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Results 401 - 450 of 1230
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Roder S - - 1999
Experiments were done in chloralose anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated male Wistar rats to investigate the effects of microinjections of either norepinephrine (NE) or tyramine into the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) on the arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) responses elicited by glutamate (Glu) stimulation of the ...
Wada A - - 1999
BACKGROUND--Endothelin (ET)-1 is generated from big ET-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE). Plasma big ET-1 and ET-1 levels are strongly related to survival in patents with congestive heart failure (CHF). Because selective enzymatic processing of ET-1 formation appears to be an important therapeutic target for CHF, we investigated the acute effects ...
Soma J - - 1999
Aortic root flow and pressure estimates were obtained noninvasively with Doppler echocardiography and calibrated subclavian artery pulse tracing in 30 subjects with ambulatory hypertension in a randomized, crossover study with 4 weeks' treatment and washout periods. Total arterial compliance, assessed by use of a three-element Windkessel model of the arterial ...
Burnett J C JC Jr Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. - - 1999
Vasopeptidase inhibition is a new concept in cardiovascular therapy. It involves simultaneous inhibition with a single molecule of two key enzymes involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function, neutral endopeptidase (EC 24.11; NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Simultaneous inhibition of NEP and ACE increases natriuretic and vasodilatory peptides (including atrial ...
Kiiski R - - 1999
Septic shock causes an extensive inflammatory reaction including increased capillary leakage and a decrease in systemic blood pressure. Human septic shock can be replicated in the endotoxaemic pig. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the degradation of bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, and in the regulation of blood pressure. Inhibition ...
Hemmelder M H - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as verapamil are equally effective in reducing proteinuria as ACE inhibitors in hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy. To date it is unknown whether verapamil elucidates such an antiproteinuric capacity in non-diabetic renal disease. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, random cross-over study which compared the ...
Liu X - - 1999
In view of the activation of renin-angiotensin system under conditions associated with pressure overload on the heart, we examined the effects of captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, on cardiac function, myofibrillar ATPase and sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+-pump (SERCA2) activities, as well as ...
Masaki T - - 1999
Arteriovenous fistula dysfunction is a constant problem in chronic hemodialysis patients. We investigated the factors influencing fistula dysfunction in 184 patients on chronic hemodialysis. Stepwise regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the relationship between fistula dysfunction and age, sex, duration of hemodialysis, diabetes mellitus, hematocrit, ...
Reneland R - - 1999
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum and skeletal muscle to blood pressure and the long-term antihypertensive effects of fosinopril and atenolol. We examined 50 hypertensive patients randomized to receive 20 mg fosinopril or 50 mg atenolol daily for 16 ...
Rodríguez-García J L - - 1999
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) block degradation of bradykinin, and bradykinin stimulates prostacyclin synthesis. Therefore, we set out to determine whether the effects of ACE inhibitors on prostaglandin production in essential hypertensive patients are class effects or are dependent on ACE inhibitor structure. In addition, we studied whether hypertensives show an ...
Boateng S Y - - 1998
We examined the hypothesis that the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril at sub-antihypertensive concentrations could improve sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) CaATPase expression and function in compensated hypertrophied rat hearts. Five weeks after abdominal aortic constriction, rats received a daily dose (50 micrograms/kg/day) of ramipril or vehicle for 4 weeks. Cardiac angiotensin-converting ...
O'Toole L - - 1998
There is marked interindividual variation in serum and tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels for which the insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in intron 16 of the ACE gene is a marker. ACE inhibitors have important effects on morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The influence of this polymorphism on the response ...
Nguyen T - - 1998
Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are known to increase susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias during and before myocardial ischemia and to increase the risk of periinfarction mortality. Although regression of LVH has been advocated as a therapeutic goal, little evidence exists to suggest that it can reduce periinfarction mortality, and ...
Adigun A Q - - 1998
A prospective study to evaluate and compare the cardiorespiratory effects and clinical efficacy of the Neurohormonal inhibitors (Captopril 50 mg+prazosin 1 mg only) and direct arteriolar and venular dilators (Intravenous hydralazine 30 mg+oral isosorbide dinitrate 30 mg) used as vasodilator therapy, was undertaken in a randomized, single blind study in ...
Locatelli F - - 1998
Some antihypertensive drugs may have a renoprotective effect, that is partially independent of their ability to reduce blood pressure. ACE-inhibitors are safe and effective agents that are capable of reducing proteinuria and preventing CRF progression. The results of the AIPRI extension study suggest that they may also have a long-term ...
Gainer J V - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors not only decrease the production of angiotensin II but also decrease the degradation of bradykinin. In this study, a specific bradykinin-receptor antagonist, icatibant acetate (HOE 140), was used to determine the contribution of bradykinin to the short-term effects of ACE inhibition on blood pressure and plasma ...
Just A - - 1998
1. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) participates in the compensation of major blood pressure disturbances such as haemorrhage and is involved in the tonic long-term (> 1 day) maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Since its contribution to the short-term (< 1 h) buffering of normal blood pressure variability is ...
- - 1998
(1) Valsartan is a antihypertensive drug belonging to the family of angiotensin II receptor antagonists. (2) At a dose of 40 mg/day its antihypertensive effect is inconsistent. (3) At 80 mg/day its effect on blood pressure, its adverse effects and its contraindications (mainly pregnancy and renal artery stenosis) are similar ...
Leary A C - - 1998
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) plays a central role in blood pressure regulation and fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis. Blockade of this system with inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) has been shown to benefit several groups of patients, including those with essential hypertension, congestive heart failure, and post myocardial infarction. Inhibition of ...
Schiffrin E L - - 1998
ROLE OF CALCIUM: Alterations in the structure and function of small arteries may contribute to elevated blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension and the cardiovascular complications of this disease. Angiotensin II, endothelin 1, and other peptides, as well as catecholamines, may contribute to the altered structure and function of ...
- - 1998
To determine whether tight control of blood pressure with either a beta blocker or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor has a specific advantage or disadvantage in preventing the macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial comparing an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) with a beta blocker ...
Nawarskas J J - - 1998
We conducted a MEDLINE search of published literature from 1966 to January 1998 regarding the impact of aspirin (ASA) on the therapeutic effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in hypertension and congestive heart failure. Selected references from these articles and results of recent clinical trials were also included. By inhibiting ...
Millgård J - - 1998
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor captopril and the Ca-antagonist nifedipine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) in the forearm of hypertensive patients. Twenty-three middle-aged untreated hypertensive patients underwent evaluation of EDV and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIDV) in the forearm, by means of local intra-arterial infusions ...
Ogilvie R I - - 1998
Twenty-four splenectomized dogs were subjected to rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP) at 250 beats/min for five weeks. During the final three weeks, four groups six dogs were untreated or treated with captopril alone, with the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist L158,809 alone or with the two drugs combined ...
Lafleche A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: In subjects with hypertension, converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium entry blockers may decrease arterial stiffness independently of blood pressure changes, but the heterogeneity of response of the arterial tree has never been taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 31 subjects with hypertension, we determined through the use of ...
Guazzi M - - 1998
In this study the mechanisms were investigated whereby ACE-inhibitors improve pulmonary diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLco) in chronic heart failure. The two subcomponents of DLco are the alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and the capillary blood volume (VC). Stress failure of the membrane in chronic heart failure provides a mechanism for ...
Montgomery H E - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Activation of the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated strongly in the transition from benign to malignant hypertension. However, the concomitant rise in blood pressure might also have a direct effect on the vascular wall by initiating fibrinoid necrosis and myointimal proliferation. Ascertaining the relative importance of these two factors ...
Pfeifer M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies support the concept that cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the pathophysiology of left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the pulmonary vasculature is considered to be the most prominent site of ACE expression. We thus examined the tissue specificity of ACE regulation in rats with severe cardiac pressure ...
Sherman R C - - 1998
1. Associations of intrauterine exposure to maternal undernutrition with later hypertension and coronary heart disease in the human population have been duplicated in the rat. Fetal exposure to low protein diets produces offspring that develop raised systolic blood pressure by the age of weaning. This animal model of 'programmed' hypertension ...
Roques B P - - 1998
Arterial tone and water-electrolyte homeostasis are regulated by several peptides, including angiotensin II (AII), bradykinin (BK), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and endothelins (ETs). Changing the concentrations of these peptides in the plasma, tissue, or urine by decreasing the levels of angiotensin II and endothelins and increasing BK and ANP concentrations, ...
Ichioka S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Amrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibitor, is a newly developed agent that possesses a combination of positive inotropic and vasodilating properties as a result of preventing the degradation of cAMP and it has recently been licensed for treatment of heart failure alone. Amrinone is expected to be useful ...
Bagchi S - - 1998
The mechanism underlying the action of Indian red scorpion (Buthus tamulus; BT) venom on cardiac reflexes was examined in urethane anaesthetized adult albino rats of either sex. Intravenous injection of phenyldiguanide (PDG) produced reflex hypotension, bradycardia and apnea lasting for > 60 s. The PDG-induced reflex responses (blood pressure, heart ...
Nabokov A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to ameliorate the progression of glomerulosclerosis both in experimental models of uraemia and in patients with renal failure. It has not been documented, however, whether this is due to a decrease in angiotensin II generation or is a consequence of elevated local ...
Vörös P - - 1998
Microalbuminuric [16] and macroalbuminuric [17] hypertensive insulin dependent diabetics were followed up for 4 years after the initiation of captopril therapy to assess the efficacy of ACE inhibitor therapy on albuminuria and blood pressure normalisation. Within the first six months of captopril therapy mean systolic blood pressure decreased in microalbuminuric ...
Martell N - - 1998
The objective of this study was to assess the antihypertensive effect and the trough to peak (T:P) ratio of lisinopril and captopril, in patients with essential hypertension. After 2 weeks of placebo, 69 of 115 eligible patients had office diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between 90 and 114 mm Hg and ...
Gustafsson F - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a history of arterial hypertension and the level of pretreatment blood pressure on the efficacy of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor trandolapril on mortality and morbidity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Data from the Trandolapril Cardiac ...
Störk T - - 1997
BACKGROUND: At present there is little dispute that clinical tolerance of organic nitrates occurs during long-term treatment of patients with stable angina pectoris and congestive heart failure. HYPOTHESIS: Captopril exerts a favorable hemodynamic effect in coronary patients with heart failure who are clinically tolerant to nitroglycerin. METHODS: Development of nitrate ...
Gardiner S M - - 1997
1. Heterozygous, male, hypertensive, transgenic ((mRen-2)27) rats (350-450 g) were instrumented for the measurement of regional or cardiac haemodynamics (n = 16, in both groups). Animals were given continuous i.v. infusions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalaprilat, or the dual metallopeptidase inhibitor, MDL 100,240 (both at 3 mg kg-1, 3 ...
Emanueli C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of kinins in the hypotensive response to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, we compared the blood pressure effects induced by acute or chronic captopril administration in a mouse strain (Bk2r-/-) with disruption of the bradykinin B2 receptor gene and in wild-type controls (J129 Sv mice). A ...
Tikkanen I - - 1997
Whether any class of antihypertensive drugs has specific renoprotective effects above and beyond lowering of blood pressure is still debatable. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is both localized and has many actions within the kidney, on intrarenal hemodynamics, on the mesangial cell, as well as stimulating growth factors and cytokines. Angiotensin ...
Meldrum D R - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is now recognized as a frequent confounder of surgical critical care following major trauma; however, few prospective data exist concerning its characterization, evolution, and response to decompression. METHODS: Acutely injured patients with an injury severity scale (ISS) score >15 requiring emergent laparotomy and intensive ...
Lama G - - 1997
We evaluated the effect of 2 years' therapy with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) in 16 patients who had severe reflux nephropathy and microalbuminuria. During the period of therapy, microalbuminuria decreased, glomerular filtration rate measured by diethylenetriamine pentaacetate scan, serum creatinine, and blood pressure remained stable. We suggest the ...
Buttar H S - - 1997
The renin-angiotensin system is associated with a variety of pathophysiological processes in many organ systems, and is known to be involved in the normal regulation of blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension. Angiotensin II is a multifunctional hormone that manifests its properties by interacting with two major ...
Wenz M - - 1997
The short-term effect of intravenous (i.v.) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalaprilat in 10 critically ill patients, being ventilated with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), on sodium and water excretion was investigated. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased. Heart rate and central venous pressure (CVP) did not change. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ...
Morgan T - - 1997
Blood pressure should be controlled over 24 h to reduce or prevent cardiac hypertrophy and reduce the prevalence of sudden death, myocardial infarction and myocardial ischaemia at the time of the morning rise in blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive medication is usually given once-daily in the morning and the dose is titrated ...
Reid J L - - 1997
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are established treatment for hypertension and heart failure. There are well documented differences between ACE inhibitors both in physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamic actions are similar for most members of the ACE inhibitor class but there are compounds with additional effects which may reflect protease inhibition ...
Hamroff G - - 1997
Combined therapy with an angiotensin-II type I receptor (AT1) antagonist and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor results in more complete suppression of the renin-angiotensin system. Accordingly, the blood-pressure response and safety of combining AT1-receptor blockade with losartan for ACE inhibition were evaluated in patients with congestive heart failure who were ...
Nakano Y - - 1997
Insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been shown to be a determinant for serum ACE level and a marker for several cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether the ACE gene can predict the therapeutic efficacy of ACE inhibitors in essential hypertensive patients. The response of blood ...
Scognamiglio R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of nitrendipine in comparison with captopril in hypertensive diabetic patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 75 patients enrolled in this study presented stable type 2 diabetes (not treated with insulin) and mild-to-moderate hypertension with a left ...
Takeda H - - 1997
This study was undertaken to examine whether a sulfhydryl-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, improves postischemic cardiac function and myocardial metabolism in the perfused working rat heart, and to elucidate the mechanism by which captopril protects the myocardium from postischemic damage. Isolated rat hearts were perfused by the working heart ...
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