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Wolff Christopher B - - 2008
A single compartment model of the arterial circulation was used to generate an arterial blood pressure waveform from pre-determined stroke volume (SV) and arterial resistance (R). With fixed stroke volume and varying resistances blood pressure waveforms showed mean values proportional to resistance but amplitude lessening with higher pressure; the amplitude ...
Townsend Raymond R - - 2008
The incidence of stroke is elevated among individuals with kidney disease. Traditional risk factors seem to account for much but not all of this excess risk. Blood pressure control is the most important aspect of stroke prevention. Multiple classes of antihypertensive agents, including diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ...
George Melanie S MS UK Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United - - 2008
Unilateral neglect, a lack of awareness for one side of space, is a common and debilitating consequence of stroke. Previous work has identified a relationship between enduring left neglect and diminished general alertness and shown that increasing alertness can temporarily reduce the severity of the spatial bias. In that research, ...
Kerry Sally S Community Health Sciences, St George's, University of London, London, UK. - - 2008
High blood pressure in patients with stroke increases the risk of recurrence but management in the community is often inadequate. Home blood pressure monitoring may increase patients' involvement in their care, increase compliance, and reduce the need for patients to attend their General Practitioner if blood pressure is adequately controlled. ...
Tsivgoulis Georgios - - 2008
In vitro and animal studies have shown that thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can be enhanced with ultrasound. Ultrasound delivers mechanical pressure waves to the clot, thus exposing more thrombus surface to circulating drug. Moreover, intravenous gaseous microspheres with ultrasound have been shown to be a potential alternative ...
Heitsch Laura - - 2007
The optimal management of blood pressure in the first 24 hours of ischemic stroke remains a controversial topic. Most patients are hypertensive at presentation and subsequently experience a spontaneous decline in blood pressure. Decreasing penumbral blood flow and exacerbating vasogenic edema are significant concerns in whether to treat blood pressure ...
Gralla J - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has an encouragingly high recanalization rate in treating stroke, it is associated with severe complications of which the underlying factors have yet to be identified. Because MT is a mechanical approach, the mechanical properties of the thrombus might be crucial for its success. ...
Corrêa Maísa de Carvalho Mde - - 2008
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability particularly in the elderly. Hypertension is the most important risk factor in strokes, representing roughly 70% of all cases. Oxidative stress is believed to be one of the mechanisms taking part in neuronal damage in stroke. It is well documented ...
Broderick Joseph - - 2007
PURPOSE: The aim of this statement is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: A formal literature search of Medline was performed through the end date of August 2006. The results of this search were complemented by additional articles on ...
Lin Keh-chung - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the functional use of certain task objects while standing influences reaching performance and postural balance in persons with left or right cerebral vascular accidents, and also in healthy individuals. DESIGN: Thirty-five stroke patients (20 patients with left and 15 patients with right cerebral vascular accidents) and ...
Inoue Ryusuke - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To investigate the risk of stroke in subjects with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and combined systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) in a Japanese general population, we used 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and casual-screening blood-pressure (CBP) readings. METHODS: Subtypes of hypertension were defined based on ...
Pinsky Michael R - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Assessment of cardiovascular stability using ventilation-induced changes in measured physiological variables, referred to as functional hemodynamic monitoring, usually requires measurement of ventilation-induced changes in venous return. Thus, it is important to understand the determinants of these complex heart-lung interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several animal and human studies have ...
Varon Joseph - - 2007
It is estimated that with more than 40 million adults in the United States having uncontrolled hypertension, the risk of developing ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke in this population is significant. In addition, roughly 1 of 100 patients with essential hypertension will experience a hypertensive crisis during their lifetime, and these ...
Nakamura Taishi - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very recent subgroup analysis from the PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events has shown that pioglitazone reduces the risk of recurrent stroke in type 2 diabetic patients. However, the underlying mechanism of stroke prevention by pioglitazone is unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect of ...
Genthon N - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regaining control of sitting posture is one of the first goals in the rehabilitation of patients with stroke. So, it requires a precise quantification of this postural behaviour. The purpose of the present investigation was thus to assess postural control during sitting in people with hemiparesis through ...
Litchfield K N - - 2007
Fifteen healthy, full-term women with singleton pregnancies were exposed to an increased F(I)o(2) of 0.4 and their haemodynamic responses measured with a non-invasive transthoracic bio-impedance monitor. There was a mean reduction in cardiac index from 3.18 to 3.03 l x min(-1) x m(-2) (4.7%, p = 0.004). The mean indexed ...
Zia Elisabet - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data regarding the association between blood pressure level and incidence of stroke subtype, especially primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) subtypes, is sparse. This population-based study explored the relationship between blood pressure and the incidence of cerebral infarction, and PICH, with lobar and nonlobar location. METHODS: Risk factors were ...
Thorogood Margaret - - 2007
To use a multidisciplinary approach to describe the prevalence, lay beliefs, health impact, and treatment of hypertension in the Agincourt sub-district. A multidisciplinary team used a range of methods including a cross-sectional random sample survey of vascular risk factors in adults aged 35 years and older, and rapid ethnographic assessment. ...
Cumbler Ethan - - 2007
Hospitalists are frequently called upon to manage blood pressure after acute ischemic stroke. A review of both post infarction cerebral perfusion physiology and the data from randomized trials of antihypertensive therapy is necessary to explain why consensus guidelines for blood pressure management after stroke differ from those of other hypertensive ...
Wityk Robert J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Control of hypertension is a well-established goal of primary prevention of stroke, but management of blood pressure in patients with a previous stroke or in the setting of acute stroke is complicated by the effect blood pressure changes may have on cerebral perfusion. REVIEW SUMMARY: For patients with previous ...
Tsivgoulis Georgios - - 2007
Experimental and pilot clinical evidence shows that thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) can be enhanced with ultrasound. Ultrasound delivers mechanical pressure waves to the clot, thus exposing more thrombus surface to circulating drug. The international multicenter phase II CLOTBUST trial showed that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, ...
Wityk Robert J - - 2007
Although control of hypertension is established as an important factor in the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, management of blood pressure in the setting of acute ischemic stroke remains controversial. Given limited data, the general consensus is that there is no proven benefit to lowering blood pressure in the ...
Spence J David - - 2007
Widespread reluctance to treat hypertension during acute stroke is based on historical accounts of unfavorable outcomes of treatment that were badly done: therapies that cannot be controlled, such as sublingual nifedipine, oral or intramuscular antihypertensive drugs may drop blood pressure precipitously, leading to worsening of ischemia. Case fatality in stroke ...
Dahlöf Björn B Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Ostra, Göteborg, Sweden. - - 2007
Despite the substantial evidence of the benefits of lowering blood pressure, conventional treatment does not normalize the burden of major cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension. Data now suggest that the nature of the antihypertensive agent used may have an important impact on long-term cardiovascular outcomes, including stroke. Optimal treatment ...
Turan Tanya N - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Many clinicians allow blood pressure to run high in patients with intracranial stenosis to protect against hypoperfusion. We sought to determine whether higher blood pressure decreases the risk of stroke in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data on 567 patients in the Warfarin-Aspirin Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial were ...
Wang Ji-Guang - - 2007
In the present quantitative overview of outcome trials, we investigated the efficacy of amlodipine or angiotensin receptor blockers in the prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, or diabetic nephropathy. The analysis included 12 trials of 94 338 patients. The analysis of trials involving ...
Sprigg N - - 2007
Amphetamine enhances recovery after experimental ischaemia and has shown promise in small clinical trials when combined with motor or sensory stimulation. Amphetamine, a sympathomimetic, might have haemodynamic effects in stroke patients, although limited data have been published. Subjects were recruited 3-30 days post-ischaemic stroke into a phase II randomized (1:1), ...
Smeda John S - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We assessed the ability of poststroke captopril and losartan treatment to reverse myogenic and endothelial dysfunction in the middle cerebral arteries of Kyoto-Wistar stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRsp) that developed intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: SHRsp were sampled before and after stroke development and after up to 37 ...
Seo WhaSook - - 2007
This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic values of acute physiologic parameters of mortality and functional and cognitive recovery. We studied 108 patients with hemorrhagic stroke admitted within 24 hours after stroke onset to a neurologic intensive care department. Details concerning potential physiologic predictors were collected (i.e., systolic and ...
Hing A J - - 2007
We compared the effects of hormone resuscitation (HR) with a norepinephrine-based protocol on cardiac function, hemodynamics and need for vasopressor support after brain death in a porcine model. Following brain death induction, animals were treated with norepinephrine and fluids for 3 h. In the following 3 h, they continued on ...
Samal Doris - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge about hypertension and its control influences blood pressure control in patients with hypertension. We assessed these parameters in a large cohort of patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and analyzed their association with educational attainment. METHODS: Five hundred ninety-one consecutive patients with stroke with ...
Lip Gregory Y H - - 2007
AIM: To test the hypothesis that stroke and systemic embolic events (SEE) in the Stroke Prevention using an ORal Thrombin Inhibitor in atrial Fibrillation (SPORTIF) III and V trials were related to blood pressure, and that differences in event rates (stroke and SEE, bleeding) could also be related to the ...
Kupferman Juan C - - 2007
Hypertension has not been strongly identified as a risk factor in childhood stroke. This report describes a case of a teenager with a lacunar stroke, the type often observed in adults with hypertensive-associated infarction, and masked hypertension. The patient had normal blood pressure on initial presentation, but on further investigation ...
Ikeda Masahiko - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Green tea catechins possess potent antioxidative properties and protect against various oxidative diseases. Malignant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (M-SHRSP) develop severe hypertension and spontaneous stroke at early ages. We previously reported that ingestion of green tea catechins prevents cerebral ischemic damage in a middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion ...
Pérgola Pablo E PE Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, - - 2007
The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes study is a multicenter, international trial funded by the National Institutes of Health testing the role of lowering systolic blood pressure to <130 mmHg in the prevention of stroke recurrence and cognitive decline in patients with recent symptomatic small subcortical stroke. Reliable and ...
Baldi James C - - 2007
The shift from upright to supine posture increases stroke volume in healthy young adults, primarily through increased end-diastolic volume. Aging is associated with increased ventricular stiffness and impaired diastolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the stroke volume change between the upright and supine posture was ...
Gardner Craig J - - 2007
Hypertensive encephalopathy is one of the manifestations of a hypertensive crisis. It is not the absolute value of the blood pressure that causes the encephalopathy, rather the presence of an abrupt rise in pressure. In terms of clinical and radiographic findings, there are many similarities among a group of entities, ...
Lüders Stephan - - 2007
Hypertension is the major risk factor for ischaemic and haemorrhagic clinical strokes as well as for silent brain infarcts with a continuous association between both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Epidemiological data highlight the increasing burden to come over the next decades. Without any doubt, antihypertensive treatment is the most ...
Ikarashi Akira - - 2007
Transthoracic electrical impedance (or admittance) cardiography is a simple technique for the non-invasive and continuous monitoring of stroke volume or cardiac output by detecting the electrical impedance of a thorax which is roughly assumed to be a two-compartment coaxial cylindrical model composed of the aorta and its surrounding thoracic tissues. ...
Fuentes B - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Secondary stroke prevention comprises a broad spectrum of therapeutic actions that includes the appropriate management of risk factors and the action on blood pressure and serum lipids that are of great importance to decrease stroke recurrences. METHODS: We conducted a review of the published studies analyzing the relevance of ...
Zywica Adrian - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The current project was aimed at elucidating whether blood pressure fluctuations in hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke, not characterized by hemodynamically significant stenosis in carotid arteries and proximal segments of intracranial arteries lead to circulation disturbances in anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs) as visualized by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). MATERIAL ...
Fuentes Blanca - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have highlighted that the appropriate control of blood pressure, glycemia, body temperature and oxygen saturation is correlated with the clinical evolution of acute stroke when each of these variables is analyzed separately. However, within a biological system all these parameters can be interrelated and can influence the ...
Abdulhay Enas - - 2007
Thoracocardiography approach pretends to non-invasively monitor stroke volume by inductive plethysmographic recording of ventricular volume curves by a transducer placed on the chest. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of thoracocardiography to estimate stroke volumes while apnea with open glottis. We hypothesized that, when glottis is ...
Poelaert Jan - - 2007
Accurate identification of fluid responsiveness has become an important issue in critically ill patients. Pulse pressure and stroke volume variation have been shown to be reliable predictors of fluid responsiveness. Apart from these two valuable techniques, echo-Doppler offers an interesting alternative for estimating the adequacy of filling. Acoustic quantification is ...
Qureshi Adnan I - - 2007
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in adult patients with acute stroke in the United States (US). Patients with stroke were classified by initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) into 4 categories using demographic, clinical, and treatment data from the National Hospital Ambulatory ...
Kwon Hyung-Min - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Silent brain infarction (SBI), which is cerebral target organ damage of hypertensive microangiopathies, is frequently seen in hypertensive patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between hypertensive retinopathy (HTR) and SBI in subjects without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. METHODS: ...
Papadopoulos Dimitris P - - 2006
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death worldwide and is a more common cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than myocardial infarction among patients with hypertension. Identifying and modifying key risk factors is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality from stroke. Hypertension is the most important ...
Touzé Emmanuel - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whether a history of carotid endarterectomy influences patient compliance with medical treatments and physician attitude toward treatments after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is not well known. METHODS: We studied the baseline data of 18,467 ischemic stroke and TIA patients from the international REduction of ...
Bray Johanna K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Sequential (Seq) combined spinal epidural (CSE) may provide better cardiovascular stability than standard (Std) CSE for cesarean delivery. We compared the cardiovascular stability of both techniques using suprasternal Doppler. METHODS: Healthy women (n = 40) scheduled for elective cesarean delivery were randomized into two groups; Std or Seq CSE. ...
Urrutia Victor C - - 2006
The optimal management of arterial blood pressure in the setting of acute stroke has not been firmly defined. The different types of stroke--ischemic, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage--have different pathophysiologies and require different approaches in terms of blood pressure management in the acute setting. This article reviews the current literature ...
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