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Results 301 - 350 of 647
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Esler M D - - 1993
Given the ubiquitous distribution of catecholamines in mammals, and their importance in a range of physiological processes pivotal to blood pressure regulation, the subject of catecholamines and essential hypertension has a broader context than simply consideration of sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medullary dysfunction. These further matters are the likely ...
Semplicini A - - 1993
The effects of potassium canrenoate (100 mg/day, orally for 1 month) on blood pressure, calf blood flow at rest and after ouabain (0.5 mg intravenous bolus), and red cell Na homeostasis were investigated in 15 patients (7 men, 8 women, aged 18 to 63) with essential hypertension and without peripheral ...
Panza J A - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether antihypertensive treatment can restore the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation of patients with essential hypertension. BACKGROUND: The endothelium regulates vascular tone through the release of vasoactive agents that act on the underlying vascular smooth muscle. This endothelial function is impaired in certain cardiovascular conditions, ...
Spieker C - - 1993
Circadian rhythm of blood pressure and of heart rate was studied in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 10), pheochromocytoma (n = 8), primary hyperaldosteronism (n = 7), and in a control group of essential hypertensive patients (n = 18) and of normotensive healthy subjects (n = 11). 24-hour blood pressure ...
Gibbons G H - - 1993
Despite decades of intense research, the etiology of essential hypertension remains one of the major enigmas of clinical medicine. On the basis of recent advances in the vascular biology of hypertension two important paradigms have emerged that offer promise in solving this enigma: 1) the concept of vascular remodeling, and ...
Bliss M R - - 1993
It is essential that decisions about purchasing pressure-relieving products are made with reference to the results of clinical trials. This article, the first in a four-part series, outlines the criteria for choosing pressure-relieving products and sets the scene for a series of randomised, clinical trials of commonly used beds and ...
Mulvany M J - - 1993
Essential hypertension is associated with alterations in the structure of the resistance vessels such that the ratio of the media thickness to the lumen diameter (media: lumen ratio) is increased. This altered structure need not, however, be associated with growth but could be due to a rearrangement of a normal ...
Köhler T - - 1993
Given the contradictory results reported in the literature on the relationship between neuroticism and blood pressure, it was decided to reexamine this topic. This was done with a large sample very homogeneous for age, sex, food intake and life style and basically unselected in terms of medical history. In the ...
Singh H - - 1993
Hypertension is an important contributor to cerebrovascular and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Nonpharmacological treatment has been an important first-line therapy for mild hypertension. In the last decade, there is increasing evidence from epidemiological, interventional, and animal studies for the role of potassium supplementation in the management of hypertension. The antihypertensive ...
Mulvany M J - - 1993
It is well established that essential hypertension is associated with alterations in the structure of the resistance vasculature, such that the ratio of the media thickness to the lumen diameter (media-to-lumen ratio) is increased. Although these abnormalities are commonly thought to be due to vascular growth, they could be due ...
Edvinsson L - - 1992
In patients with severe hypertension and in age and sex matched controls the circulating levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI) and substance P-LI were measured. Samples were taken before medication, after 2-4 weeks and 2-12 months of pharmacological treatment to normotension. In the control group CGRP-LI levels were significantly ...
Wolzt M - - 1992
In vitro and animal experiments suggest that a constitutional increase in vascular responsiveness to serotonin (5-HT) may play a role in the development of essential hypertension. We have studied the potential alterations in vascular responsiveness to the direct and catecholamine-potentiating effects of exogenous 5-HT in patients with essential hypertension, by ...
Aviv A - - 1992
Although abnormalities in cellular ion transport have been shown in a variety of cells of essential hypertensives, the mechanistic link between these abnormalities and elevated blood pressure is poorly understood. Reduced sodium-potassium ATPase activity, with and without elevated levels of a circulating inhibitor of this transport system, has been reported ...
Uza G - - 1992
Clinical and experimental investigations have revealed changes of the Na, K, Ca and Mg concentration in serum and cells in patients with essential arterial hypertension (EAH). Some hypotensive drugs correct, more or less, the electrolytic abnormalities at the same time as the decrease of arterial pressure. Epidemiological studies have shown ...
Sawicki P T - - 1992
This article examines the relationship between blood pressure and serum insulin patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemia due to insulinomas. The hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia is an independent causal factor in the development of essential hypertension in this patient population was investigated. Inappropriately high plasma concentrations of insulin and proinsulin were found in ...
Shull M M - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the alpha 2 and or beta 1 isoforms of the Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) are involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. DESIGN: Segregation analysis of polymorphic DNA markers was used to test the involvement of Na+,K(+)-ATPase in essential hypertension. PARTICIPANTS: Children with persistent hypertension having one ...
Naraghi R - - 1992
Intraoperative observations and animal experiments suggest that neurovascular compression at the left ventrolateral medulla is a possible etiological factor in essential hypertension. In pursuing this hypothesis, the authors examined the neurovascular relations in the posterior cranial fossa of 24 patients with essential hypertension, of 10 with renal hypertension, and of ...
Misra N P - - 1992
Twenty five patients of mild to moderate uncomplicated essential hypertension and five with severe hypertension were treated with long acting converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril for six weeks. Diuretic was added in those patients who did not respond satisfactorily. Twenty one patients of mild to moderate hypertension had their diastolic blood ...
Kuchel O - - 1992
We studied the metabolic pathways of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and dopamine as well as the cardiovascular and renal responses to a single administration of DOPA (500 mg orally) in stable essential hypertension. We found that after DOPA, stable hypertensive patients compared with controls showed more blood pressure decrease without reflex tachycardia, ...
Vreugdenhil G - - 1992
Office blood pressures were compared with those obtained using a thirty minute recording with an automatic device (Dinamap) in thirty patients with essential hypertension and nineteen subjects with hypertension and renal artery stenosis. When matched for age and sex, no differences were found between both groups of patients with respect ...
Vayá A - - 1992
Blood rheological properties were studied in 21 patients suffering from essential hypertension (EHT), degree I-II according to WHO criteria. These patients were diagnosed "de novo". The whole blood filterability (WBF), blood viscosity (BV) at 230 s-1 and 23 s-1, red cell deformability (FI), erythrocyte aggregation in autologous (MEA) and normal ...
Dahlöf B - - 1992
Eye-ground-photos were taken in twenty-eight previously untreated men with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The same eye was evaluated before and after 26 weeks of double-blind treatment with Enalapril or Hydrochlorothiazide. The vascular changes were assessed by using a more elaborate and refined grading than the Keith-Wagener-Barker scale. All photos ...
Lim T O - - 1992
A questionaire concerning various aspects of blood pressure measurement and hypertension was answered by 84 out of 98 (86%) doctors and 73 out of 100 (73%) nurses working in various parts of the state of Pahang. 59% and 85% of doctors and nurses respectively agreed that blood pressure should be ...
O'Rourke M F - - 1992
Frederick Akbar Mahomed was an Englishman of mixed Indian and Irish descent who made substantial contributions to the study of high blood pressure in a short professional life from 1872 to 1884. He was strongly influenced by the previous work of Richard Bright on kidney disease at his own hospital ...
Lever A F - - 1992
To review evidence that essential hypertension is a growth-related disorder with origins in childhood and manifestations in adult life. Blood pressure rises with age in children and adults. In children, the rise closely relates to growth and to skeletal and sexual maturation. Adolescents with highest pressure are heavier and had ...
Penzel T - - 1992
Sleep related breathing disorders are of high prevalence and are often associated with essential hypertension. It is therefore necessary to study blood pressure continuously in all patients with sleep related breathing disorders and arterial hypertension as well as in all patients with essential hypertension and suspected sleep apnoea. To investigate ...
Richards R - - 1992
Exertion-induced heat exhaustion is a potentially lethal condition. The earliest signs include unsteady gait and confusion. Recording of rectal temperature is essential. Skin colour, blood pressure and heart rate are not reliable diagnostic signs. The mainstays of therapy are rapid rehydration and cooling. Prompt diagnosis and rapid effective therapy will ...
Veglio F - - 1992
The association of liver cirrhosis with arterial essential hypertension has been previously described. The present study extends the previous reports by investigating the hormonal relationships that may occur in patients with established essential hypertension associated to liver cirrhosis. We studied the renin-angiotensin, the adrenergic systems and other vasoactive hormones such ...
Růzicka M - - 1992
Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of albumin (UEalb), IgG and beta-2 microglobulin was investigated at a 3 hour-interval in a control group (C) of healthy subjects, in 30 patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH), and in 16 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Mean UEalb in RVH was significantly higher than in C. ...
Bigazzi R - - 1992
To determine the prevalence of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in essential hypertension and to establish whether this abnormality is associated with deranged renal function, we have measured UAE in a group of 123 patients with essential hypertension and in 110 normal subjects. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 96 +/- ...
Uchiyama M - - 1992
Twenty-one male children and 3 male adults with essential hypertension were infused with physiological saline solution (15 ml/kg/hr) for 1 hr after they had been supine for 90 min. The blood pressure and heart rate were monitored, and blood was taken twice before and after the infusion to measure the ...
Lucarini A R - - 1991
A morphological restructuring of cardiac and arteriolar tissue is common in hypertension. The parallel evolution of these two processes as a compensatory response to pressure overload is a frequently assumed but unsubstantiated hypothesis. To evaluate this possibility, we have concomitantly measured left ventricular mass (LVM; two-dimensional echo) and minimal forearm ...
Duprez D - - 1991
This study is aimed at examining the role of non-hemodynamic factors on the impaired microcirculation in patients with moderate essential hypertension. In a series of 31 patients (mean age, 47.8 +/- 1.1 years) with newly diagnosed untreated moderate essential hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure 161.7 +/- 2.0 mm Hg, mean ...
Chandra N - - 1991
The precise role of sympathetic nervous system in initiation and/or maintenance of essential hypertension is unclear even today. Platelets have been used as a suitable model for studying neuronal turnover of biogenic amines. The present study comprised of hypertensive subjects (23) and normotensive controls (10). Hypertensive subjects exhibited significantly enhanced ...
Guyton A C - - 1991
The goal of this presentation has been to emphasize two fundamental mechanisms in the development of essential hypertension. These are: 1) The basic cause of essential hypertension is the inability of the kidneys to excrete an adequate volume of urine at normal arterial pressure. Therefore, fluid accumulates in the body ...
Daniels SR - - 1991
From blood pressure studies in younger individuals it has become clear that essential hypertension may have its origin in childhood and adolescence. This chapter addresses the diagnosis and management of blood pressure abnormalities in adolescents.
Laragh J H - - 1991
Dr. Skeggs demonstrated the lack of renin dependence in 1-kidney, 1-clip hypertension and elucidated some of the differences between that and Dr. Goldblatt's classic 2-kidney, 1-clip model of hypertension. Studies of these two different types of hypertension have led research in many new directions and helped to reveal the role ...
Draaijer P - - 1991
Essential hypertension is characterized by a progressive increase of the mean arterial pressure paralleled by a concomitant increase in the total peripheral resistance. This elevated resistance is the consequence of (a) a decreased internal diameter, (b) an increased wall-to-lumen ratio or (c) a decreased number of small arteries or arterioles. ...
West J N - - 1991
1. The effects of posture and exercise on the relationship between low-level urinary albumin excretion (microalbuminuria) and blood pressure was investigated in two groups of non-diabetic patients at increased cardiovascular risk: 21 otherwise healthy patients with untreated essential hypertension (blood pressure greater than 160/90 mmHg), and 14 age-matched patients with ...
Mulvany M J - - 1991
This paper reviews the evidence that the resistance vasculature is altered in hypertension and the role that the vasculature may play in the pathogenesis of the disease. Although functional changes (i.e., increased vascular smooth muscle sensitivity) have been found to be associated with some models of hypertension (e.g., spontaneously hypertensive ...
Lockette W - - 1991
Patients with hypertension frequently have vague complaints of dizziness and many other symptoms experienced by healthy individuals with motion sickness. We examined vestibular function in patients with essential hypertension, and we determined whether patients with essential hypertension are more prone to motion sickness using Coriolis stress testing. Vestibular function and ...
Blinowska A - - 1991
This paper deals with the following hypertension diagnoses: essential hypertension and five types of secondary hypertension: fibrodysplasic renal artery stenosis, atheromatous renal artery stenosis, Conn's syndrome, renal cystic disease, and pheochromocytoma. Only blood pressures, general information and general biochemical data are taken into account. Nineteen items were finally selected, by ...
Stoner J D - - 1991
With 60 million Americans meeting criteria for either essential or secondary hypertension, elevated arterial pressures remain a major health problem. While efforts to find etiologies for essential hypertension continue, clinicians battle its effects on organ systems, including the nervous system. Hypertensive changes in the nervous system may be acute, chronic, ...
Hamada M - - 1991
The effect of chronic catecholamine excess on cardiac function was assessed in 8 patients with surgically proven pheochromocytoma and the results compared with data obtained from normal controls and essential hypertensives. Major findings in systolic time intervals (STI) in patients with pheochromocytoma were a marked shortening of electromechanical systole and ...
Carr S J - - 1991
Erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport (SLC) was measured in 17 patients with either combined hyperlipidaemia or hypercholesterolaemia before and after lipid lowering therapy. Before treatment SLC related to the serum triglyceride level and was increased in combined hyperlipidaemia. After treatment the SLC had returned to normal and the change in SLC was ...
Schiffrin E L - - 1991
Plasma endothelin immunoreactivity was measured in normal controls, in mild essential hypertensive patients with no antihypertensive treatment, in moderate to severe hypertensives whose blood pressure was controlled by treatment, and in moderate to severe hypertensives whose blood pressure was not controlled by treatment. Endothelin immunoreactivity levels in plasma in the ...
Bianchi S - - 1991
Several patients with essential hypertension manifest an abnormal (greater than 30 mg/24 h) urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Since microalbuminuria is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, studies are currently being undertaken to determine the effect of various antihypertensive agents on UAE, on the assumption that a reduction ...
Gonsalves S F - - 1991
Studies were conducted in cats to determine whether this species could serve as an animal model for the therapeutic toxicity of recombinant interleukin-2 in humans, and to establish the role of the area postrema in the causation of recombinant interleukin-2-induced vomiting. Injections of recombinant interleukin-2 (3.6 x 10(6) IU/kg, i.m.), ...
Olsen F - - 1991
The agarose migration technique was used for demonstration of delayed-type hypersensitivity to arterial vessel wall antigens in patients suffering from chronic essential hypertension. By means of this technique, it was demonstrated that the migration indices from the hypertensive patients differed significantly from the normotensive control persons, P less than 0.005. ...
Fredrikson M - - 1991
Psychophysiological theories on the development of essential hypertension are reviewed and evaluated. Two interconnected theories that relate behavior to essential hypertension and account for individual differences in susceptibility to disease are the "hyperreactivity" theory and "the symptom specificity" theory. The "hyperreactivity" theory identifies individual differences in autonomic nervous system reactivity ...
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