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Results 551 - 600 of 618
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Kobayashi T - - 1984
By using adult rabbits in which the lung surfactant had been reduced by repeated whole-lung lavage, we examined the effects of surfactant supplement and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). The rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and mechanically ventilated with pure O2. Surfactant that was extracted from pigs' lungs was supplemented ...
Ennema J J - - 1984
Surfactant phospholipid metabolism was studied in anesthetized rabbits ventilated with high-frequency oscillation at a frequency of 5 Hz and a mean airway pressure of 5 cm H2O. Blood gases were normal although some atelectasis was evident after 1 h. The static compliance of the lungs and amount and composition of ...
Kumar B S - - 1984
High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) was compared with conventional ventilation (CV) after surfactant displacement with diocytyl sodium sulfosuccinate (OT) via ultrasonic nebulization. After aerosol delivery, dogs were separated into 3 groups and followed for 2 h. Ventilator settings were not changed in group I (CV) and group II (HFJV) after OT ...
Egberts J - - 1984
Prenatal asphyxia resulting in hypoxia, hypercarbia and amniotic fluid aspiration reduces the synthesis of the pulmonary surfactant. Using 135-day fetal lambs we studied the in utero effects of hypercarbic acidosis alone on fetal breathing activity, excised lung pressure-volume relationships and lamellar body (LB) surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) pool size and ...
Grossmann G - - 1984
This paper presents a sequence of tests for experimental evaluation of potential substitutes for pulmonary surfactant. Differential thermal analysis and the pulsating bubble technique were applied to identify an emulsified mixture of synthetic lipids with properties similar to those of natural surfactant. Instilled into the airways of premature newborn rabbits, ...
Breen P H - - 1984
In six open-chest dogs, unilobar pulmonary edema was induced by injection of oleic acid into a lower lobe pulmonary arterial branch. Two hours later, intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) at matched mean alveolar pressures (MAP) were compared at 30-min intervals. The edematous lobar venous admixture (Qva/QT) ...
Ward J A - - 1984
The effect of hyperoxia (greater than 95%) on surfactant phospholipid recovered by lavage and pulmonary pressure:volume characteristics was studied in rabbits exposed from birth through 4 days of life. Decreased surfactant phospholipid (microgram/mg dry lung weight) in the airways was observed as early as 6 h and persisted through 96 ...
Levene M I - - 1983
We describe a method of monitoring continuously subarachnoid pressure in the severely asphyxiated newborn by a percutaneously placed catheter. Five infants were studied for a total of 180 hours and although opening pressures were not appreciably raised in any, maximum pressures were above 20 mmHg in four infants and reached ...
Ekelund L - - 1983
The fetal lung responds to beta-receptor agonists with a release of surfactant from type II alveolar cells, if such stimulation were intense or long-lasting, the supply might become depleted and, while the supply is being restored, there could be a surfactant deficiency. With experiments on pregnant rabbits, this hypothesis was ...
Corbet A - - 1983
The secretion of total phospholipid in postmortem in situ lungs of newborn rabbits was examined using the technique of lung lavage after an initial lavage procedure, and then after a period of static air inflation at 30 cm H2O pressure for 45 min. There was a significant reduction in the ...
Egan E A - - 1983
The effect of tracheal instillation of surface-active mixtures in premature lambs was studied as an animal model of exogenous surfactant replacement therapy for the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Specific mixtures studied were 7:3 (molar ratio) dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC):egg phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and extracted mixed lipids (with 1% protein) from cow lung ...
Beppu O S - - 1983
We have investigated the effects of substituting phosphatidylinositol (PI) for phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on the functional properties of rabbit lung surfactant. We gave oral 10% glucose solution for 3 days to 11 rabbits and 10% inositol to 12 others. Lung lavage surfactant phospholipids were normal in both groups, except that PG ...
Shaffer T H - - 1983
Cardiopulmonary function was evaluated in very preterm lambs (106 +/- 0.7 S.E. days gestation, 1.66 +/- 0.12 S.E. kg birth weight) during fluorocarbon ventilation. Lambs were delivered by cesarean section after epidural anesthesia. Indwelling arterial, venous, and tracheal cannulae were placed before clamping the cord. Lambs were then mechanically ventilated ...
Jobe A - - 1983
After delivery by cesarean section at 133-136 days gestational age, 18 lambs were supported with infant ventilators. Peak inspiratory pressure was the only ventilator setting that was changed in an attempt to normalize PCO2. The lambs were retrospectively divided into two groups based on their respiratory status before treatment. Ten ...
Egan E A - - 1983
Studies in vitro and in vivo of the alveolar epithelial membrane, which show it can normally be characterized as having a "pore radius" of 0.5 to 1.5 nm, have been presented frequently over 20 years in a number of species (2, 3, 6, 8, 12). The alveolar epithelium appears to ...
Idegami K - - 1983
We investigated changes of alveolar stability and phospholipids in the pulmonary surfactant in case of acute pancreatitis induced in rats. Alveolar stability was examined by recording the pressure-volume relationship. The lung volumes during deflation decreased significantly at equivalent transpulmonary pressures, particularly when the pressure was lower than 6 cm H2O. ...
Truog W E - - 1983
Arterial PO2 and PCO2 obtained with 2 modes of mechanical ventilation were compared in 5 premature monkeys with hyaline membrane disease (HMD) during the first 7 h of life. High-frequency oscillation (HFO) (10 Hertz) was compared with conventional positive-pressure ventilation (CMV) by matching the mean airway pressure generated by the ...
Sherman R M - - 1983
An experimental model was designed to investigate the role of meticulous intramedullary lavage in the prevention of the blood-gas and hemodynamic changes that have been documented to occur during cemented arthroplasty. Twenty-one adult mongrel dogs were divided into two groups. One group had the medullary canal thoroughly lavaged prior to ...
Ward H E - - 1983
We applied high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) of low amplitude to the pleural surface of the isolated rat lung (IPL) perfused at 10 ml X min-1 with Krebs bicarbonate containing 4.5% albumin (hematocrit 34%). Lung volume was held constant by a continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) of 5 cmH2O. Varying CPAP ...
Butler B D - - 1983
Five dogs have been embolized by air infusion into the venous system, then sacrificed and the pulmonary vasculature isolated by ligatures while ventilation was maintained for a further hour. In a sixth animal, the embolization was omitted. The lungs were back-perfused with plasma from the same dog and successive aliquots ...
Lachmann B - - 1982
Premature newborn rabbits, delivered by hysterotomy on day 27 of gestation, were tracheotomized at birth, kept in body plethysmographs, and subjected to pressure-generated ventilation at a working pressure of 25 cm H2O, 100% O2, and frequency 40/min. Thirty-seven animals received 50 microliters of heterologous surfactant (phospholipid content 40 mg/ml) via ...
Hills B A - - 1982
A porous membrane has been synthesized from a fine-weave cotton fabric carboxylated to simulate the fixed negative charges in the alveolar wall. When this membrane is treated with pulmonary surfactant in physiological concentrations, especially DPL, it loses its fluid permeability and can support a pressure of physiological saline of over ...
Jacobs H - - 1982
Thirty-four Western mixed breed lambs were delivered prematurely at 120 days gestational age (term = 150 days). Four lambs were sacrificed at birth, and four lambs were sacrificed with the onset of respiratory failure (PCO2 greater than 80 torr) at about 30 min of age. The remaining lambs were treated ...
Nilsson R - - 1982
Bronchiolar epithelial lesions, similar to those in human hyaline membrane disease (HMD), can be induced by artificial ventilation of newborn rabbits, delivered on day 27 of gestation. As verified by electron microscopy, these epithelial lesions develop within only 1-5 min of artificial ventilation. Tracheal instillation of natural surfactant at birth ...
Anderson G C - - 1982
The development of sucking response was investigated in 30 clinically normal infants from 1 or 5 minutes postbirth until their first feeding 4 hours later. Maximum sucking pressures were measured with a research nipple attached to a portable electronic suckometer. Mean suction (negative pressure) began at 5 Torr at birth, ...
Crompton G K - - 1982
The use of pressurized aerosol inhalers was assessed in a total of 1173 out-patients attending hospital during a three month period. One hundred and thirty-five patients already being treated with drugs by inhalation were found to have a poor inhaler technique, even though most had received instruction on how to ...
Morén F - - 1982
When a pressurized inhalation aerosol is used, a high loss of drug substance occurs in the upper respiratory tract. This is explained by the rather slow propellant evaporation after the initial aerosol generation, and by the high initial aerosol velocity. Indirect measurements can be performed with a view to obtaining ...
Nieman G F - - 1981
In vivo cinemicroscopic studies of subpleural alveoli were conducted in dogs for 4 h after pulmonary lavage with 5% Tween 20 and after lavage with normal saline. Saline-lavaged alveoli showed little change in alveolar size during tidal ventilation, whereas Tween lavage resulted both in alveolar recruitment and marked variation in ...
Lees B J - - 1981
Heart rate and blood pressure changes following 0.5% tropicamide and 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride were evaluated in seven ill preterm infants (birth weight, 910 to 2,060 gm; gestational age, 26 to 36 weeks) during the first day of life. Each infant was monitored continuously for 30 minutes before and for 75 ...
Lachmann B - - 1981
Premature newborn rabbits, delivered on day 27 of gestation, were subjected to positive-pressure ventilation, with or without treatment with natural surfactant. The surfactant, obtained by centrifugation of lung wash from adult rabbits, was deposited in the tracheal cannula before the onset of ventilation. Parameters of lung mechanisms, recorded during spontaneous ...
Lachmann B - - 1981
Surfactant-deficient premature newborn rabbits obtained by hysterotomy on day 27 of gestation were tracheostomized at birth, kept in a multichambered pressure-constant body plethysmograph, and subjected to intermittent positive pressure ventilation using a standardized insufflation pressure (30 cm H2O). A sequence of various frequencies (20, 40, and 60/min) and inspiration:expiration (I:E) ...
Sanderson R J - - 1981
Electron microscopic examination of dog lungs after exposure to papain for as little as 30 min showed removal of surfactant material from the pores of Kohn, and significant enlargement of the pores. We analyzed these early events in terms of structural mechanics, and concluded that: (1) The approximate doubling of ...
Lachmann B - - 1981
Premature newborn rabbits were delivered on day 27 of gestation, with or without antenatal treatment with ambroxol (50 mg/kg/day in maternal injections, on days 24-26). The animals were tracheostomized, kept in body plethysmographs at 35 degrees C, and ventilated artificially for 10 min with 100% oxygen, insufflation pressure 30 cm ...
Garvey J - - 1980
Thirty-three patients had segmental and lobar bronchopulmonary lavage using three types of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopes. A maximum volume of 300 ml of normal saline solution at room temperature was used. Lavage was effective for removing large numbers of alveolar macrophages (mean, 17 million) and proteinaceous material (mean, 0.18 mg per ...
Prévost M C - - 1980
The biochemical appearance of the alveolar border pathology, whatever the origin of the impairment may be, has become most important. This is the reason why we have studied the influence of hypobaric hypoxia, at a pressure of 370 mm Hg, on the phospholipids of pulmonary surfactant and alveolar macrophages. During ...
Nilsson R - - 1980
Premature newborn rabbits, delivered on day 27 of gestation, were ventilated for 10 min with a standardized peak pressure of 35 cm H2O, with or without previous instillation of natural surfactant into the airways. Lung-thorax compliance and stability were significantly enhanced in surfactant-treated fetuses. Although these fetuses were greatly overventilated, ...
Lou H C - - 1979
In nine distressed newborn infants, mean aortic blood pressure and motor activity were recorded continuously during the first two or three days of life. Six of the infants had been asphyxiated at birth, the remainder having idiopathic respiratory distress only. The results showed that mean arterial blood pressure varies synchronously ...
Higgins C B - - 1979
Radiographic and clinical data were evaluated in 12 preterm infants with pneumopericardium complicating ventilator therapy of respiratory distress syndrome. Eight infants had massive or tension pneumopericardium, reflected by bradycardia, hypotension, and cyanosis of abrupt onset; cardiac size decreased dramatically but returned to approximately the former size after aspiration of the ...
Thet L A - - 1979
We ventilated excised rat lungs at a constant tidal volume (CTV); they developed areas of atelectasis which could be reversed by a large inflation (CTV + I) or prevented by the addition of positive end-expiratory pressure to the CTV. To explore the possibility that these modes of ventilation led to ...
Klass D J - - 1979
Ventilation of rats at high inspiratory pressures raises lung tissue content of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Hyperventilation in rabbits augments release of phospholipid into lavage fluid. Can cGMP, in the absence of hyperventilation, increase lung phospholipid release? Sprague-Dawley rats are injected with [14C]palmitate, and after 1.5 h are anesthetized and ...
Nilsson R - - 1979
Rabbit neonates delivered on day 27--30 of gestation were subjected to intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) for 60 min. Tidal volume was standardized to 10 ml/kg, and the insufflation pressure required to maintain this tidal volume was recorded. The quasistatic compliance of the lung-thorax system, corrected for variations in body ...
Kreye V A - - 1979
1. Sodium nitroprusside (NP) is a potent relaxant of the guinea pig's tracheal smooth muscle contracted by carbachol or histamine. 2. At high doses, aerosols of NP delay the occurrence of symptoms of bronchial asthma in guinea pigs subjected to a histamine aerosol. However, the beta-adrenergic bronchodilator isoprenaline is at ...
Simmons D H - - 1979
Many causes for the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been reported, all with common pathologic, pathophysiologic and biochemical end results. The final common pathway may involve changes in lung content of a critical enzyme, superoxide dismutase, or alterations in surfactant metabolism, or both. The early assumption that the disorder ...
Daniels S - - 1979
1. Decompression from exposures to raised ambient pressure of sulphur hexafluoride, carbon tetrafluoride, hexafluoro-ethane and nitrous oxide results in the formation of dense foam and pulmonary oedema. 2. The degree of pulmonary oedema produced is dependent on the exposure pressure, although the exposure time required is short in comparison to ...
Sacher J A JA Biology Department, California State University, 90032, Los Angeles, CA, - - 1979
Exogenous ethylene enhances the synthesis of wound-induced ribonuclease (RNase) (EC2.7.7.16) in tissue discs of white turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapa (L.) Tell.). The half-maximal concentration is <0.01 μl/l ehtylene. Maximal response was obtained with either continuous ethylene treatment, or a 90-min pulse of ethylene followed by flushing with 1500 ...
Kuckelt W - - 1979
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common medical emergency in respiratory care complicating a great variety of traumas and diseases. An animal model from Lewe miniature pigs has been developed to study the ARDS under standardized conditions; it is based on aspiration pneumonitis, a disorder often observed in ARDS, ...
Enhorning G - - 1978
Twelve rhesus monkeys were delivered prematurely at 129, 130, or 131 days. The first breath was inhibited while tracheotomy was performed and a catheter introduced into the umbilical artery. Into the tracheal tubes of six of the newborn monkeys was instilled 0.20 to 0.27 ml. of a natural surfactant (SA) ...
Adams F H - - 1978
Ten pairs of twin lambs 118--122 days of gestation were given either natural surfactant or diluent endotracheally before the first breath. By using the premature twin lamb model, we have been able to show that instillation of natural surfactant produced 100% survival for the duration of the study period (2 ...
Petty T L - - 1978
Adult respiratory distress syndrome is a common respiratory emergency which follows a variety of severe direct and indirect lung insults. Major features are severe respiratory distress, diffuse pulmonary infiltrations, reduced compliance and refractory hypoxemia due to shunt effect. Surfactant abnormalities may play a role in the mechanical derangement of lung ...
Bergman B - - 1978
The pressure-volume relationship in preterm rabbit lung was studied at 28 days of gestation. Injection of 0.1 mg terbutaline, a selective beta2-receptor stimulating drug, significantly increased the volume of air at equivalent low transpulmonary pressures, compared to a saline treated group and an untreated group. These findings indicate an increased ...
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