Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 913
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Weinrich S - - 2000
This cross-sectional survey measured relationships among blood pressure and measures of psychologic distress, family structure, and economic status in a sample of adolescents exposed to Hurricane Hugo. Spielberger's Anger Scale and Derogatis' Brief Symptom Inventory were used. Data analysis revealed 5% of the 1079 adolescents were hypertensive. Multiple regression analyses ...
Crippa G - - 2000
Some hypertensive and non-hypertensive subjects have a striking blood pressure response to a medical environment (white coat phenomenon), although it is unlikely that its presence, degree, and duration can be routinely predicted. Despite the common observation that "anxious" patients may present with this reaction when a physician measures their blood ...
Sander D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between circadian blood pressure patterns and the extent of cerebral white matter lesions (WML). DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 227 healthy subjects older than 55 years were investigated. Extent and occurrence of WML were evaluated using a computer-supported image analysis system. Circadian blood ...
Rugnath T T Department of Medically Applied Psychology, University of Natal, - - 2000
To assess the role of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring in the diagnosis of hypertension in general practice. Hypertension is usually diagnosed by means of casual office BP readings. However, ambulatory BP monitoring has shown that a significant proportion of patients diagnosed as hypertensive do not in fact have hypertension. ...
Sorof J M - - 2000
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become more widely used in the assessment of elevated blood pressure in children. The accurate diagnosis of white coat hypertension (WCH) is particularly important in children because detection of elevated blood pressure often results in expensive and invasive diagnostic procedures to detect underlying disease. ...
Chrysant S G - - 2000
White coat hypertension has been defined as the persistent elevation of blood pressure at the clinic or office only. It usually implies that daily ambulatory blood pressure is normal. The accepted cutoff for normal daytime ambulatory blood pressure is 135/85 mm Hg. The prevalence of white coat hypertension is high ...
Crocker C E - - 2000
Cardioventilatory variables and blood-gas, acid-base status were measured in cannulated white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) maintained at 19 degrees C during normocapnic and hypercapnic (Pw(CO(2)) approximately 20 Torr) water conditions and after the injection of adrenergic analogs. Hypercapnia produced significant increases in arterial PCO(2), ventilatory frequency, and plasma concentration of cortisol ...
Bhagat K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of white coat hypertension in the Zimbabwean African female population has not been well defined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of white coat hypertension and to compare the cardiovascular risk profiles of those with white coat hypertension to those with sustained hypertension. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: ...
Clark R - - 2000
This investigation examined the relationship between family environment and mean arterial pressure in a sample of African-American youth. Completed data were collected from 46 adolescents attending an inner-city junior high school. Blood pressure measurements were assessed in a seated position with a Dinamap 1846 Vital Signs Monitor. To assess the ...
Youssef A A - - 2000
It is well recognized that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with accelerated and malignant hypertension. The association of renal disease and what is considered as normal blood pressure is still not clear. The present study examined the temporal relation between blood pressure and renal function reflected by serum creatinine ...
Fredrickson B L - - 2000
The hypothesis that hostile and nonhostile individuals would differ in both magnitude and duration of cardiovascular reactivity to relived anger was tested. Participants were 66 older adults (mean age, 62; 38 women and 28 men; 70% Caucasian American, 30% African American). Each took part in a structured interview scored using ...
Pratt J H - - 2000
Sodium (Na) excretion is to an extent tied to calcium (Ca) excretion; increases in Ca result in increased Na excretion. We hypothesized that molecular variation in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), which imparts certain of the influences of extracellular Ca, might be related to differences in Na balance and blood pressure. ...
Muldoon M F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) measurements obtained in the clinic have long served as the basis for determining risk of hypertensive vascular disease, yet many patients with high BP in the physician's office are normotensive elsewhere. It remains unclear whether such patients with "white coat" hypertension elude the risk of atherosclerosis. ...
Davidson K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Hypertension has been linked to several psychological factors, including depression, but the relation between hypertension incidence and depressive symptoms has not been adequately examined. OBJECTIVE: To determine if depressive symptoms independently predict hypertension incidence. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective, multicenter, epidemiological cohort of young adults (aged 23-35 years at ...
Kelsey R M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Previous studies by our laboratory and others have shown that blood pressure (BP) responses to many short-term laboratory stressors are greater in black than in white children. We sought to determine the cardiac and vascular contributions to these differences in BP reactivity and whether racial differences in vascular reactivity ...
Rosner B - - 2000
No large national studies of ethnic differences in blood pressure among children accounting for body size differences have been published, to the authors' knowledge. This report details the similarities and differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures between Black children and White children in the United States and examines the ...
Guzzetti S - - 2000
Black hypertensives present a greater prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy and an increased mortality compared to white hypertensives. Differences in sympathetic activity might contribute to explain these racial differences in hypertension. Nevertheless, previous laboratory studies did not show any increase of sympathetic activity direct to the heart in black subjects. ...
Sugino M - - 2000
Repolarization abnormalities after radiofrequency ablation in patients with manifest Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) have been attributed to cardiac memory of pre-existing changes in repolarization properties. We compared spatial ventricular gradient (VG) from vectorcardiograms with QRST values of 12-lead ECG in 41 patients with WPW (group A, manifest WPW due to left-sided ...
Lantelme P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The blood pressure (BP) response to the doctor's visit, generally referred as the white coat (WC) response, is usually estimated by the difference between office BP (OBP) and ambulatory BP (ABP). The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of this estimation. To that end, we compared ...
La Batide-Alanore A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: When measuring BP, the physician induces a transient pressor response triggered by an alarm reaction. This 'white-coat effect' can influence therapeutic decisions. Whether it depends on the characteristics of the physician has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the 'white-coat effect' induced by several physicians in a large sample ...
August P - - 2000
Hypertension is prevalent world-wide, and it affects over 50 million individuals in the United States alone. African Americans (blacks) have a high prevalence of hypertension, develop it at an earlier age, and suffer excessively from severe or malignant hypertension. They also have a high prevalence of target organ damage attributable ...
Jorde R - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate bone mineral density and blood pressure in asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: The participants obtained from an epidemiological survey in Tromso 1994-95, that included more than 27 000 subjects. The re-examination in 1998 was performed at the University Hospital of Tromso, Norway. Participants. Thirty-nine subjects ...
Treiber F A - - 2000
Blacks exhibit greater vasoconstriction-mediated blood pressure (BP) increases in response to stress than do whites. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictive peptide, has been proposed as having a role in racial differences in stress reactivity. We evaluated the hemodynamic and plasma ET-1 levels of 41 (23 whites, 18 blacks, mean age ...
Hähnel S - - 2000
We measured the magnetisation transfer ratios (MTR) of normal-appearing rostral (PR) and caudal (PC) periventricular white matter, the genu (CG) and the splenium (CS) of the corpus callosum and the thalamus (TH) in 12 patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and compared them with 16 healthy control subjects. We found a ...
Weir Matthew R. - - 2000
Hypertension among black Americans explains much of the black health disadvantage. Compared with white Americans, blacks develop hypertension at a younger age and have higher rates of stage 3 hypertension (i.e., blood pressure is greater than 180/110 mm Hg). Black Americans tend to wait longer for treatment after diagnosis, causing ...
Khattar R S - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To perform a longitudinal comparison of morbidity and mortality among white, south Asian and Afro-Caribbean hypertensive patients in relation to baseline demographic characteristics and clinic and ambulatory blood pressure variables. DESIGN: Observational follow up study. SETTING: District general hospital and community setting in Harrow, England. PATIENTS: 528 white, 106 ...
Nakao M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare blood pressure (BP) biofeedback treatment (BF) effects between white-coat hypertension and essential hypertension. METHODS: Fifteen white-coat hypertensive out-patients and 23 essential hypertensive out-patients were randomly assigned to groups A or B. Subjects in group A underwent BF once a week for ...
Richardson A D - - 2000
The presence of hypertension in individual patients confers significant risk in terms of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and congestive heart failure. However, it is also a modifiable risk factor, as risk may be decreased through either lifestyle changes or pharmacotherapy to reduce the elevated blood pressure. Over the ...
Ribeiro L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Arterial distensibility can be assessed by measuring pulse-wave velocity (PWV). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diabetes, smoking and dyslipidaemia were associated with greater than normal stiffness of aortic walls in subjects with white-coat hypertension. METHODS: Arterial distensibility was assessed by automatic measurement of carotid-femoral PWV in 35 healthy normotensives, 46 ...
von zur Mühlen B - - 2000
Endothelial function is important for local vascular regulation and an abnormal endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) has been observed in subjects with essential hypertension. As ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is more closely related to target organ damage than office blood pressure, this study investigated also if 24-h ABP is more closely related ...
Manning G - - 1999
Within routine clinical practice, white coat hypertension (where blood pressure is persistently higher in the presence of the doctor or nurse but normal outside the medical setting) makes the diagnosis and management of hypertension difficult. There are conflicting data regarding the prevalence and significance of white coat hypertension. This study ...
de Leeuw F E - - 1999
White matter lesions are often observed on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans of elderly people and may play a role in the pathogenesis of dementia. Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between elevated blood pressure and white matter lesions. We prospectively studied the relation between blood pressure and white matter ...
Pickering T G - - 1999
Two terms are in current use to describe patients whose blood pressures are high only in a medical setting (white-coat hypertension and isolated office or clinic hypertension). The term white-coat effect is also commonly used to describe the pressor response to the clinic setting. White-coat hypertension is generally defined as ...
Koch V H - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Although white coat hypertension (WCH) seems to occur in 20% or more of the adult hypertensive population, this clinical condition has rarely been described in adolescents. DESIGN: Routine use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) procedure as part of the investigation of arterial hypertension in adolescents. METHODS: Office blood ...
Seedat Y K - - 1999
It is accepted that Black subjects differ from White and Indian hypertensives in their response to hypotensive agents. Black hypertensives in the USA have a lower urinary tissue kallikrein (TK) excretion levels compared to White hypertensives. It has been suggested that Black patients respond better to thiazide diuretics compared to ...
Dunlap S H - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to determine the association between clinical characteristics, particularly body mass and race, and the likelihood of hypertension as the primary etiology for heart failure (HTNCM). BACKGROUND: Although held to be important in the development of heart failure, the clinical characteristics predictive of HTNCM have not ...
Liu J E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Ambulatory blood pressure may be higher or lower than clinic blood pressure. Attention has focused on "white coat hypertension" (normal ambulatory blood pressure elevated in the clinic). The converse phenomenon of high ambulatory blood pressure but normal office blood pressure-"white coat normotension"-has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether ...
Høegholm A - - 1999
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate blood pressure variability and pulse pressure in white coat hypertensives in comparison to established hypertensives and normal subjects. Four hundred and twenty patients were referred consecutively from general practice with newly diagnosed untreated essential hypertension. One hundred and forty-six control subjects ...
MacDonald M B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: White-coat response, defined as higher office blood pressure readings than ambulatory readings, is common. Few studies have estimated its prevalence among subjects with treated hypertension, and almost none have defined its determinants. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of white-coat response among subjects with treated ...
Kaufman J S - - 1999
Studies of migrants and comparisons of rural versus urban communities are potentially informative study designs because they allow examination of genetically similar population subgroups exposed to diverse environmental conditions. These designs have been underused in Africa, where recent urbanization has created many situations in which nearby communities of common ethnicity ...
Owens P - - 1999
White coat hypertension (WCH) is common in referred hypertensive patients. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is not free from the white coat syndrome. We examined the use of the elevation of the first and last measurements of ABPM for diagnosis of WCH in a hypertensive population that had been referred ...
Barnes V A VA Georgia Institute for Prevention of Human Diseases and Accidents, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912, - - 1999
Increased peripheral vasoconstriction (ie, total peripheral resistance, or TPR) has been implicated as playing an important role in the early development of essential hypertension. Some studies have demonstrated that Transcendental Meditation (TM) reduces high blood pressure, but the hemodynamic adjustments behind these blood pressure reductions have not been elucidated. The ...
Verdecchia P - - 1999
The measurement of blood pressure in the clinic triggers an altering reaction and a rise in blood pressure in the patient. Such a reaction is usually defined as a 'white-coat effect' or 'white-coat phenomenon', while the coexistence of persistently high office blood pressure with normal blood pressure outside the medical ...
Harshfield G A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Many pathologic conditions are characterized by a blunted nocturnal decline in blood pressure. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence that African Americans display a similar pattern and examine factors associated with the pattern. METHOD: We reviewed published racial comparisons of patterns of ambulatory blood pressure in adults and youths. RESULTS: ...
Ferreira A V - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether differences exist in the mechanical properties of large arteries between white and black subjects. DESIGN: Eighty-two white (49 normotensive and 33 untreated hypertensive) and 38 black (24 normotensive and 14 untreated hypertensive) adult male volunteers were studied in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ...
Chapman J N - - 1999
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is more prevalent in black than white hypertensives, but this difference is greater when identified by electrocardiography (ECG) than by echocardiography. We evaluated the proposal that current ECG criteria for LVH are less specific, and therefore, less useful, in blacks than whites. In a retrospective cross-sectional ...
Mills P J - - 1999
This study examined cardiovascular recovery from two standardized laboratory stressors in 68 healthy black and white normotensive women and men (mean age 33 years). Women were studied in a randomized order at the same time of day on two separate occasions, once during the follicular phase (days 7 to 10 ...
Profant J - - 1999
Investigators have reported variable findings regarding the role of race in diurnal blood pressure patterns. We performed a review and meta-analysis of this literature to identify the overall effect of race on circadian blood pressure patterns. Eighteen studies involving 2852 participants were reviewed. Meta-analyses were conducted using effect sizes calculated ...
Brown M A - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of white coat hypertension and white coat effect among hypertensive pregnant women and to assess whether the presence of a significant white coat effect was associated with adverse pregnancy outcome when clinical management was based upon standard sphygmomanometric blood pressure recordings. DESIGN: Prospective blinded studies ...
Lindsay L R - - 1999
The impact of microclimate and density of hosts for adult ticks on the density of Ixodes scapularis Say was evaluated within 4 habitats on Long Point, Ontario, from 1989-1992. During the period from May to September, mean weekly vapor pressure deficits were greater within the oak savannah and cottonwood dune ...
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