here we examined whether a lung recruitment maneuver just before surfactant would affect the ...
Hammerschmidt Stefan - - 2003
Mechanical stress during ventilation may cause or aggravate acute lung injury. This study investigates the influence of low vs. high tidal volume (V(t)) on factors known to play key roles in acute lung injury: nitric oxide release, eNOS and iNOS gene expression, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and surfactant phospholipids (PL). Isolated ...
Arold Stephen P - - 2003
Variable or noisy ventilation, which includes random breath-to-breath variations in tidal volume (Vt) and frequency, has been shown to consistently improve blood oxygenation during mechanical ventilation in various models of acute lung injury. To further understand the effects of variable ventilation on lung physiology and biology, we mechanically ventilated 11 ...
Daniels Christopher B - - 2003
Pulmonary surfactant controls the surface tension at the air-liquid interface within the lung. This system had a single evolutionary origin that predates the evolution of the vertebrates and lungs. The lipid composition of surfactant has been subjected to evolutionary selection pressures, particularly temperature, throughout the evolution of the vertebrates.
Johansson Jan - - 2003
Available surfactants for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants are derived from animal lungs, which limits supply and poses a danger of propagating infectious material. Poly-Val-->poly-Leu analogs of surfactant protein (SP)-C can be synthesized in large quantities and exhibit surface activity similar to SP-C. Here, activity of synthetic ...
Kostopanagiotou Georgia - - 2003
The objective of this controlled experimental animal study was to evaluate whether acute hepatic failure (AHF) can cause acute lung injury (ALI) and to investigate possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. Seventeen domestic pigs were randomly assigned to AHF and sham groups. AHF was induced by surgical devascularization of liver in 10 animals. ...
Schiller Henry J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Lower and upper inflection points on the quasi-static curve representing a composite of pressure/volume from the whole lung are hypothesized to represent initial alveolar recruitment and overdistension, respectively, and are currently utilized to adjust mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, alveoli have never been directly ...
Jeng Mei-Jy - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the beneficial effects of exogenous surfactant supplementation (ESS) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) in treating acute lung injury induced by wood smoke inhalation. DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, controlled, multigroup study. SETTING: An animal research laboratory at a medical center. SUBJECTS: Newborn piglets (n = 29; 1.80 +/- ...
Bland Richard D - - 2003
Chronic lung injury from prolonged mechanical ventilation after premature birth inhibits the normal postnatal decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and leads to structural abnormalities of the lung circulation in newborn sheep. Compared with normal lambs born at term, chronically ventilated preterm lambs have increased pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and ...
Strand Marya - - 2003
High PCO(2) levels attenuate reperfusion injury and ventilation-induced injury in isolated and perfused lungs. We asked whether premature lambs could tolerate 6 h of ventilation with a PCO(2) >80 mm Hg and whether the high PCO(2) modulated the ventilator-induced injury. Preterm surfactant-treated lambs were ventilated for 30 min with a ...
van Kaam Anton H - - 2003
Previous studies demonstrated that high-frequency oscillatory ventilation using the open lung concept (OLC) resulted in superior gas exchange and a reduction in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized that these beneficial effects could also be achieved by applying the OLC during positive pressure ventilation. After repeated whole-lung-lavage, newborn piglets were ...
Rasaiah Vijay P A - - 2003
Sepsis can predispose the lung to insults such as mechanical ventilation (MV). It was hypothesized that treating the lung with exogenous surfactant early in the development of sepsis will reduce the lung dysfunction associated with MV 18 h later. Mice underwent sham or cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) surgery. Immediately ...
Cox Cynthia - - 2003
Chronic lung disease in infants continues to be problematic. Tidal liquid ventilation (TLV) improves lung mechanics and provides effective gas exchange. We hypothesized that premature lambs could be supported safely with TLV and evaluated 9 preterm lambs (132 days gestation) on TLV up to 72 h. Results (mean +/- SEM): ...
Walther Frans J - - 2002
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is a constituent surfactant protein critical for normal lung function. Monomeric SP-B(1-25) (mSP-B(1-25)), a peptide based on the N-terminal domain of human SP-B, mixed in phospholipids partially restores lung function in surfactant-deficient animals. Because native SP-B is a homodimer, we synthesized and tested dimeric SP-B(1-25) (dSP-B(1-25)). ...
Sivrikoz M Cumhur - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to discuss the balance between free radical damage and body defense mechanisms that occurred in reexpansed pulmonary tissue and to evaluate the relationship between the changes in the pulmonary circulation and the mentioned balance. METHODS: Twenty male Wistar Albino rats were used for these study results. ...
Bilek Anastacia M - - 2003
Airway collapse and reopening due to mechanical ventilation exerts mechanical stress on airway walls and injures surfactant-compromised lungs. The reopening of a collapsed airway was modeled experimentally and computationally by the progression of a semi-infinite bubble in a narrow fluid-occluded channel. The extent of injury caused by bubble progression to ...
Davies M W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) on oxygenation and pulmonary haemodynamics in acute lung injury (ALI), and to assess their effects on lung function, systemic haemodynamics and lung injury. METHODS: Using saline lung lavage, ALI was induced in 18 piglets. A ...
Andersen F A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: At present there are limited data about the effects of high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study evaluates efficacy of HFOV in such patients. METHODS: Sixteen ARDS patients, mean age 38.2 years (range 18-76), that underwent HFOV between 1997 and ...
Tølløfsrud Per Arne - - 2002
We hypothesized that lipids and bile acids in meconium may induce pulmonary insufficiency in newborns. Because albumin may bind these components we studied the effect of albumin on meconium-induced lung injury in piglets. We measured concentration of FFA in the meconium (110 mg dry weight/mL) and added albumin to provide ...
Bhandari Mohit - - 2002
High-pressure lavage produces greater visible damage to bone at a macroscopic and microscopic level when compared with low-pressure lavage and can result in delay in the healing of fractures. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Conditions which lead to bone loss often involve a switch from the ...
Sinclair Scott E - - 2002
To investigate whether hypercapnic acidosis protects against ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in vivo, we subjected 12 anesthetized, paralyzed rabbits to high tidal volume ventilation (25 cc/kg) at 32 breaths per minute and zero positive end-expiratory pressure for 4 hours. Each rabbit was randomized to receive either an FI(CO(2)) to achieve ...
Morrell M J - - 2002
Instillation of surfactant into the pharyngeal lumen reduces the pressure required to reopen an occluded airway, and decreases the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI). The authors hypothesised that surfactant also reduces the sleep-related increase in pharyngeal resistance. To test this hypothesis two single blind, crossover, placebo-controlled studies were performed. In protocol A ...
Haitsma Jack J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of pretreatment with exogenous surfactant on ventilator-induced decompartmentalization of TNF-alpha. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, animal study in the experimental laboratory of a university. SUBJECTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=102) received lipopolysaccharide either intratracheally or intraperitoneally to stimulate TNF-alpha production; one-half of the animals ...
Davidson Kate G - - 2002
Although endotoxin-induced acute lung injury is associated with inflammation, alveolocapillary injury, surfactant dysfunction, and altered lung mechanics, the precise sequence of these changes is polemic. We have studied the early pathogenesis of acute lung injury in spontaneously breathing anesthetized rats after intravenous infusion of Salmonella abortus equi endotoxin. The animals ...
Sassoon Catherine S H - - 2002
This study shows that, over time, diaphragm inactivity with controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) decreases diaphragm force and produces myofibril damage contributing to the reduced force. We measured in vivo and in vitro diaphragm contractile and morphological properties in 30 sedated rabbits grouped (n = 6) as follows: 1 or 3 ...
Wang P M - - 2002
To determine whether lung capillary pressure regulates surfactant secretion, we viewed alveoli of the constantly inflated, isolated blood-perfused rat lung by fluorescence microscopy. By alveolar micropuncture we infused fura 2 and lamellar body (LB)-localizing dyes for fluorescence detection of, respectively, the alveolar cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and type II cell ...
Uystepruyst Christophe - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the timing of elective caesarean section (ECS) during parturition affects pulmonary and metabolic adaptation to extra-uterine life in healthy Belgian White and Blue (BWB) calves delivered at term. Vaginal palpation was performed and deliveries divided into six categories of timing for ...
Walmrath D - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of bronchoscopic surfactant administration in a noncontrolled multicentre study in five university centres. A total number of 27 patients, suffering from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (mean+/-SEM lung injury score: 3.15+/-0.06) and septic shock (Acute Physiology and ...
Dembinski Rolf - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare ventilation-perfusion (V(A)/Q) distributions during improvement of oxygenation caused by high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation with high PEEP levels (CMV) in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). DESIGN: Prospective, controlled animal study. SETTING: Animal research facility of a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Twelve pigs with oleic acid-induced ...
Branger Annette B - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular gas embolism can cause profound neurologic dysfunction, and there are few treatments. The authors tested the hypothesis that an exogenous surfactant can be delivered into the bloodstream to alter the air-blood interfacial mechanics of an intravascular gas embolism and produce bubble conformations, which favor more rapid bubble absorption. ...
Giannakopoulou Christina - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature newborns has been etiologically correlated to immature lungs and specifically with surfactant deficiency. Exogenous administration of surfactant is nowadays considered to be the treatment of choice. In this paper we attempt a comparison of clinical results from the administration of natural Alveofact ...
Zhu Bao-Li - - 2002
To evaluate the immunohistochemical distribution and serum levels of a pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) in fatal drowning with regard to the pulmonary alveolar injury, 53 autopsy cases were investigated. SP-A was membranously or linearly demonstrated in varying intensities on the intra-alveolar interior surface and on the interface of the ...
von der Hardt Katharina - - 2002
The effect of new ventilation strategies on initial pulmonary inflammatory reaction was studied in a surfactant-depleted piglet model. Sixty minutes after induction of lung injury by bronchoalveolar lavage, piglets received either aerosolized FC77 (aerosol-PFC, 10 mL/kg/h, n = 5) or partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with FC77 at functional residual capacity ...
Robinson Tonya W - - 2002
Success in using adjunctive surfactant therapy for meconium aspiration has been inconsistent. We tested the hypothesis that the ability of exogenous surfactant to improve gas exchange and pulmonary compliance after meconium aspiration is related to the method of surfactant administration. In anesthetized rabbits (2.4 +/- 0.16 kg body weight), an ...
Merz Ulrich - - 2002
Perfluorocarbons have been shown to reduce the inflammatory process generated by alveolar macrophages in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different ventilator modalities such as partial liquid ventilation (PLV), conventional ventilation (CV), and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) on the release of inflammatory mediators in ...
Warriner H E - - 2002
Endogenous lung surfactant, and lung surfactant replacements used to treat respiratory distress syndrome, can be inactivated during lung edema, most likely by serum proteins. Serum albumin shows a concentration-dependent surface pressure that can exceed the respreading pressure of collapsed monolayers in vitro. Under these conditions, the collapsed surfactant monolayer can ...
Miyanishi K - - 2002
The etiology of steroid-induced osteonecrosis (ON) is unclear. This study was designed to determine whether bone marrow fat cell size, intraosseous pressure, and blood flow rate differed between steroid-treated rabbits with ON and those without. Twenty-nine rabbits were intramuscularly injected once with 20 mg/kg of methylprednisolone acetate (MPSL), and five ...
Stamme Cordula - - 2002
The human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary complication with high mortality rates. To support their vital functions, patients suffering from ARDS are mechanically ventilated. Recently it was shown that low tidal volume ventilation reduces mortality and pro-inflammatory mediator release in these patients, suggesting biotrauma as a ...
Schlösser Rolf L - - 2002
In a piglet model of meconium aspiration we compared lavage with surfactant with that with perflubron (PFOB) and a control group. A human meconium suspension was instilled into piglets which were randomized in 3 (n = 6 each) groups. After lung injury, the control group was ventilated with high-frequency oscillatory ...
Kavanagh M - - 2001
1. Postnatal mortality in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is mainly related to the associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to right-to-left shunting. 2. Endothelins (ETs) are potent vasoconstrictors and pro-mitogenic peptides. Strong evidences support their participation in CDH and in the etiology of PH via the activation of ET(A) receptors ...
Gupta M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is an essential component of pulmonary surfactant, but shorter SP-B sequences may exert equivalent surface activity. METHODS: We synthesised a peptide based on the amino-terminal domain of SP-B (SP-B1-25), a full length SP-B1-78, and a full length palmitoylated SP-C peptide (SP-C1-35) and compared the in ...
Lu K W - - 2001
Addition of nonionic polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran ameliorates inactivation of Survanta by a variety of substances in vitro. Addition of polymers to Survanta also improves pulmonary function when used to treat rats with lung injury caused by instillation of human meconium. To find whether this approach ...
Björklund L J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: In mature animals with surfactant deficiency induced by lung lavage, the therapeutic effect of exogenous surfactant is enhanced by a lung recruitment maneuver. We then tested whether a lung recruitment maneuver at birth immediately before surfactant treatment would improve lung function also in preterm lambs with surfactant deficiency due ...
Lozano J A - - 2001
Pulmonary failure remains the major determinant of mortality and morbidity following burn injury. We hypothesized that intratracheal instillation of perfluorocarbon liquids could be a therapeutic measure in combination with conventional mechanical ventilation to improve pulmonary gas exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome with thermal injury. Forty-five New Zealand rabbits were ...
Nakamura T - - 2001
The effects of mechanical ventilation (MV) on the surfactant system and cytokine secretion were studied in isolated septic rat lungs. At 23 h after sham surgery or induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP), lungs were excised and randomized to one of three groups: 1) a nonventilated group, ...
Kerr C L - - 2001
This study evaluated the effects of high-frequency oscillation (HFO) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) on gas exchange and the pulmonary surfactant system in an acute lung injury model. Following induction of lung injury with N-nitroso-n-methylurethane, adult rabbits were anesthetized and randomized to one of the following ventilatory strategies: HFO for ...
Martini W Z - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a thermal injury on pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylcholine kinetics. DESIGN: Random, controlled study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Yorkshire swine (n = 8) with and without a 40% total body surface area burn. INTERVENTIONS: A new isotope tracer methodology was used to quantify surfactant phosphatidylcholine ...
Zheng S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress and acute lung injury (ALI) are severe complications of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R). The authors hypothesize that a combined surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) may alleviate I/R-induced ALI. METHODS: Adult rats (body weight 285 to 315 g, n = 45) were allocated randomly to ...
Krause M F - - 2001
Uneven distribution of exogenous surfactant contributes to a poor clinical response in animal models of respiratory distress syndrome. Alveolar recruitment at the time of surfactant administration may lead to more homogeneous distribution within the lungs and result in a superior clinical response. To investigate the effects of three different volume ...
Ingimarsson J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The lower inflexion point (LIP) on the inspiratory part of the pressure-volume (PV) loop has been suggested to be related to the pressure at which air spaces collapse. Our hypothesis is that airway collapse might instead be assessed from the upper inflexion point on the expiratory part of the ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >