Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1225
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Douglas Janice G - - 2003
An interim analysis of the AASK trial at three years demonstrates a renoprotective effect [slower decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), delayed onset of significant decrease in GFR, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death, and a decrease in urinary protein excretion] of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, as ...
Seppo Leena - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC 3.4.15.1) plays a dual role in the regulation of hypertension: it catalyzes the production of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II and it inactivates the vasodilator bradykinin. By inhibiting these processes, ACE inhibitors have antihypertensive effects. Peptides derived from milk proteins can have ACE-inhibiting properties and may ...
Doggrell Sheila A - - 2003
When ACE inhibitors are used to lower blood pressure to the same degree as beta-adrenoceptor antagonists or calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors do not seem to have additional benefits to these agents. In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension study (LIFE), losartan was compared to atenolol in ...
Saunders Elijah - - 2003
There is overwhelming evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and target organ damage. Agents that regulate the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists, are not only effective antihypertensive agents but can prevent target ...
Pines Amos A Department of Medicine T, Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 64239, Israel. - - 2003
ACE inhibitors induce metabolic changes and exert cardioprotective and vasoprotective properties, some of which cannot be attributed to their antihypertensive effect per se. Moexipril is an ACE inhibitor with a lipophilicity in the same range as quinapril, benazepril or ramipril, and so can readily penetrate lipid membranes and thus target ...
Rezende-Neto Joao B - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of postinjury multiple organ failure. The ACS is defined as intra-abdominal hypertension causing adverse physiologic response. This study was designed to determine the effects of IAH on the production of interleukin-1b (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), ...
Muller Dominik N - - 2002
We tested the hypothesis that endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) inhibition ameliorates end-organ damage in rats harboring both human renin and human angiotensinogen genes (dTGR). Hypertension develops in the animals, and they die by age 7 weeks of heart and kidney failure. Three groups were studied: dTGR (n=12) receiving vehicle, dTGR receiving ...
Dorrance A M - - 2002
The involvement of antihypertensive therapy in the pathology of hypertension associated male erectile dysfunction is unclear. Stroke prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated chronically with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril or placebo, normotensive rats served as controls. Mean arterial and intracavernosal pressure were measured during the induction ...
Praga Manuel - - 2002
Experimental studies have demonstrated that proteins filtered by the glomerulus induce a proliferation of proximal tubular cells accompanied by an increased synthesis of many vasoactive and proinflammatory substances. The appearance of interstitial cellular infiltrates, a well-known finding in proteinuric diseases, precedes progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Activation of the transcription factor kappaB ...
Brown Nancy J - - 2002
ACE inhibition reduces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a risk factor for myocardial infarction, whereas the effect of angiotensin receptor antagonism on PAI-1 is uncertain. The present study compares the time course of effects of ACE inhibition and angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonism on morning plasma PAI-1 antigen. Blood pressure ...
Simos Demetrios - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)-38 and -27 as possible mediators of the actions of "new pressor protein" (NPP), which is related to coagulation factor XIIa, on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and heart rate, and on the release of adrenal medullary catecholamines. ...
Maniu Calin V CV Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn 55905, - - 2002
Vasopeptidase inhibitors are potent new antihypertensive agents. The dual inhibition of ACE and neutral endopeptidase may result in synergistic humoral effects with unique hemodynamic actions. We investigated the hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of vasopeptidase inhibition in conscious dogs made hypertensive by bilateral renal wrapping and subsequently instrumented for long-term assessment ...
Lonn Eva - - 2002
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) effectively interfere with the renin-angiotensin system and exert various beneficial actions on cardiac and vascular structure and function, beyond their blood pressure-lowering effects. Randomized, controlled clinical trials have shown that ACE inhibitors improve endothelial function, cardiac and vascular remodeling, retard the ...
Pierdomenico Sante D - - 2002
Rapid heart rate (HR) has been reported to be a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ACE inhibitors and long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonists on clinic and ambulatory HR in patients with essential hypertension. We selected 292 ...
Rossi Gian Paolo - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the dual angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) + neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, MDL-100,240 (MDL), on hypertension and cardiovascular damage in male heterozygous transgenic Ren2 rats. METHODS: Blood-pressure-matched 5-week-old transgenic rats were allocated to receive a placebo, MDL (40 mg/kg body weight) or ramipril (5 mg/kg body ...
Shusterman Neil - - 2002
Inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system through the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors has proven very useful in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF) and progressive renal failure. More recently, agents that directly block the angiotensin II Type 1 (AT(1)) receptor--angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs)--have been developed. These agents ...
Gorelick Philip B - - 2002
Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) act by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is catalysed by this enzyme. ACE inhibitors also prevent the breakdown of bradykinin, a potent vasodepressor agent, and prevent the effects of angiotensin II, which include increase in blood pressure, peripheral vasoconstriction, and ...
Fuglsang Anders - - 2002
In this study, two strains of Lactobacillus helveticus were used to produce fermented milk rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In vitro tests revealed that the two milks contained competitive inhibitors of ACE in amounts comparable to what has been obtained in previously reported studies. The two milks were administered ...
Consolini Alicia E - - 2002
The effect of aqueous crude extract (ACE) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) was studied on rat's perfused ventricles. This plant is used in South American traditional medicine as an antihypertensive and we already demonstrated previously its hypotensive properties. In this paper, maximal left intraventriclular pressure (P) of rat's hearts beating ...
Dollar Allen - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Despite the high costs of managing hypertension, pharmacologic intervention is cost-effective, particularly in patients at highest risk for cardiovascular events. The prevalence of hypertension in the elderly and the age-associated risks of coronary artery disease and stroke suggest that early identification and aggressive treatment should be priorities in this ...
Rademaker Miriam T - - 2002
Advances in the treatment of heart failure may require manipulation of neurohumoral responses to cardiac impairment in addition to the established strategy of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Importantly, since new treatments are likely to be used in conjunction with ACE inhibition therapy, the effects of the combination of agents need ...
Chodjania Yasmina - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine the mechanism of action of dual inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase, also called vasopeptidase inhibitors, we compared the effects of S21402 [(2S)-2-[(2S,3R)-2-thiomethyl-3-phenylbutanamido]propionic acid], which belongs to this pharmacologic class, with those of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, on blood pressure, endocrine parameters, and renal in ...
Teruel Maria Jose G - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hemodynamic state in the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in the rabbit model and to determine the role of angiotensin II in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Physiology laboratory. ANIMAL(S): Female New Zealand rabbits were studied; 16 rabbits were stimulated with gonadotropins, and ...
Zanchetti Alberto - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that aspirin (ASA) may interfere with the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of various antihypertensive agents and attenuate the beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with congestive heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) Study, in which 18 ...
Esmail Zahida - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of captopril for management of hypertensive urgencies in autonomic dysreflexia. DESIGN: A 1-year, prospective, open-label pilot study. SETTING: Rehabilitation hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-six consecutive patients older than 15 years with spinal cord injury above T6. INTERVENTIONS: During an autonomic dysreflexia episode, captopril 25mg was administered sublingually ...
Giannattasio Cristina - - 2002
objectives; The aim of this study was to determine whether in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) a distensibility (Dist) reduction: 1) similarly occurs in different arteries; 2) is related to CHF severity; and 3) is reversible with treatment. background: Several studies suggest that CHF is accompanied by a reduced ...
Naitoh Mareo - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term efficacy of vasopressin (AVP) V(1a) and V(2) receptor blockade with conivaptan, alone and in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on blood pressure, metabolic and neurohormonal parameters, and cardiovascular structure in a rat model of congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS: CHF was induced by ...
Kurosawa Yukie - - 2002
It has been widely assumed that the cardiac angiotensin-generating system plays an important role in the development and maintenance of cardiac remodeling caused by pressure overload. The roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in rats were investigated. Pressure overload was achieved by constricting the ...
Rahman Syed T - - 2002
Antagonists of the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor inhibitors and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, are becoming increasingly popular agents in treating patients with systemic hypertension and minimizing organ damage. In the present study, we compared the effects of eprosartan, an AT(1) receptor inhibitor, with the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide ...
Karanikas Georgios - - 2002
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as well as angiotensin II receptor antagonists are able to prevent the vasoconstrictive effect of angiotensin II on the efferent renal vessels, which is believed to play an important role in renovascular hypertension. This effect is assumed to be essential for the demonstration of renovascular ...
Liu Heliang - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Changes in physiological and biochemical indexes, and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were observed in rats of oleic acid-induced ARDS with ACEI-Captopril (Cap) therapy and controls, respectively. RESULTS: Under the ...
Katz Arnold M - - 2002
Therapy for heart failure has traditionally been directed to such short-term functional abnormalities as low cardiac output, high filling pressures, and fluid retention. More recently, it has become clear that therapy must also inhibit the proliferative responses that contribute to the progressive deterioration of the failing heart. That heart failure ...
Plata Raul - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration in polycythaemia that follows renal transplantation, which, like altitude polycythaemia, is an erythropoietin-dependent form of polycythaemia. We aimed to establish the effect of ACE-inhibitor treatment in people with altitude polycythaemia. METHODS: We did a prospective randomised study in 26 ...
Lefebvre Jean - - 2002
Bradykinin and substance P have been implicated as mediators in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-associated angioedema. Studies investigating the metabolism of bradykinin in sera from patients with a history of ACEI-associated angioedema and controls suggest that there is a defect in a non-ACE, non-kininase I pathway of bradykinin degradation, such as ...
Zhang Weiguo - - 2002
In the last several years, a number of experiments have implicated a pivotal role of the calcium/calmodulin-calcineurin dependent pathway as a final common signaling mechanism by which diverse hypertrophic stimuli converge to mediate hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Calcineurin inhibitors, i.e. cyclosporine A (CsA) and FK506, can interrupt the pathway, thereby ...
Weber Simon - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to compare the blood pressure response to short-term treatment with captopril or trandolapril in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group study was performed. Treatment was initiated 3 to 10 days after the onset ...
Quaschning Thomas - - 2002
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition is a well-established principle in the treatment of hypertension, and numerous large scale clinical studies have clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) in hypertension. The clinical success of ACE inhibitors encouraged attempts to inhibit other key enzymes in the regulation ...
Carlson Scott H - - 2002
ACE plays an important role in the regulation of arterial pressure; however, a linear relationship between ACE expression and arterial pressure has not been demonstrated. The present study employed telemetric monitoring in female transgenic mice to determine the influence of partial and complete deletion of the ACE gene on basal ...
Ishikawa Tomohisa - - 2002
Acute systemic blockade of nitric oxide (NO) production by nonselective inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms, including N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), has been shown to produce a long-lasting pressor response in conscious and anaesthetised animals. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether the renin-angiotensin system contributes ...
Floras John S JS Department of Medicine, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario. - - 2002
Omapatrilat was designed to inhibit simultaneously angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). The ubiquitous involvement of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, originally conceived as an axis of sodium and fluid metabolism in inflammation, thrombosis and cardiac and smooth muscle hypertrophy, is a major factor in disease progression for conditions as diverse ...
Cole Justin - - 2002
To test the hypothesis that local vascular production of angiotensin II is necessary for the normal regulation of blood pressure, we engineered a new line of genetically altered mice that lack endothelial angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). This was accomplished using a novel strategy of targeted homologous recombination to separate the transcriptional ...
Dantas de Medeiros Tereza Maria - - 2002
CONTEXT: It has been reported that the equilibrium between the erythrocyte protease calpain I and its physiological inhibitor calpastatin is disrupted in patients with essential hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the activity of non-purified calpain I in hemolysates against the erythrocytic membrane proteins, rather than against other substrates. DESIGN: Evaluation of ...
Barrios Vivencio - - 2002
Sulfhydryl group donors, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC), may enhance the antihypertensive effect of some drugs through a nitric oxide (NO) mechanism. It has been observed that the hypotensive effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is, at least partially, mediated by NO. We performed a within patient crossover study with the ...
Mcnelis John - - 2002
The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a clinical entity that develops after sustained and uncontrolled intra-abdominal hypertension. ACS has been demonstrated to affect multiple organ systems including the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and neurologic systems. To date most descriptions of ACS are found in the trauma literature, but the development ...
Simpson Dene - - 2002
Perindopril is a long-acting ACE inhibitor, acting through its only active metabolite perindoprilat. It inhibits the renin-angiotensin system by preventing both the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and the degradation of bradykinin, thereby reducing the vasoconstriction and left ventricular remodelling characteristic of heart failure. Perindopril 4mg significantly improved ...
Mann Samuel J - - 2002
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological characteristics and responses to antihypertensive drug therapy. Twenty-two hypertensive subjects underwent psychological evaluation and treatment with 1) a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ); 2) an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, quinapril; and 3) combined alpha + beta blockade (doxazosin + betaxolol). ...
Kubota Eiji - - 2002
The natriuretic peptide and renin-angiotensin systems are physiological counterparts with opposite roles in the regulation of electrolyte balance and blood pressure. In both systems, membrane-bound, zinc-dependent peptidases play an important role in the inactivation or activation of the system. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, and neutral ...
Samizo Kazuo - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Two pilot studies for prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM) were launched in 1997 and 1998. Here we present data regarding adverse events that were reported in the second pilot J-PEM study where losartan was compared with ACE inhibitors and dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cohort ...
Simko F - - 2002
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition has been reported to induce regression of hypertrophy in several models of hemodynamic pressure overload. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ACE inhibitor captopril can reduce hypertrophy of the left ventricle induced by a chronic volume overload and modify collagen ...
Weber Michael A - - 2002
Angiotensin receptor blockers are a new class of agents that have made a major contribution to the treatment of hypertension. These agents effectively reduce blood pressure and are well tolerated. Other clinical trials have focused, however, on the much wider use of angiotensin receptor blockers in conditions such as congestive ...
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