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Results 351 - 400 of 1229
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Voroshilovsky O - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which 60-Hz alternating current (AC) can induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 7 isolated perfused swine right ventricles in vitro. The action potential duration restitution curve was determined. Optical mapping techniques were used to determine the patterns of activation on the ...
Turcani M - - 2000
Besides the reduction of angiotensin II formation, locally increased kinins may play a role in the cardiovascular action of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. To characterize the contribution of bradykinin to the effects of ACE inhibition by captopril on the development of pressure overload hypertrophy, sham-operated rats and rats with ...
Jamerson K A - - 2000
African Americans outrank other ethnic groups in the United States in prevalence, early onset, and severity of hypertension. Furthermore, African Americans suffer the highest rates of mortality from cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and end-stage renal disease. The recently concluded Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study reports that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ...
Conlin P R - - 2000
NSAIDs are known to attenuate the effects of some antihypertensive medications. It is not known whether the new class of angiotensin II receptor antagonists is similarly affected. We conducted a multicenter study assessing the effect of indomethacin on the antihypertensive effects of losartan and captopril. After 4 weeks of placebo ...
Felmeden D C - - 2000
Activation of the RAAS has been linked with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke,(1,2,37,38) and recently these beneficial effects have, in part, been attributed to the effects of the RAAS on the fibrinolytic system. Indeed, ACE seems to occupy a central position in modulating the fibrinolytic balance, where ...
Asher J R JR Hypertension Institute, Saint Thomas Medical Group, Saint Thomas Medical Plaza, 4230 Harding Road, Suite 400, Nashville, TN 37205, USA. - - 2000
The development of new antihypertensive agents is becoming even more important. We need better blood pressure control and also agents that treat hypertension as a disease of the vascular endothelium. Recently, it has been shown that blocking the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduces blood pressure and ...
Squire I B - - 2000
The physiological effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may be in part mediated by bradykinin. We investigated the effect of coadministration of the specific bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist icatibant on hemodynamic and neurohormonal responses to acute intravenous ACE inhibition in normal men on a normal sodium diet. We performed a ...
Binkley P F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to patients with congestive heart failure has been shown to increase parasympathetic tone as indicated by increases in high-frequency heart rate variability. The mechanism for this effect, including its relation to changes in baroreflex activity, blood pressure variability, and suppression of ACE activity, ...
Ertel W - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence, main physiologic effects, and therapeutic management of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) after severe abdominal and/or pelvic trauma. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis from January 1991 to December 1996; prospective study from January 1997 to August 1998. SETTING: Level I trauma center, intensive care unit. PATIENTS: A ...
Qing F - - 2000
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates pulmonary hypertension and delays the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling in animal models. Thus, ACE inhibition might be a useful treatment for primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH). To determine the dose of ACE inhibitor required to specifically block pulmonary ACE in humans, we measured the combined ...
Farina N K - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The major advantage of dual inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is their ability to lower blood pressure irrespective of renin or volume status. The aim of this study was to determine whether dual NEP/ACE inhibition produces different effects on cardiovascular structure and fibrosis, hormonal ...
Kyriazis J - - 2000
Arterial compliance (AC) is an important determinant of vascular structure, and abnormalities of AC can greatly affect the cardiovascular system. Given the vasoconstrictive properties of increased levels of serum ionized calcium (iCa), we investigated the way that dialysate calcium level can influence AC in the hemodialysis (HD) population. In a ...
Konstam M A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reduce mortality rates and disease progression in patients with heart failure is likely mediated in part through prevention of adverse ventricular remodeling. This study examined the effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan ...
Brown J A - - 2000
Physiological and molecular approaches were used to investigate the existence of an intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in rainbow trout. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme by captopril (5 x 10(-4 )M) rapidly decreased vascular resistance of the trunk of the trout, perfused at 19 mmHg, resulting in an increased perfusate flow rate ...
Mizutani K - - 2000
1. The effect of food collagen, cattle bone collagen-derived (CBC) peptides, on ovariectomy induced increases in blood pressure was examined in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). 2. Long-term administration of CBC peptides to ovariectomized SHRSP suppressed the hypertension compared with ovariectomized SHRSP fed standard chow. 3. The CBC peptides showed ...
Ogihara T - - 2000
Patients aged 60 years and older with essential hypertension were treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I), delapril (Adecut) or a long-acting calcium (Ca)-antagonist, manidipine (Calslot) for 3 years. The incidences of cardiovascular events as well as drug-related side effects were compared between the two groups to investigate whether both ...
Shigihara T - - 2000
It has been demonstrated that antihypertensive treatment of hypertensive diabetic patients is quite effective in preventing macrovascular and microvascular complications and improving prognosis. Nevertheless, the target blood pressure level of antihypertensive treatment in hypertensive diabetic patients with microalbuminuria (i.e., with early diabetic nephropathy) remains to be established. In this study, ...
Nawarskas J J JJ University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, 2502 Marble Northeast, Albuquerque, NM 87131-5691, USA. - - 2000
Omapatrilat is the most clinically advanced of a new class of drugs, vasopeptidase inhibitors, which are being studied for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease. Omapatrilat inhibits the enzymatic activities of angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase. The end result is blockade of angiotensin-II formation and inhibition of the catabolism ...
Morgan T O - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats could be reduced and normalized by intermittent reduction of blood pressure, and to determine whether left ventricular hypertrophy was related to 24 h workload or peak blood pressure responses. METHODS: Hypertension was created by the ...
Heller L J - - 2000
To determine whether effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on well-established pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and coronary remodeling depend upon normal plasma renin levels, the influence of enalapril on ventricular mass and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was determined in a low-renin female rat model of chronic pressure overload, (deoxycorticosterone ...
Bauduceau B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Rilmenidine is an innovative antihypertensive agent that binds specifically to I1 imidazoline receptors. The antihypertensive efficacy of rilmenidine in treating type-2 diabetics has been demonstrated, and is associated with very good clinical and laboratory tolerance. DESIGN: This was a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, controlled study comparing the effects of rilmenidine ...
Mabee J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is a useful ED anesthetic technique. However, venous pressure elevation during injection can cause anesthetic leakage and toxicity. This is minimized by preinjection limb exsanguination. Although standard, Esmarch exsanguination is intolerable with limb trauma. Thus, the authors' objective was to study alternative methods. METHODS: Volunteers ...
Shiba T - - 2000
Thirty-nine hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were followed under long-term treatment (mean, 20.7 months) with manidipine hydrochloride, a Ca antagonist, or delapril hydrochloride, an ACE inhibitor, at nine institutions. Both the treatments showed similar antihypertensive effects, although slight but significantly larger decreases were observed in systolic and mean ...
Higashi Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different antihypertensive agents, calcium antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers and diuretic agents on endothelial function. BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is a component of essential hypertension, and various antihypertensive drugs may be able to restore normal function. METHODS: Forearm ...
Gelband C H - - 2000
The renin-angiotensin system plays a critical role in the control of blood pressure, and its hyperactivity is associated with the development of human primary hypertension. Because low-dose angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors cause small reductions in blood pressure that are associated with the complete reversal of altered vascular pathophysiology, our ...
Johnston C I - - 2000
Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers, such as candesartan, are attractive alternatives to ACE inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are able to suppress the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), their mechanism of action may limit their clinical utility in the treatment of ...
Goetz R M - - 2000
Vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is increased in a variety of disorders representing both early and late stages of atherosclerosis. The factors governing the induction of vascular ACE are poorly understood. We hypothesized that vascular ACE activity might be increased by hypertension-induced vessel distension. Hypertension was induced in rats by ...
Hollenberg N K - - 2000
Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is an established method for controlling blood pressure and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition to reducing blood pressure, suppression of the RAS is able to protect against the target-organ damage that results from hypertension. Unfortunately, despite ...
Bitar R - - 2000
This study analysed the effect of low doses of verapamil added to chronic treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on blood pressure and serum creatinine levels in eight elderly hypertensive patients who had a steady increase of serum creatinine while on ACE inhibitors. The study was performed in eight elderly ...
Kokkonen J O - - 2000
In experimental animals, kinins protect the myocardium from ischemia-reperfusion injuries and reduce left ventricular hypertrophy and progression of heart failure. This suggests that in humans, also, the presence of an intact kinin system is critical for the prevention of heart failure. In addition to the kinin-generating system, the concentration of ...
Partridge S J - - 2000
Venlafaxine is a potent neuronal serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, and to a lesser extent an inhibitor of dopamine reuptake. Paroxetine is a potent selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake. A 27-year-old man ingested 1987.5 mg of venlafaxine and 360 mg of paroxetine. He subsequently developed systolic and diastolic hypertension, transient ...
Krenzelok E P - - 2000
Sildenafil is indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. It has been used successfully in males to remediate problems associated with impaired neural and/or hemodynamic response to sexual stimulation. Sildenafil is a cyclic guanosine-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor that prevents the metabolism of cyclic guanosine which produces arterial smooth ...
Tóth-Heyn P P Service de Pédiatrie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, - - 1999
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors exert their effects by inhibiting angiotensin II (AII) production, but also by inhibiting bradykinin (BK) degradation. In order to clarify whether BK is involved in the systemic effects of ACE inhibition in the newborn period, we investigated the effect of perindoprilat (20 microgram/kg i.v.) in newborn ...
Trippodo N C NC Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Princeton, New Jersey 08540-4000, USA. - - 1999
Vasopeptidase inhibitors are single molecules that inhibit neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) simultaneously. Omapatrilat, the first in this new class of cardiovascular agents, potentiates vasodilatory and cardioprotective peptides and represses angiotensin II. This study compared the effects of omapatrilat with those of a pure ACE inhibitor on cardiac ...
Luo J D - - 1999
1. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of the hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor simvastatin may regress hypertrophy and the possible effect of simvastatin on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. 2. Pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) of rats was ...
Oosting J - - 1999
In this study we investigated whether timed administration of drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system can be used to blunt the rise in blood pressure that occurs during the transition from the resting to the active period of the day. For this purpose we compared in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) ...
Fujita H - - 1999
It has been previously documented that the thermolysin-digest of "Katsuo-bushi", a Japanese traditional food processed from dried bonito possesses potent inhibitory activity against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The present authors isolated eight kinds of ACE-inhibitory peptides from it. Of these isolated peptides, LKPNM (IC50 = 2.4 microM) was found to ...
Kohno M - - 1999
Several mechanisms other than the inhibition of systemic and local formation of angiotensin II (Ang II) have been proposed to play a role in mediating the hypotensive effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In the present study, we measured plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) and the related vasoactive factors ...
Takata M - - 1999
To investigate the time course of cardiovascular structural changes in patients with essential hypertension after angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, we determined left ventricular structure, minimal vascular resistance in the forearm as an index of resistance vessel structure and stiffness beta of carotid artery in 15 essential hypertensive subjects during a ...
Moriyama S - - 1999
The present study was designed to evaluate trough-to-peak ratio (T/P) of ACE inhibitors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by a continuous monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure for 24 hours with a biotelemetric system. Blood pressure was recorded uninterruptedly with a battery-operated transmitter connected to a sensor catheter. Perindopril (3 mg/kg), ...
Kurosawa Y - - 1999
Imidapril, enalapril and quinapril were subcutaneously administered to aortic-banded rats by osmotic minipumps to compare the suppressive actions of these angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on pressure-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Among the three drugs tested, imidapril was most potent for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy, although equipotent hypotensive doses were used. ...
Ivy M E - - 1999
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a well-recognized perioperative complication that occurs in patients who undergo intra-abdominal operations and who require extensive fluid resuscitation. The classic presentation of this syndrome includes high peak airway pressures; oliguria, despite adequate filling pressures; and intra-abdominal pressures of more than 25 mm Hg. A decompressive ...
Mervaala E - - 1999
The intrarenal factors responsible for hypertension in double-transgenic rats (dTGR) harboring human renin and human angiotensinogen genes are unclear. The pressure-natriuresis and -diuresis relationships in response to chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and AT1 receptor blockade were evaluated. Renal renin-angiotensin and nitric oxide (NO) system gene expression was also investigated. ...
de Boer E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Proteinuria is associated with a progressive loss of renal function; we recently found that both intrarenal effects of proteinuria and the state of systemic nephrosis play an independent role in proteinuria-induced renal damage. Reduction of proteinuria is an important mechanism underlying the renoprotective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi). ...
Lee A F - - 1999
Endothelial function is defective in hypercholesterolaemia, and animal models have suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may prevent arterial damage. We studied the effect of 6 months treatment with lisinopril on endothelial function in a group of patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Forty patients were studied. Forearm blood flow responses to acetylcholine and ...
U─čur O - - 1999
The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of captopril scintigraphy with the new renal agent 99mTc-ethylenedicysteine (99mTc-EC) for post-interventional improvement in blood pressure. Twelve patients who had persistently high blood pressure with previous demonstration of various degrees of renal artery lesion on angiography were included ...
Cosenzi A - - 1999
The authors have previously reported that oscillatory potentials (O.P.) of the electroretinogram are impaired in essential hypertensive patients before the appearance of funduscopic changes. They can therefore be considered an early marker of the nervous damage induced by hypertension. Aim of this study was to evaluate whether an antihypertensive regimen ...
Roux S - - 1999
Endothelin receptor antagonists have been proposed for the treatment of a variety of disorders in which the endothelins may act as pathogenic mediators, such as congestive heart failure, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and cerebral vasospasm. Bosentan (Ro 47-0203) is a nonpeptide competitive antagonist, which can be a good tool for ...
Delini-Stula A - - 1999
Blood pressure decrease, associated with postural hypotension, as well as spontaneous hypertension are considered to be typical side-effects of conventional, irreversible and nonselective MAO (A+B) inhibitors. The new generation of reversible MAO-A inhibitors is, however, expected to have negligible cardiovascular effects and low propensity to induce either blood pressure increases ...
Roder S - - 1999
Experiments were done in chloralose anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated male Wistar rats to investigate the effects of microinjections of either norepinephrine (NE) or tyramine into the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) on the arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) responses elicited by glutamate (Glu) stimulation of the ...
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