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Takata S - - 1986
The effect of propranolol on baroreflex control of heart rate was studied in 12 young patients with essential hypertension and was compared with that of 12 age-matched normotensive subjects. Resting heart rate and cardiac index in patients with essential hypertension were significantly higher than those of control subjects (p less ...
Stoff J S - - 1986
Generalized arteriolar vasoconstriction is the dominant element in essential hypertension. Although the proximate cause of this process remains elusive, several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities in prostaglandin and thromboxane metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Diminished endogenous synthesis of vasodilator prostaglandins and enhanced formation of the vasoconstrictor ...
Robertson G L - - 1986
Vasopressin secretion is stimulated by hyperosmolality, hypovolemia, or hypotension and is inhibited by hypoosmolality, hypervolemia, or hypertension. These osmotic and hemodynamic influences are mediated by neuronal afferents that originate in separate osmoreceptors or baroreceptors but ultimately converge to act on the same neurosecretory neurons. Functionally, the two control systems are ...
Chen H C - - 1986
The ancient Chinese formula of "San-Huang-Hsieh-Hsin-Tang" (S-T) was originally used for patients with "epigastric fullness, flushing, restlessness, constipation and a hard pulse" (Chang 115 B.C.). All these symptoms are frequently observed in patients with essential hypertension. We assessed the antihypertensive and hemodynamic effects of this formula, and found that S-T ...
Chen H C - - 1986
In this paper, the long-term effects of the ancient Chinese formula of San-Huang-Hsieh-Hsin-Tang on patients with essential hypertension were reported. San-Huang-Hsieh-Hsin-Tang could significantly improve the hyperkinetic states of the cardiovascular system, improve the accompanying sympathetic symptoms, lower serum norepinephrine and have no apparent side effects.
Arora R B - - 1986
Cadmium and Zinc levels were determined in 100 patients of Essential hypertension by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. It was shown that the mean levels of Serum cadmium were 43.34% +/- 6.5% higher and zinc were 28.42% +/- 5.4% lower in hypertensive when compared with normotensive controls. A statistically significant relationship between ...
Chien S - - 1986
Blood rheology was studied in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and essential hypertension (EH), and the results were correlated with in vivo hemodynamic functions. Blood viscosity (eta B) was elevated as a result of sequential changes of a number of parameters, including increases in hematocrit, plasma fibrinogen and alpha ...
Fallo F - - 1986
The aim of this study was to evaluate together the main hemorheologic parameters and one of the transmembrane ion transport systems in erythrocytes of subjects with normal and elevated blood pressure. Three sex-, age-, and weight-matched groups consisting of 15 normotensive subjects (NT) with no parental hypertension, 15 patients with ...
Hossmann V - - 1986
Inhibition of the ouabain-sensitive Na-K-ATPase by digoxin significantly decreases erythrocyte deformability (5). Since first a decrease in this transport system has been discussed as a pathogenetic factor in the development of essential hypertension and second an increase in blood viscosity, due to an increased hematocrit has been observed in elderly ...
Os I - - 1986
An exaggerated, early prolactin response (p less than 0.01) was observed in ten patients with untreated essential hypertension (148 +/- 4/97 +/- 1 mmHg, means +/- SE) compared with ten healthy normotensive men of the same age (124 +/- 3/78 +/- 2 mmHg) after administration of metoclopramide, a competitive dopamine ...
Wilkins M R - - 1985
There is considerable evidence to suggest that the transport of Na+ ions across cell membranes is reduced in essential hypertension. The contribution of this abnormality to the development of elevated blood pressure remains unknown. We have observed similar abnormalities in erythrocytes from normotensive patients with diabetes mellitus and suggest that ...
Barylko-Pikielna N - - 1985
The object of this study was to test taste responsiveness and taste preferences for NaCl in suprathreshold concentrations in hypertensive individuals. The investigations were carried out in 52 patients with essential hypertension (HT) and 46 normotensive (NT) control subjects. Two types of taste response were tested: (a) an intensity response, ...
Korner P I - - 1985
Changes in amplifying capacities of the hypertrophied heart and resistance vessels account for the characteristic evolution of haemodynamic patterns in the course of essential hypertension. Reversal of hypertrophy in established essential hypertension requires prolonged control of blood pressure. Redevelopment of hypertension on stopping drug therapy is slowest if there has ...
Triggle C R - - 1985
The etiology of essential hypertension has been under intensive investigation for a number of years, and the availability of a number of rat models of this disease has aided our understanding of the relationship between abnormalities in cardiovascular regulatory function and hypertension. It is accepted that abnormalities at a number ...
Hilton P J - - 1985
Studies in our laboratory and by others have repeatedly shown that the mean value of the rate-constant for ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux is reduced and intracellular sodium increased in essential hypertension, but that there is considerable overlap with the normotensive population. There is a significant negative correlation between the rate constant ...
Aiello C - - 1985
The effect of indenolol on heart rate and blood pressure at rest and after submaximal workload has been studied in 19 patients with established essential hypertension. A stepwise increase from moderate to submaximal exercise was chosen to mimic challenges normally occurring in daily life. After 4 weeks of once a ...
Horn M - - 1985
We report the development of a method for obtaining right-ventricular radionuclide angiograms using continuous peripheral intravenous infusion of the ultra-short-lived nuclide krypton-81m. This tracer has a half-life of 13 sec, emits a single 190-keV photon, and is extremely insoluble. During infusion into a peripheral vein, Kr-81m achieves stable count rates ...
D'Arcy V - - 1985
Twenty three patients with essential hypertension who were uncontrolled on diuretic and/or beta-receptor antagonist therapy were treated additionally with the vasodilator, pinacidil, in an open study. Significant reduction in mean blood pressure was achieved. Supine and erect systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell by 44/25 mmHg and 37/24 mmHg respectively ...
Freeman D H DH - - 1985
In the Spring and Summer of 1982 the Second Connecticut Blood Pressure Survey (CBPS-II) was completed. This survey is independent of, but essentially identical in design and implementation to the First Connecticut Blood Pressure Survey reported on by Freeman et al. [1]. This paper compares the results of the two ...
Mongeau J G - - 1985
The maximal rate of ouabain sensitive Na+ (pump), the maximal rate of Na+ and K+ furosemide (co-transport), the maximal rate of Na+ lithium countertransport and the rate constant of Na+ and K+ passive permeability were determined in the following population: 27 controls, 39 labile essential hypertensive, 10 stable hypertensive children, ...
McCarron D A - - 1985
Both calcium and parathyroid hormone appear to be involved in the acute and chronic regulation of arterial pressure in experimental animals and humans. While the direct evidence is still preliminary, the net effect of calcium and parathyroid hormone under normal physiologic conditions is to favor a reduction in blood pressure. ...
Ito T - - 1985
Time indices and volumetric parameters were investigated in patients with essential hypertension subdivided into three groups according to the WHO stage classification. The ratio of ejection time (ET) and pre-ejection period (PEP), ET/PEP remained within normal range in WHO-I but decreased significantly in WHO-II and reached extremely low values in ...
Elliott H L - - 1984
Endralazine is a peripherally-acting vasodilator similar to hydralazine. In normotensive subjects and essential hypertensive and renal patients, single oral doses of 10 mg endralazine led to substantial falls in blood pressure, with no significant additional orthostatic effect. Maintenance endralazine treatment (5 or 10 mg b.d.) of essential hypertensive patients significantly ...
Ettenger M M - - 1984
A highly-standardized plate method was used to study fibrinolytic profiles in 14 patients with essential hypertension and 245 normotensive healthy control subjects. Compared with the normotensive group, the group with essential hypertension showed a defect in fibrinolysis, as evidenced by a significant increase in the mean level of inhibitor of ...
Carey R M - - 1984
SKF 82526-J, or fenoldopam, a benzazepine derivative, is a selective dopamine-1 (DA-1) agonist devoid of activity at dopamine-2, alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptors. We studied SKF 82526-J in 10 patients with essential hypertension and five normal control subjects on constant 150-meq sodium, 60 meq potassium intake. In the hypertensive patients, during ...
Safar M E - - 1984
The physical properties of intact superficial arteries can be studied in humans by using original pulsed Doppler systems. Measurements of the diameter, blood flow velocity, volumic flow, and compliance of the brachial artery can be obtained in hypertensive humans in comparison with controls of the same age. In sustained essential ...
Resnick L M - - 1984
Intracellular levels of free Mg2+ in human erythrocytes were determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy in 26 fasted subjects and were correlated with blood pressures and serum levels of total magnesium (bound and free Mg2+) and ionized calcium from the same subjects in a seated position. Untreated hypertensive individuals consistently demonstrated ...
Zidek W - - 1984
The effect of the loop diuretic, piretanide (12 mg/day on blood pressure and intracellular electrolyte composition in red blood cells during a six-week treatment period was studied in 14 previously untreated essential hypertensive patients. Blood pressure fell continuously during the six weeks, intracellular Na+ activity in red blood cells increased ...
Kayazawa F - - 1984
Ocular fluorophotometry (OFP) was performed on 38 normal subjects and 71 patients with essential hypertension who showed hypertensive retinal vascular change without hemorrhages and exudates. The average fluorescein concentration one hour after dye injection in the posterior vitreous and the anterior chamber of hypertensive patients was higher than that of ...
Lasaridis A - - 1984
Exchangeable and plasma electrolytes, blood pressure and aldosterone were measured in groups of patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, primary hyperaldosteronism and essential hypertension and in normal subjects. In idiopathic hyperaldosteronism exchangeable sodium was higher than in both essential hypertensive and normal groups but lower than in primary hyperaldosteronism. Plasma sodium results ...
Sprenger K B - - 1984
During the last 3 years, 306 membrane plasma separations (MPS) were performed on 40 patients. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), oncotic pressure (OP), blood count, free hemoglobin, prothrombin time, fibrinogen, and factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XIII were determined. The complication rate was evaluated. Mild complications ...
Swales J D - - 1984
We are still uncertain of the way in which environment and heredity interact to produce increased arterial pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Few indisputable abnormalities can be demonstrated. Of these there is universal agreement that structural vessel hypertrophy is present and this acts probably as a maintenance and perhaps ...
Kobrin I - - 1984
Red blood cell mass, plasma volume, and renal and systemic hemodynamic measurements were evaluated in 24 normotensive men (group 1), 45 men with mild essential hypertension (group 2), and 43 men with moderate to severe essential hypertension (group 3). Despite significant hemodynamic differences between the groups and although plasma volume ...
FitzGerald W A - - 1984
A labile hypertensive black man analyzes his own personal history of hypertension. Using the research literature, systematically-applied behavioral risk factors, and his own body's apparent response to risk behavior, he attempts to uncover some useful leads for future biomedical research on essential hypertension. Inferential evidence suggests that the central mechanism ...
Erne P - - 1984
Intracellular free calcium has been implicated in vascular smooth-muscle contraction and in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. We studied free-calcium levels in blood platelets, which have many features in common with vascular smooth-muscle cells. With use of an intracellularly trapped fluorescent dye, the free-calcium concentration in platelets was found to ...
Davidman M - - 1984
This review of the mechanisms of elevation of blood pressure in human essential hypertension first focuses on individual mechanisms and their interrelations. The authors then try to identify those forms of essential hypertension in which the major determinants are known. When the most significant processes associated with elevated blood pressure ...
Erne P - - 1984
Calcium has been implicated in smooth muscle contraction, arterial resistance, and the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. Using the intracellularly trapped fluorescent dye quin2 , the free calcium concentration in platelets was found to be elevated in patients with borderline (n = 8, p less than 0.01) and established essential hypertension ...
Levenson J - - 1984
Central (six patients) and brachial (12 patients) haemodynamics were studied in men with sustained essential hypertension before and after intravenous administration of an alpha post-synaptic adrenergic blocking drug, urapidil. Brachial arterial compliance was evaluated non-invasively from the simultaneous measurement of pulse wave velocity and arterial diameter. In basal conditions, arterial ...
Maebashi M - - 1984
A vasoactive substance was produced in serum when incubated at 37 degrees C. This substance differed from other known vasoactive agents. It was a phospholipid and caused an elevation in blood pressure by its direct vasoconstriction. This pressor substance increased in the incubated sera of patients with essential hypertension and ...
Okun R - - 1984
The comparative efficacy and effects on total body potassium of prazosin and polythiazide vs nadolol and polythiazide in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension unresponsive to diuretic alone were compared in an open, crossover trial involving 20 male patients. Both prazosin and nadolol reduced blood pressure ...
Wenting G J - - 1984
The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) antagonist, ketanserin, has a high affinity for 5-HT2-receptors but it also binds to alpha 1-adrenoceptors. The compound (10 mg i.v.) lowered mean arterial pressure by 22% +/- 2% (mean +/- SEM, p less than 0.001) in 30 patients with essential hypertension. Measurements of heart rate, cardiac ...
Beretta-Piccoli C - - 1984
The circulatory volume and exchangeable sodium (NaE) were measured by the Berne group in 110 normal subjects and 12 patients with benign untreated essential hypertension. Total plasma volume (PV) and blood volume (BV) correlated with total NaE (r = 0.64-0.75, p less than 0.001); these correlations were similar in normal ...
Hulthén U L - - 1984
Elevated vascular resistance is the key factor in most cases of essential hypertension. Vascular resistance is determined by the sarcoplasmatic concentration of free Ca2+. Experimental studies have shown an increased dependence for the noradrenaline-induced contraction on extracellular Ca2+ from the aorta to the small resistance vessels. This is in accordance ...
Hulthén U L - - 1984
The dependence of arteriolar vasoconstrictor tone on the activity of Na+,K+-ATPase was studied in 17 normotensive subjects (NT) and 28 patients with essential hypertension (EH) by measuring the response in forearm blood flow and vascular resistance to intraarterial infusion of the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. Basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were elevated ...
Cohen L - - 1984
8 young, untreated, hypomagnesemic patients with a recent onset of high-renin essential hypertension, were treated with 750 mg Mg oxide daily. Only functional (vasospastic) lesions were observed in their retinal vessels. After 3 months of therapy, despite no significant change in blood pressure, complete reversal of the retinal changes was ...
Hulthén U L - - 1983
The forearm vascular resistance (FVR) following intra-arterial infusions of the calcium influx inhibitors nicardipine and verapamil and sodium nitroprusside was compared to that following 10 min arterial occlusion in 10 normotensive (NT) individuals aged 45 +/- 12 years, 12 patients with mild essential hypertension (EH) aged 42 +/- 14 years ...
Martín-Vasallo P - - 1983
In this paper we report the levels of the 4-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysing activity of the red blood cell membrane in 46 hypertensive patients as compared to 41 normal controls and eight secondary hypertensives. This activity has at least two components; one of them is dependent on the presence of magnesium ...
Chadha D R - - 1983
Forty-one patients completed a randomized, double-blind, between-group comparison of a combination of penbutolol and frusemide, with penbutolol alone, and frusemide alone in the management of mild to moderate essential hypertension. The results suggest that the combination caused a superior reduction in systolic and diastolic pressure compared with penbutolol and a ...
Levenson J A - - 1983
The efficacy of MK-421 was compared with that of propranolol in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension, using a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized protocol. The two drugs reduced supine and standing blood pressures, but propranolol, unlike MK-421, reduced heart rate. Using a pulsed Doppler method, brachial artery diameter, blood velocity ...
Garay R P - - 1983
In 50 normotensive controls, the increase in erythrocyte Na+ concentration up to 12.4 +/- 2.0 mmol/l cells (mean +/- SD) ensures half-maximal stimulation of outward Na+,K+ cotransport fluxes. Forty-six out of sixty-five patients with essential hypertension required more than 16 mmol/l cells of internal Na+ concentration to obtain a similar ...
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