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Jacques Didier - - 2011
The aim of this study was to evaluate dynamic indices of fluid responsiveness in a model of intra-abdominal hypertension. Nine mechanically-ventilated pigs underwent increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) by abdominal banding up to 30 mmHg and then fluid loading (FL) at this IAP. The same protocol was carried out in the ...
Witham M D MD Ageing and Health, Centre for Cardiovascular and Lung Biology, Division of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, UK. - - 2012
Low vitamin D levels are associated with increased incidence of future cardiovascular events and are common in stroke patients. We tested whether vitamin D supplementation could reduce blood pressure and improve markers of vascular health in patients who had previously suffered a stroke. Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Community-dwelling patients with ...
Aries Marcel J H - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) is one of the major vital parameters monitored in the stroke unit. The accuracy of indirect BP measurement is strongly influenced by the position of both patient and arm during the measurement. Acute stroke patients are often nursed in lateral decubitus positions. The effect of these ...
Kähkönen Seppo - - 2010
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) develops after cessation of alcohol intake in alcoholic patients characterizing psychiatric symptoms and changes in autonomous nervous systems. We studied cardiovascular changes during different phases of AWS (1, 2, 3 and 10days after admission for detoxification; n=34) and compared them with those in early recovery (at ...
Geeganage Chamila - - 2011
High blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke is associated independently with a poor outcome. Recent evidence suggests that other hemodynamic parameters may also be associated with outcomes following stroke. The relationship between baseline BP, heart rate, and other hemodynamic parameters, and early outcomes were assessed using data from TAIST trial. ...
Chisholm Amanda E - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to describe the spatial-temporal parameters of the centre of pressure (COP) trajectory during the single-support phase of gait among stroke survivors and relate these parameters to the severity of sensorimotor impairment. Fifty-seven participants were asked to walk at their preferred and fast speed ...
Owens William B - - 2011
Acute cerebrovascular diseases (ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage) affect 780,000 Americans each year. Physicians who care for patients with these conditions must be able to recognize when acute hypertension requires treatment and should understand the principles of cerebral autoregulation and perfusion. Physicians should also be familiar with the ...
Giantin Valter - - 2010
The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between BP variations and neurological deficit outcome in old-old patients after AIS. Fifty-four patients (66-96 years), admitted consecutively for stroke were assessed, using a non-invasive BP monitoring (NIBPM), measuring mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and their variation ...
Verein Mikhail - - 2010
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship among extravascular pulmonary water, intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure, hemodynamic parameters (eg, cardiac index, system vascular resistance index), and brain stem function during acute ischemic stroke. The subjects were 17 comatose patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to ...
Seok Hung Youl - - 2010
The hemodynamic effects of increased intrathoracic pressure (ITP) have been the focus of many investigations. However, very little is known about the effects of elevated ITP on the occurrence of stroke. Four young patients with a cardioembolic source of stroke were examined. In all cases the stroke was preceded by ...
Hirota Nobuko - - 2010
Dysphagia is important for prognosis in patients with stroke because this condition can cause aspiration pneumonia or nutritional deficits. The present study investigated the relationship between tongue motor deficits and dysphagia in patients with acute stroke. Maximal tongue pressure on the hard palate when swallowing 5 mL of water was ...
Pezzini Alessandro - - 2011
The optimal management of blood pressure (BP) during acute stroke is controversial. We aimed to investigate whether (1) acute BP has differential impact on clinical outcome of ischemic stroke (IS) and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and (2) the magnitude of such an effect varies from the very acute phase to ...
Mansfield Avril - - 2011
During standing, forces and moments exerted at the feet serve to maintain stability in the face of constant centre-of-mass movement. These actions are temporally synchronized in healthy individuals. Stroke is typically a unilateral injury resulting in increased sensori-motor impairment in the contra-lesional compared with the ipsi-lesional lower-limb, which could lead ...
Hamann G F - - 2010
Organised secondary prevention is a prerequisite for successful stroke therapy. One of the most relevant factors is elevated blood pressure. It has been shown that long-term blood pressure treatment leads to a significant reduction in mortality of almost 10 % over a 5-year period. Additionally, a large meta-analysis in almost ...
Kilkenny Monique F - - 2010
Reduction of blood pressure represents one of the most effective means of reducing stroke risk. However, lack of community awareness and uncontrolled blood pressure remain a significant problem. In 2007, the National Stroke Foundation (Australia) conducted the 'Know Your Numbers' pilot programme to improve community knowledge, based on a similar ...
Röther J - - 2010
An optimised prehospital management is important for acute stroke patients. A structured admittance to a stroke centre increases the rate of thrombolysis four-fold. To achieve short door-to-needle-times (< 30 min) a multi-disciplinary approach is necessary. Elderly stroke patients benefit from stroke unit therapy as do the younger patients. Blood pressure ...
Hajjar Ihab I Harvard Medical School, Institute for Aging Research/Hebrew SeniorLife, Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02131, USA. - - 2010
Hypertension is associated with microvascular and macrovascular brain injury but its direct influence on the cerebral circulation is not fully clear. Our objective was to investigate the association of hypertension with global and regional cerebral vasoreactivity to CO(2) using continuous arterial spin labeling MRI, independent of stroke and white matter ...
van Wolferen Serge A - - 2011
Stroke volume is probably the best hemodynamic parameter because it reflects therapeutic changes and contains prognostic information in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Stroke volume directly reflects right ventricular function in response to its load, without the correction of compensatory increased heart rate as is the case for cardiac output. For this ...
Talbert Robert L - - 2010
To review the available literature on the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or combinations of these agents on stroke outcomes in hypertensive patients. A Medline search was conducted using the search terms stroke and antihypertensives, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting ...
Nakamura Tomomi - - 2010
The ACCESS (Acute Candesartan Cilexetil Therapy in Stroke Survivors) study found that administration of candesartan in the acute phase of stroke confers a long-term benefit in patients who have sustained acute ischemic stroke. This treatment did not significantly reduce blood pressure (BP) during the acute phase, however. We assessed the ...
Perini Francesco - - 2010
The frequency and risk factors for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) after ischemic stroke are well-known. ICH frequency is increased by the use of antithrombotic or thrombolytic drugs. Several experimental studies have demonstrated a relationship between ICH and hypertension after fibrinolysis, but the optimal blood pressure levels in patients treated with recombinant ...
Hocker Sara - - 2010
It is essential to control arterial blood pressure (BP) in both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients to decrease morbidity following an acute event and decrease the long-term risk of stroke recurrence. Pathophysiology of BP control is dependent on understanding key relationships of cerebral blood flow and cerebral perfusion pressure. In ...
Laleg-Kirati Taous-Meriem - - 2010
This study proposes a Semi-Classical Signal Analysis (SCSA) method for stroke volume (SV) variations assessment from arterial blood pressure measurements. One of the SCSA parameters, the first systolic invariant (INVS₁), has been shown to be linearly related to SV. To technically validate this approach, the comparison between INVS₁ and SV ...
Venugopal Arun M AM Michael E. DeBakey Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4466, - - 2010
Lymphangions, the segments of lymphatic vessel between two valves, contract cyclically and actively pump, analogous to cardiac ventricles. Besides having a discernable systole and diastole, lymphangions have a relatively linear end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (with slope E(max)) and a nonlinear end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (with slope E(min)). To counter increased microvascular filtration ...
Ho L Y - - 2011
Limited evidence is available on the safety and efficacy of anticoagulants in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with concomitant hypertension. We investigated the safety and efficacy of 476 consecutive anticoagulated Chinese outpatients with non-valvular AF and hypertension. Occurrence of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding, and international normalized ratio (INR) values ...
Wyffels P A H - - 2010
We investigated the ability of pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation to predict fluid responsiveness during mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing open chest surgery by comparing their respective correlations with cardiac output changes induced by leg elevation. Serial leg elevation manoeuvres were performed before and after sternotomy in 15 ...
Osmond Jessica M - - 2010
Obesity is a risk factor for stroke, but the determinants of increased stroke risk in obesity are unknown. We have previously reported that obese Zucker rats (OZRs) have a worse stroke outcome and display evidence of remodeling of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), in parallel with hypertension, compared with lean ...
Czernichow Sébastien S George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. - - 2010
There is considerable uncertainty regarding the efficacy of blood pressure-lowering therapy in reducing cardiovascular risk in obese people. In this report we examine the effects of blood pressure lowering according to baseline body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) in the Perindopril Protection Against Recurrent Stroke Study. A total of ...
Shaikh Shaheen - - 2010
Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Hence immediate diagnosis must be made by CT or MRI and therapy instituted rapidly. Anesthesiologists must be aware of the concept of "penumbra" and maintain collateral flow. Blood pressure management is crucial. American Stroke Council recommends blood pressure ...
Aalbers J - - 2010
Lower within-individual visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure readings in the amlodipine/perindopril combination treatment arm of the ASCOT study has been shown to account for the more effective stroke reduction rate with this combination compared to atenolol and diuretic-based therapies, despite overall similar blood pressure lowering.
Chern Jen-Suh - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Postural stability is often task-demand-dependent and often impaired in stroke patients. The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the difference in the center of pressure measures during forward bending of the trunk and reaching on postural actions between normal subjects and stroke patients and (2) to examine ...
Sykora Marek - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Acute hypertension frequently occurs in acute stroke and is associated with unfavorable outcome. However, despite the high prevalence, the pathophysiology remains unclear. Baroreflex dysfunction has repeatedly been reported in stroke patients. We hypothesize that blood pressure (BP) derangements in the acute phase relate to the impairment of baroreflex. METHODS: ...
Howard Virginia J VJ Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022, USA. - - 2010
Geographic variation in hypertension is hypothesized as contributing to the stroke belt, an area in the southeastern United States with high stroke mortality. No study has examined hypertension by lifetime exposure to the stroke belt. This association was studied in 19,385 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences ...
Paciaroni Maurizio - - 2010
Prevention of stroke and transient ischemic attack includes both conventional approaches to vascular risk factor management (blood pressure lowering, cholesterol reduction with statins, smoking cessation and antiplatelet therapy) and more specific interventions, such as carotid revascularization or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. The objective of this review is to discuss effective ...
Konaka Kuni - - 2010
Although poststroke dysphagia is an important issue for determining prognosis, the pathophysiology of oral-phase dysphagia has yet to be clarified due to a lack of adequate devices and protocols. The present study investigated the relationships between swallowing pressure production by the tongue and dysphagia in stroke patients using a newly ...
Blunt Stavia B - - 2010
The case study of a patient who developed haemorrhagic stroke after 'cupping' to the cervical area is presented. We consider the various manners in which cupping might induce haemorrhagic or ischemic stroke with particular reference to the relevant pathologies of the major cervical arteries. The other possible causes due to ...
Daneshtalab Noriko - - 2010
AIMS: The modulation of myogenic function and cerebral blood flow (CBF) by nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOS) was assessed in the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) of Kyoto Wistar stroke prone hypertensive rats (SHRsp) in relation to haemorrhagic stroke development. METHODS AND RESULTS: MCAs were studied with a pressure myograph. CBF ...
Novak Vera V Division of Gerontology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 110 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2010
Target blood pressure (BP) values for optimal cerebral perfusion after an ischemic stroke are still debated. We sought to examine the relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow velocities (BFVs) during daily activities. We studied 43 patients with chronic large vessel ischemic infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory (aged ...
Arima Hisatomi - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Clinical uncertainty remains whether the blood pressure classification and risk stratifications recommended by the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension (JSH 2009) are useful in predicting the risks of stroke and its subtypes in the general Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 1621 stroke-free residents ...
Wald David S - - 2010
Coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke are the most common causes of death worldwide. The polypill, a multi-component tablet or capsule designed to reduce several cardiovascular causal risk factors simultaneously, has the potential to reduce the incidence of heart attacks and stroke by about 80%, the precise reduction depending on ...
Celovská D - - 2010
The relationship between baroreflex sensitivity expressed in ms/mm Hg (BRS) or in Hz/mm Hg (BRSf) in hypertensives with stroke in comparison with a group of stroke-free patients was evaluated. Twenty-six patients (aged 66+/-10 years, 11 females/ 15 males) with a history of the first ever ischemic stroke (6 months and ...
Powers William J - - 2009
Absent outcome data from randomized clinical trials, management of hypertension in acute ischaemic stroke remains controversial. Data from human participants have failed to resolve the question whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the peri-infarct region will decrease due to impaired autoregulation when systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP) is rapidly reduced. ...
Nogueira Raul G - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Mechanical Embolus Removal in Cerebral Ischemia (MERCI) and Multi MERCI trials evaluated the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in the treatment of intracranial arterial occlusions within 8 hours of symptom onset. We sought to determine the predictors of clinical and angiographic outcomes in these patients. METHODS: ...
Pullicino Patrick M PM Department of Biosciences, University of Kent, Kent, UK. - - 2009
The prevalence of stroke is increased in individuals with heart failure (HF). The stroke mechanism in HF may be cardiogenic embolism or cerebral hypoperfusion. Stroke risk increases with decreasing ejection fraction and low cardiac output is associated with hypotension and poor survival. We examine the relationship among blood pressure level, ...
Hajjar Ihab I Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2010
Although both blood pressure elevation and lower nocturnal dipping increase vascular risk, it is not known whether either or both are also associated with brain atrophy, cerebral perfusion, and functional status. We investigated the association of elevated blood pressure and nocturnal dipping based on 24-h ambulatory recordings with brain atrophy ...
Tsivgoulis Georgios - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: From small pilot studies, uncontrolled pretreatment systolic blood pressure >185 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >110 mm Hg in patients with acute ischemic stroke were introduced in the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke rtPA Stroke Study as a contraindication for thrombolysis. We sought to ...
Webb Watts R - - 2009
This study compared the accuracy of a formula calculating cardiac output utilizing a patient size modification of a pulse pressure formula of Starr with that measured with a standard thermal dilution technique. During a six-month period 111 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) on the cardiothoracic and vascular surgical ...
Rozner Eduard - - 2009
Controlling hypertension is known to be the most important treatment in preventing stroke. The past decade has been spent in debate over which class of hypertensive medication is most effective. This article reviews the studies assessing the efficacy of each agent class in secondary stroke prevention. The comparison of studies ...
Grassi Guido - - 2009
Blood pressure control is the cornerstone of therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing first strokes and recurrent strokes. All antihypertensive drug classes may be useful in preventing cerebrovascular events, depending on their efficacy in lowering elevated blood pressure values and achieving blood pressure control. However, recent findings indicate that drugs acting ...
Castilla-Guerra L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: A pathologically reduced or abolished circadian blood pressure variation has been described in acute stroke. However, studies on alterations of circadian blood pressure patterns after stroke and stroke subtypes are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in circadian blood pressure patterns in patients with ...
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