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Results 251 - 300 of 647
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Januszewicz W - - 1995
Pheochromocytoma is a unique type of hypertension caused by excessive production of catecholamines by the chromaffin tumor. Pheochromocytoma, a potentially life-threatening disease, is a rare cause of hypertension. The incidence varies from 0.1 to 0.8% of hypertensive population. The author's experience is based on 138 patients treated in one institution ...
Nuutila P - - 1995
Essential hypertension is characterized by skeletal muscle insulin resistance but it is unknown whether insulin resistance also affects heart glucose uptake. We quantitated whole body (euglycemic insulin clamp) and heart and skeletal muscle (positron emission tomography and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) glucose uptake rates in 10 mild essential hypertensive (age 33 +/- 1 ...
Hagberg J M - - 1995
Endurance exercise training reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressures in approximately 75% of people who have essential hypertension; these reductions are approximately 10 mmHg for both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Exercise training at intensities of 40-70% VO2max appears to lower systolic blood pressure somewhat more and diastolic blood pressure ...
Haneda T - - 1995
The effects of long-term treatment with nipradilol, a nitroester-containing beta-blocker, on casual and 24-hour blood pressures were studied in 70 patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Antihypertensive effects of nipradilol on casual blood pressure were observed in 68% of patients. Nipradilol reduced pulse rates, but no bradycardia was observed. The usefulness ...
Takiyyuddin M A - - 1995
Multiple heritable traits are associated with essential (genetic) hypertension in humans. Because chromogranin A is increased in both human and rodent genetic hypertension, we examined the influence of heredity and blood pressure on chromogranin A in humans. In estimates derived from among- and within-pair variance in monozygotic versus dizygotic twins, ...
Schiffrin E L - - 1995
The endothelins are a family of 21-amino acid peptides that are powerful vasoconstrictors. They may also induce vascular hypertrophy. These peptides may participate through these two mechanisms in the pathogenesis of the elevation of blood pressure and/or in the maintenance of hypertension in both experimental animal models and human essential ...
Ishii H - - 1995
In order to elucidate the role of noradrenergic and dopaminergic activity in the pathogenesis of postprandial hypotension, the effect of feeding of ordinary diet on blood pressure, pulse rate, plasma catecholamine and other circulating vasoactive substances such as insulin were examined in mild essential hypertensive patients (EH) and their age-matched ...
Wocial B - - 1995
Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is a peptide proposed to modulate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on blood pressure control and contribute to the development of essential hypertension. To assess the possible influence of gender on its role, we evaluated plasma NPY, noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations in men and ...
Ajayi A A - - 1995
It is not clear how frequently hypertrophic cardiomyopathy coexists with essential hypertension or whether chronic hypertension per se, induces hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (hypertensive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). Eighty-three Nigerians with essential hypertension alone underwent M-mode and 2 dimensional echocardiographic study. Twenty per cent (17 patients) had disproportionate intraventricular septal hypertrophy (septum: posterior wall ...
Prasad A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a reduction in human forearm skin capillary density in essential hypertension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We compared the number of capillary loops in the forearm skin of 12 patients with established, uncomplicated essential hypertension (mean blood pressure 180/109 mmHg) with that in carefully matched control ...
Whitworth J A - - 1995
There is emerging evidence that cortisol plays a significantly greater role in human hypertension than previously thought. Apart from the well recognized role of cortisol in the hypertension of Cushing's syndrome, local cortisol excess has been recognized as responsible for rare forms of hypertension such as apparent mineralocorticoid excess and ...
Middelberg A P - - 1995
Common hosts for the large-scale manufacture of biological products, such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, do not excrete products to the medium. Effective techniques for cell disruption are therefore required. These include physical, chemical, enzymatic and mechanical methods. Mechanical methods such as bead milling, high-pressure homogenization, and microfluidization are ...
Robertson D - - 1995
Baroreflex failure has a range of presentations, varying from the acute onset of a hypertensive crisis to a chronically volatile blood pressure and heart rate with hypertensive surges in response to stress, punctuated by periods of normal or even low blood pressure during rest. Differentiating this syndrome from other causes ...
Soro A - - 1995
We compared corticosteroid metabolite excretion rates and patterns in a group of 68 subjects with untreated essential hypertension and a matched group of 48 normotensive control subjects. The ratio of tetrahydrocortisol plus allotetrahydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisone and the ratio of allotetrahydrocortisol to tetrahydrocortisol were significantly higher in the hypertensive group. This ...
Ricci Bitti P E - - 1995
Anger and hostility have long been considered important factors in the etiology of essential hypertension (EH) and coronary heart disease (CHD). This case-control study investigates the association of hostility, as measured by the Cook and Medley Hostility Scale (HO), and anger, as measured by the Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), with ...
Agabiti-Rosei E - - 1995
The vasoprotective activity of lacidipine has been demonstrated both in animals and humans. Results from several studies indicate that vital organ perfusion is maintained, or even increased, during lacidipine administration. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) represents an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Lacidipine has been shown to reduce LVH significantly ...
Zoccali C - - 1995
An alteration in renal metabolism of endothelin may contribute to hypertension in the SHR and it has been shown that the excretion rate of endothelin is reduced in patients with essential hypertension. We measured plasma and urinary endothelin 1 (ET-1) in 20 untreated essential hypertensives with normal renal function, in ...
Naraghi R - - 1994
Intraoperative observations, necropsy, and angiographic studies support the presumption that neurovascular compression of the left ventrolateral medulla may cause neurogenic hypertension. Pulsatile irritation of the ventrolateral medulla at the root-entry zone of cranial nerves IX and X increases blood pressure in animals. To identify and assess the distribution of neurovascular ...
Naruse M - - 1994
Recent advances in ET research on the cardiovascular and endocrine systems were reviewed. Considering the potent vasculotropic actions, strategically advantageous localization, and recent findings with the specific receptor antagonist, ET is potentially involved in the regulation of hemodynamic homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of essential and secondary hypertension. The mitogenic ...
Kokot M - - 1994
We assessed the influence of hyperoxemia on erythropoietin secretion in patients with various etiological forms of arterial hypertension (essential, n = 15; renoparenchymal, n = 16; renovascular, n = 15) and in 15 healthy subjects. On the first day of the study, blood was withdrawn at 1-hour intervals for the ...
Tanyalçin T - - 1994
We investigated whether pre- and posttreatment analysis of erythrocyte membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37) activity would be a useful marker for screening hypertensive patients to determine who might benefit from treatment with calcium antagonists. Erythrocyte Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity and sodium and potassium (ENa, EK) contents were determined in controls and in patients ...
Lee R M - - 1994
A proper balance between the n-3 and n-6 series of essential fatty acids (EFAs) is essential for homeostasis and normal growth in humans. Dietary supplement with fish oil and related n-3 EFAs has been used to study their antihypertensive property in animals and humans with borderline and essential hypertension. In ...
Pedrinelli R - - 1994
Microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion between 20 and 200 micrograms/min) and endothelial dysfunction coexist in patients with essential hypertension. To evaluate whether the two phenomena are related and the determinants of that association, we recruited 10 untreated males with essential hypertension and microalbuminuria without diabetes to be compared with an equal ...
Kailasam M T - - 1994
Arachidonic acid metabolites such as prostaglandins of the E series have well-documented effects on blood pressure (BP). Recently, a stable analogue of prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol) became available for oral use in humans, being primarily indicated for prevention of peptic disease induced by cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors. We hypothesised that misoprostol would exert ...
Magagna A - - 1994
Aspirin at low doses is used as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and is frequently administered to essential hypertensive patients with arterial thrombotic complications. However, it is unknown whether aspirin can modify blood pressure values either in treated or untreated hypertensive patients, as described for other non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. ...
Williams G H - - 1994
Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the majority of patients with essential hypertension have an endocrine basis for their elevated blood pressure. Abnormalities in vascular tone, circulating hormone levels, and the responsiveness of target tissues to these hormones all contribute to the pathogenesis of the increased blood pressure. The ...
Picado M J - - 1994
Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence suggests a relation between Mg2+ metabolism and essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was the detection of abnormalities of the erythrocyte Mg2+/Na+ exchanger in essential hypertensive patients. We studied 66 untreated essential hypertensive patients and 36 normotensive control subjects. Maximal efflux rates of ...
Bakshi S K - - 1994
Hypertension is a very common and important disease of modern civilised life. There are comflicting reports about cadmium, a trace element in the genesis of essential hypertension. The present study was conducted to estimate the cadmium levels in whole blood in the normal group of thirty subjects who were normotensive ...
Taddei S - - 1994
Patients with essential hypertension show impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by acetylcholine. Because dietary potassium supplementation increases endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine in hypertensive rats, we designed the present study to investigate whether potassium increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in essential hypertensive patients. Therefore, in patients with essential hypertension (n = 13) and in ...
Biesenbach G - - 1994
In 84 patients with insufficiently treated essential hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or = 160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or = 100 mmHg) and normal renal function (creatinine clearance Mean +/- SD = 114 +/- 22 ml/min/1.73 m2) the mean urinary albumin excretion was 39 +/- 19 mg/24h ...
Walker B R - - 1994
A substantial proportion of patients with secondary hypertension have disorders of the adrenal cortex. Not surprisingly, corticosteroids were amongst the first putative pathogenic mediators to be investigated in essential hypertension. Despite this long history, there remains controversy about the mechanisms which promote abnormal adrenocortical secretion, the tissues and receptors which ...
Ventura H O - - 1994
Arterial hypertension is a complication of cyclosporine therapy in heart transplant recipients. We studied cardiovascular adaptation to cyclosporine-induced hypertension by determining haemodynamic and echocardiographic indexes in 25 cardiac transplant recipients matched by mean arterial pressure, age, sex, height and weight to 25 patients with established essential hypertension. Twenty-five normotensive subjects ...
Petrov V V - - 1994
The erythrocyte Na+/Li(+)-countertransport activity was studied in patients with essential hypertension (n = 59), chronic glomerulonephritis (n = 30), chronic pyelonephritis (n = 26), renovascular hypertension (n = 35) and pheochromocytoma (n = 3). The erythrocyte Na+/Li(+)-countertransport (SLC) activity was on average higher (p < 0.02) in the patients with ...
Dazai Y - - 1994
1. We studied the effect of oral calcium supplementation (1.0 g/day) for 1 week on baroreceptor reflex function and the lability of blood pressure in association with the changes in autonomic nervous activity in 14 hospitalized patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension (nine males and five females, mean age ...
Nakada T - - 1994
The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether the phentolamine test is able to predict blood pressure fluctuations during operations on patients with pheochromocytoma. We administered 5 mg phentolamine intravenously to 11 patients with pheochromocytoma and 6 patients with essential hypertension, pretreated with alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists. Plasma concentrations of epinephrine ...
Lambert G W - - 1994
In this study we aimed to elucidate the role of central noradrenergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic neuronal systems in the development of essential hypertension. Fifteen untreated essential hypertensive subjects (aged 44 +/- 3 years) and 32 healthy volunteers (aged 38 +/- 3 years) participated in this study. By combining direct ...
Garay R - - 1994
Multiple ion transport defects have been characterized in red blood cell membranes from essential hypertensive patients. These seem to be biochemical markers of at least three different types of essential hypertension. A first type is characterized by low pump, low cotransport fluxes in erythrocytes. These hypertensive patients are apparently identical ...
Bilgin R - - 1993
It has been shown that a significant correlation is present between blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations among nondiabetic individuals. Blood glycated hemoglobin, serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were determined in forty nonobese individuals, twenty with untreated essential hypertension and twenty with normal blood pressure. The results demonstrated a decrease ...
Marley W - - 1993
Intraoperative systemic and renal hemodynamics are unpredictable in patients with essential hypertension due to their pharmacologic management, as well as the underlying disease process itself. The purpose of this review is to explore possible mechanisms mediating essential hypertension and describe the ramifications of various therapeutic interventions. Understanding the integrated relationship ...
Trazzi S - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of antihypertensive therapy with lacidipine on the increase in radial artery compliance observed in mild essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: The study was performed in eight mild to moderate essential hypertensive patients in whom clinic blood pressure, radial artery diameter and radial artery compliance were evaluated ...
Suzuki S - - 1993
MPC-1304 ((+-)-methyl 2-oxopropyl 1,4-dihydro 2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate, CAS 86780-90-7), a new calcium antagonist, was orally administered to 10 outpatients with mild essential hypertension. It was observed that MPC-1304 inhibited elevations of blood pressure both at rest and under exercise loading without any adverse hemodynamic effects. The findings obtained indicated that MPC-1304 would ...
Mimran A - - 1993
The prevalence and significance of microalbuminuria is not well elucidated in patients with essential hypertension. In newly detected hypertension, its prevalence ranges between 23 and 37% and albuminuria is usually well correlated with the level of arterial pressure. Interestingly, albuminuria is enhanced in overweight hypertensive patients. Antihypertensive treatment has variable ...
de la Sierra A - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in essential hypertension (EH). Several hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic factors have been involved in the development of LVH in hypertension, including abnormalities in cellular ion mobilization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured different ion transport systems in ...
Díez J - - 1993
In a previous work we have found than an association exists between the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and increased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in essential hypertension. To address whether this association is of pathophysiological relevance the relationship between echocardiographically determined LVH and IGF-I levels ...
Nørgaard K - - 1993
This study was undertaken to characterize type I diabetic patients with essential hypertension with respect to kidney function, renal hormones, and endothelial function. After 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment, a cross-sectional study was carried out in the following groups: group 1, 14 healthy controls; group 2, 13 nondiabetic patients with ...
Lindner A - - 1993
Intracellular free calcium (Cai2+) was measured in human red blood cells (RBCs) using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent probe, fluo-3. Fresh RBCs were loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester of fluo-3 (fluo-3-AM) in vitro. Following incubation at 37 degrees C for 60 min, cells were separated from nonincorporated fluo-3-AM and fluo-3. Fluorescence was ...
Mulvany M J - - 1993
Essential hypertension is associated with alterations in the structure of the resistance vasculature, such that the ratio of the media thickness to the lumen diameter (media:lumen ratio) is increased. These abnormalities have previously been explained in terms of vascular growth (an encroachment of the wall into the lumen), but the ...
Daniels S R - - 1993
The kidney has been implicated as both an etiologic factor and as a target organ in patients with essential hypertension. Renal function has not been studied extensively in children and adolescents with essential hypertension. Eighty-eight subjects, aged 6 to 23 years, with blood pressure persistently above the 90th percentile for ...
Taddei S - - 1993
Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine is reduced in the forearm of essential hypertensive patients. To investigate whether endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is reduced also in secondary hypertension, we evaluated the effects of an intrabrachial infusion of acetylcholine on forearm blood flow (strain-gauge venous plethysmography) in essential hypertensive (n = 12), primary aldosteronism hypertensive ...
Krzesinski J M - - 1993
The aim of this study was to test basal and after treatment erythrocyte sodium and calcium concentrations, and calcium-ATPase activity and platelet cytosolic free calcium and pH in 20 normotensive controls, 20 hemodialysis-dependent chronic renal failure patients and in 18 essential hypertensives. Prior to treatment, essential hypertensive and uremic patients ...
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