Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1225
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Gross Oliver - - 2004
Several studies have shown antifibrotic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as well as of angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1) antagonists, however, prospective trials with clinical end points comparing these effects do not exist. COL4A3-/- mice develop a non-hypertensive progressive renal fibrosis. We used this animal model to compare the ...
Cruden Nicholas L M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Bradykinin is an endogenous vasodilator that may contribute to the systemic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy. Using B9340, a bradykinin receptor antagonist, we determined the contribution of bradykinin to the systemic hemodynamic effects of long-term ACE inhibition in patients with chronic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen ...
Fournier Albert - - 2004
Based on the Medical Research Council study, Brown and Brown hypothesized in 1986 that angiotensin II could protect against strokes by causing vasoconstriction of the proximal cerebral arteries, thereby preventing Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms from rupturing. In light of this hypothesis, we evaluated the cerebroprotective effects of various drug classes in recent ...
Fuchs Sebastien - - 2004
Despite several decades of research into the renin-angiotensin system, new aspects of this endocrine system are elucidated every few years, expanding its role not only in hypertension but also in diabetes, oncology, and cardiology. In this review, we describe newly recognized physiologic actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). These include ...
FitzGerald Richard J - - 2004
Hypertension is the major controllable risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events such as myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and end-stage diabetes. A 5 mm Hg decrease in blood pressure has been equated with approximately 16% decrease in CVD. In the U.S. alone current annual antihypertensive drug costs are ...
Sussman David O - - 2004
Clinical evidence in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) shows that the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors sildenafil citrate, tadalafil, and vardenafil hydrochloride have favorable safety and efficacy profiles. However, as mild vasodilators, the PDE5 inhibitors are also associated with hemodynamic effects that may be clinically significant, especially when treating men ...
Takai Shinji - - 2004
To clarify the mechanisms by which angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors lower blood pressure or inhibit cardiac hypertrophy, we analyzed the correlations among tissue ACE activities, blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), blood pressure, heart weight and ACE activities in plasma and various tissues were measured 3, ...
Ziai Seyed Ali - - 2004
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) generates angiotensin II and degrades bradykinin. This ectopeptidase acts as a marker in pathologic conditions, showing tissue and vascular damage. In order to evaluate serum and tissue ACE activity in bleomycin-associated lung damage, the authors studied morphological and enzymatic alterations as well as blood pressure in male ...
Komers Radko - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to improve endothelial function in Type 1 diabetes. However, the potential of ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) to enhance the haemodynamic effects of L-arginine (L-arg), the precursor of nitric oxide (NO), has not been evaluated. Furthermore, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), another group of inhibitors ...
Chrysant Steven G - - 2004
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly effective antihypertensive agents with excellent safety profiles. ARBs have been shown to improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with heart failure or diabetic nephropathy. For this later class of patients, the American Diabetes Association recommends ARBs as the primary treatment option. The ...
Persson Johan J Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Lund and University Hospital of Lund, Lund, Sweden. - - 2004
Vasopeptidase inhibition is a new antihypertensive approach combining inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP), but severe oedema, mainly angio-oedema, has been reported. As ACE and NEP catalyse degradation of the permeability-increasing peptide bradykinin, and NEP also catalyses degradation of permeability-increasing peptides such as atrial natriuretic peptide, substance ...
Korshunov Vyacheslav A VA Center for Cardiovascular Research and Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, - - 2004
Omapatrilat inhibits neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). We compared the effects of omapatrilat (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) to fosinopril (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) on flow-induced vascular remodeling in New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rats. Both drugs equally reduced blood pressure (BP) initially, but systolic BP and pulse pressure were reduced ...
Vidt Donald G - - 2004
The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) and the second Australian National Blood Pressure Study (ANBP2) came to different conclusions about which class of drug to try first for treating high blood pressure: a diuretic or an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. But when examined closely, the ...
Sharifi Ali M - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the alteration of local angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the aortae, heart, kidney and lung as well as plasma during the development of hypertension in one-kidney, one-clip (1K1C) model, a non-renin-dependent model of renovascular hypertension. METHODS: Experiments were carried out 2, 4, 8 ...
Angeli Fabio - - 2004
We undertook a meta-analysis of large, randomized controlled trials in hypertensive subjects that compared angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors with different classes of antihypertensive drugs. Compared with subjects randomized to drugs different from ACE inhibitors, those treated with ACE inhibitors did not show a different risk of congestive heart failure (CHF) ...
Sohmer Haim - - 2004
Auditory stimulation can, under certain circumstances, activate the vestibular end organs and this is facilitated by fenestration of a semicircular canal (SCC). Several fenestrated profoundly deaf patients reported improvements in their bone- (BC) but not air-conducted (AC) thresholds. Bone conduction auditory thresholds have been reported to be better than normal ...
Aartsen Wendy M - - 2004
Changes in arterial stiffness and structure occur during cardiovascular diseases and can be modified by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In the present study we investigated the role of membrane-bound ACE (t-ACE) in the regulation of arterial structure and mechanics. Large and small arteries of t-ACE-/- mice were isolated to determine ...
Schächinger Hartmut - - 2004
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Functional changes in the kidneys of healthy men with (FH+) (n = 15) and without (FH-) (n = 15) family history of primary arterial hypertension were examined during administration of low-dose exogenous angiotensin II (A2) (1 ng/kg per min) before and after acute (1 mg intravenous enalaprilat) ...
Saran Tomasz - - 2004
Clinical and experimental studies have shown that renal and cardiovascular effects of most selective COX-2 inhibitors (rofecoxib, celecoxib) are similar to other traditional NSAIDs (dual COX inhibitors). In these study the effect of nimesulide--preferential COX-2 inhibitor, administration on 24-hour blood pressure profile was investigated in 40 adult individuals on antihypertensive ...
Danao─člu Zülfikar - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is impaired in hypertension. Statins have been shown to improve endothelial functions in hyperlipidemic subjects. We aimed to investigate the effect of statins on endothelium-dependent flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP) in normocholesterolemic hypertensive patients. METHODS: This randomized prospective study consisted of 56 patients with ...
Hirsch Alan T - - 2003
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and yet remains under-recognized and under-treated. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of lower extremity PAD and pharmacological interventions that alter this central pathogenic role of atherosclerosis may alter the natural history of PAD. There is growing evidence that ...
Roysommuti Sanya - - 2003
Insulin excess exacerbates hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). This study examined the relative contribution of the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system in this phenomenon. In SHR, daily subcutaneous injections of insulin were initiated either before short-term angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with captopril or after lifetime captopril treatment. Insulin ...
Monument Michael J - - 2003
To test the hypothesis that angiotensin (ANG) II modulates the arterial baroreflex control of heart rate (HR) in an age-dependent manner, various parameters governing the arterial baroreflex control of HR were assessed before and after removal of endogenously produced ANG II by administration of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, ...
Peng Hongmei - - 2003
N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a natural substrate for the N-terminal active site of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). We previously reported that Ac-SDKP prevented cardiac fibrosis in rats with renovascular or aldosterone-salt hypertension. However, it is not clear whether Ac-SDKP reverses cardiac fibrosis in hypertension, nor the mechanism(s) involved. In the present study, ...
McInnes Gordon T - - 2003
Large-scale outcome trials have demonstrated that blood pressure reduction with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or calcium channel blockers (CCBs) is associated with reduced cardiovascular complications in hypertension. Comparative trials against conventional drugs and between ACE inhibitors and CCBs have failed to reveal conclusive differences in cause-specific outcomes. Studies in high-risk ...
Sleight Peter - - 2003
We reviewed the drug treatment of hypertension in the light of recent trials. beta-Blockers and diuretics clearly reduce mortality, strokes, and coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertension. Recent trials assessed whether newer agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or calcium blockers, offer any additional advantage, or have benefits in high-risk ...
Waeber Bernard - - 2003
Essential hypertension is a very heterogeneous disease and different pressor mechanisms might interact to increase blood pressure. It is therefore not surprising that antihypertensive drugs given as monotherapies normalize blood pressure in only a proportion of hypertensive patients. This is, for instance, the case for diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors ...
Higgins John P - - 2003
Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, is mainly present in the vascular endothelium. Multiple studies have confirmed that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, which block the formation of angiotensin II, lower blood pressure and also improve heart failure. These agents not only have beneficial hemodynamic effects but also bestow additional benefits on ...
Marczak Ewa D - - 2003
Four potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, IY, RIY, VW and VWIS, were isolated from subtilisin digest of rapeseed protein. Among them RIY and VWIS are new peptides with IC(50) 28 and 30 microM, respectively. All isolated peptides lowered blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) following oral administration. ...
Finnegan Patrick M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To review data concerning combined angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy for hypertension. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (1966-April 2003), IPA (1970-April 2003), and EMBASE (1974-April 2003) with search terms of ACE inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, essential hypertension, and combination therapy. DATA SYNTHESIS: ACE inhibitors provide ...
Weber Michael A - - 2003
The ability of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to lower blood pressure (BP) is well established. ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is) have also been shown to improve the prognosis of a broad range of patients at high cardiovascular risk, including those with heart failure, post-myocardial infarction (MI), ...
Takahashi Nobuyuki - - 2003
Gene targeting experiments in mice have been used by us and others to test whether quantitative changes in gene expression in the renin-angiotensin system affect blood pressure. Surprisingly, these studies showed that blood pressure does not change with mild quantitative changes in the expression of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ...
Ball Stephen G - - 2003
In this article, 2 leading physicians debate the strength of outcome data on the efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) for reducing the incidence of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renovascular events. Dr. Stephen G. Ball notes that the efficacy of ACE inhibitors for reducing the ...
Waeber Bernard - - 2003
Essential hypertension is a very heterogeneous disease and different pressor mechanisms might interact to increase blood pressure. It is therefore not surprising that antihypertensive drugs, given as monotherapy, normalize blood pressure in only a fraction of hypertensive patients. This is, for instance, the case for diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ...
Jacobsen Peter - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Albuminuria and hypertension are predictors of poor renal and cardiovascular outcome in diabetic patients. We tested whether dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) with both an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) is superior to maximal recommended dose of ACE inhibitor in type ...
Doggrell Sheila A - - 2003
The ALLHAT (The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial) trial enrolled hypertensive patients with at least one additional risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) to a comparison of the diuretic chlorthalidone, the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, lisinopril. Throughout the study, ...
Ibrahim Mohamed A - - 2003
The interaction between the renin-angiotensin system and nitric oxide (NO) is undeniable, but its nature is not fully known. This study investigated the contribution of NO to the acute hypotensive effect of captopril in conscious normotensive rats and the effect on blood pressure of dual administration of captopril and the ...
Lassila Markus - - 2003
The aim of the present study was to compare the antihypertrophic effects of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), vasopeptidase inhibition and calcium channel antagonism on cardiac and vascular hypertrophy in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with one of the following therapies for 32 ...
Maki Toshiyuki - - 2003
Sampatrilat is a novel vasopeptidase inhibitor that may offer a greater benefit than traditional angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). The present study was undertaken to determine whether sampatrilat improves hemodynamic function and cardiac remodeling through a direct action on the failing heart in ...
Rahman Mahboob - - 2003
Experts have long thought that African Americans were less responsive to ACE inhibitors than other racial or ethnic groups. The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) provides the first evidence of a beneficial effect of ACE inhibition on renal function in African American patients, in addition to ...
Guimarães Serafim - - 2003
Chronic treatment of rats with 90 microg/kg/day DPSPX (1,3-dipropyl-8-sulphophenylxanthine) during seven days leads to a hypertensive state which is characterized by marked morphological changes of the blood vessel walls as well as by important functional alterations. While the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril and the antagonist of angiotensin II AT ...
Oltmanns Kerstin M - - 2003
Hypoglycaemic symptoms and hormonal counter-regulation are of high importance to avoid the risk of severe hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Various antihypertensive drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, have been suspected for a long time to reduce this response to hypoglycaemia in diabetic subjects. Although ACE inhibitors are ...
Danilczyk Ursula - - 2003
According to the World Health Organization predictions cardiovascular diseases will be the leading cause of death by the year 2020. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and stroke. Modulation of the renin-angiotensin system, particularly inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), has become a ...
Thanikachalam Sadagopan - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In practice, chronic heart failure is often not treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. One reason is the fear of first-dose hypotension. In the majority of patients, this condition is asymptomatic and the consequences are unexpected. Presently, little is known of its epidemiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a prospective, ...
Sharifi Ali M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the correlation between development of hypertension and local, including; aorta, heart, kidney, lung, as well as circulatory (serum) ACE activity in two kidney one clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertension. METHODS: Ten- to twelve-week-old rats undertaken left renal artery clipping. Experiments were carried out in 2, ...
Sica Domenic A - - 2003
The final results of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) have shown that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril was better than the beta blocker metoprolol or the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker amlodipine in slowing the rate of glomerular filtration rate decline in African American patients with ...
Westphal Sabine - - 2003
Thiazides and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are first-choice drugs for lowering elevated blood pressure and hence risk of cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine (tHcy) is another and independent cardiovascular risk factor and has been reported to be elevated in patients on antihypertensive therapy. As these studies reported only associations, a preliminary, randomized, ...
Braith Randy W - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that salt and fluid retention in heart-transplant recipients (HTRs) is caused by a failure to reflexively suppress the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). BACKGROUND: It is known that extracellular fluid volume is expanded (12% to 15%) in HTRs who develop hypertension. METHODS: Responses to volume expansion were ...
Kuwahara Fumitaka - - 2003
Recently, we have shown that in rats with a suprarenal abdominal aortic constriction (AC), pressure overload induces early perivascular fibro-inflammatory changes (transforming growth factor [TGF]-beta induction and fibroblast proliferation) within the first week after AC and then causes the development of cardiac remodeling (myocyte hypertrophy and reactive myocardial fibrosis) associated ...
Hayashi Koichi - - 2003
Although several lines of recent studies fail to demonstrate the beneficial action of calcium antagonists, a novel dihydropyridine efonidipine, which possesses dilatory action of both afferent and efferent arterioles and, therefore, shares the renal microvascular action with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, is reported to exhibit renal protection in experimental ...
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