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Results 701 - 750 of 1230
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MacFadyen R J - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To compare the first dose responses to low dose angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril, and perindopril) in elderly patients with stable chronic heart failure. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, parallel, group prospective study of elderly patients with stable chronic heart failure. SETTING: General hospital in-patient admissions for ...
Taslimi M M - - 1991
Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme and is used for treating intractable chronic hypertension. However, the use of captopril during pregnancy is limited because of reported fetal and neonatal side effects. This study explored the efficacy of sublingual captopril in postpartum management of severe preeclampsia. Captopril controlled ...
Kleber F X - - 1991
In addition to the underlying pathophysiological processes that cause myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, structural, biochemical, neurohormonal and haemodynamic influences and interrelations promote progression of the heart failure syndrome. Independent of their symptomatic benefits, diuretics, digitalis, ACE inhibitors, PDE inhibitors and dopamine agonists exert specific influences on factors that retard or ...
MacFadyen R J RJ University Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Stobhill General Hospital, - - 1991
1. The transpulmonary pharmacokinetics of the intravenous diacid ACE inhibitor perindoprilat were studied in 10 male patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterisation for the management of ischaemic heart disease. 2. Following successful completion of diagnostic cardiac catheterisation and ventriculography, subjects received a low dose (1 mg) constant rate infusion of perindoprilat ...
Todd P A - - 1991
Perindopril is a long acting angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which displays similar pharmacodynamic properties to other agents in this class. In common with enalapril, it is also a prodrug. After absorption, perindopril is hydrolysed to the active metabolite, perindoprilat, and with once daily administration adequate 24-hour inhibition of ACE ...
Batra S - - 1991
Volume overload cardiac hypertrophy was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by experimental aortocaval fistula. This procedure resulted in considerable increases in left ventricular mass (70%) by 21-23 days. Our objective was to study the effect of volume overload on the geometry of coronary capillaries in the left ventricular midmyocardium. Tissue ...
Mulvany M J - - 1991
Milan hypertensive rats were treated, from ages 4 to 24 weeks, with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, perindopril, in doses of 1.5 mg/kg per day or 0.4 mg/kg per day. Controls were untreated Milan hypertensive rats. At age 24 weeks, a mesenteric biopsy was taken, from which two resistance ...
Ishibashi T - - 1991
Hemodynamic effects and inhibitory effects on the pressor response to exogenous angiotensin I of benazepril (CGS 14824A), a new angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, were examined in conscious chronically instrumented normotensive dogs in comparison with those of captorpil. Oral administration of benazepril (1-10 mg/kg) and captopril (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced ...
Shechtman O - - 1991
To assess the possibility that the renin-angiotensin system may play a role in the development of cold-induced hypertension, three groups of rats were used. Two groups were exposed to cold (5 +/- 2 degrees C) while the remaining group was kept at 26 +/- 2 degrees C. One group of ...
Grewal R P - - 1991
A 40 year old chronic cocaine abuser came to hospital with a blood pressure of 260/160, headache, agitation and bilateral papilledema. She was felt to have hypertensive encephalopathy secondary to cocaine abuse. She failed to respond to initial treatment with intravenous nitroprusside alone but was responsive to additional therapy with ...
Fabris B - - 1991
To establish if the benefit of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in retarding progressive diabetic renal injury is due to a specific intrarenal effect of the systemic hypotensive effect, we studied the effect of long-term ramipril treatment on blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary protein excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic spontaneously ...
Raya T E - - 1991
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the chronic effects of converting enzyme inhibition with captopril to direct blockade of angiotensin II (AII) with DuP 753 in the rat model of heart failure. Rats with chronic heart failure postinfarction were treated for 2 weeks with either captopril (2 g/L, ...
Haisa S S Okayama City General Hospital, - - 1991
The influence of alacepril (50 mg/day) on arterial blood pressure and microproteinuria in 26 hypertensive non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients was studied for 16 weeks. Alacepril reduced blood pressure gradually from 175/88 (standard error of mean [SEM] 2.6/1.7) to 152/81 (3.3/2.0) mm Hg (P less than .005) and albuminuria from 160.6 (SEM ...
Bainbridge A D - - 1991
1. The possibility of an acute pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction between the ACE inhibitor ramipril and the calcium antagonist felodipine was examined in 12 normotensive male volunteers. 2. Ramipril (5 mg) and felodipine ER (10 mg) were administered orally in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, Latin square design to fasting subjects. ...
Scalbert E - - 1991
Vascular remodeling is central to the pathophysiology of hypertension and atherosclerosis. The effects of antihypertensive drugs on this process are important to consider from a mechanistic and a pathogenetic point of view in relation to vascular complications of hypertension, e.g., decrease in vascular reserves, shift in cerebral blood flow autoregulation ...
Levy M - - 1991
We studied blood pressure response, plasma renin activity (PRA) and captopril pharmacokinetics in 8 children receiving orally 0.7 mg/kg of the drug. The drug increased PRA in all patients, in 5 to abnormally high levels. Peak captopril concentrations were achieved between half an hour and 2 h, and ranged between ...
Matsukawa S - - 1991
In order to investigate the physiological role of angiotensin II (ANG II) in the control of vasopressin (VP) secretion, the VP responses to hypotension induced by hemorrhage (20 ml/kg, n = 10) or nitroprusside infusion (1-10 micrograms/kg.min, n = 9) were studied with or without blockade of ANG II formation ...
Saruta T - - 1991
Delapril, a nonsulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which has an indanylglycine moiety differing from the proline moiety of captopril or enalapril, is an esterified prodrug that is converted in vivo to its active metabolites. Delapril effectively inhibits rabbit lung ACE activity and lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. ...
Mancia G - - 1991
This article examines the evidence justifying the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as first-line antihypertensive drugs. ACE inhibitors are as effective as traditional antihypertensive agents and, in addition, exert their blood-pressure-lowering effect with near optimal hemodynamic alterations. These drugs have a good tolerance and safety profile although they induce ...
Esnault V L - - 1991
Strenuous physical exercise causes transient proteinuria and renal hemodynamic changes: decrease of renal blood flow and to a lesser extent of the glomerular filtration rate, and an increase of the filtration fraction. However, the mechanisms of these modifications are still poorly understood. In order to elucidate them we performed maximal ...
Rosenthal J - - 1991
This investigation was performed to assess the effect of treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, on human tissue renin levels. A total of 41 patients were studied (32 males and 9 females, aged 48-71 years). Twenty-two of these patients received up to 5 days treatment with the ACE ...
Marre M - - 1991
The mechanism of action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic patients remains controversial. Sixteen type 1, insulin-dependent diabetics with incipient nephropathy received ramipril, a long-acting ACE inhibitor, at hypotensive doses (treatment A: 5 mg/day, n = 8) or at nonhypotensive doses (treatment B: 1.25 ...
Kleinbloesem C H - - 1991
In clinical pharmacology studies, cilazapril, after its bioactivation to cilazaprilat, was characterised as a potent, reversible angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with a terminal half-life of 30 to 50 hours, which is consistent with saturable binding to ACE. Despite the arterial vasodilatation, only slight increases in heart rate occurred during ...
Heagerty A M - - 1991
There is considerable interest in the ability of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors not only to lower blood pressure, but also to reverse hypertension-induced remodelling of the circulation. Recently published data would suggest that treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats from an early age with ACE inhibitors will prevent the development of ...
Tutag-Lehr V - - 1991
The angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril is available for intravenous administration in the form of enalaprilat. Intravenous enalaprilat is indicated for the management of hypertension when oral therapy is not feasible. However, there are no reports of intravenous enalaprilat therapy exceeding one week in duration. We report the case of a ...
Fitscha P - - 1991
The antihypertensive effects of isradipine and captopril were studied in 231 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension in a double-blind, randomized, between-patient trial. Treatment was started with 1.25 mg of isradipine or 12.5 mg of captopril twice daily which, if normotension was not obtained, was increased after 4 weeks to 2.5 mg ...
Whelton A - - 1991
We have conducted a multicentre study in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Lisinopril monotherapy, 10, 20, or 40 mg once daily (n = 35), was compared with captopril monotherapy, 25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily (n = 35). Blood pressure assessments were conducted using both office and 24-hour ...
McMahon E G - - 1991
In porcine aortic endothelial cells, the 21-amino acid peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) is formed from a 39-amino acid intermediate big endothelin (big ET) by a putative endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) that cleaves the 39-mer at the Trp21-Val22 bond. Because big ET has less than 1% of the contractile activity of ET-1, inhibition ...
Osterziel K J - - 1991
In 33 patients with heart failure (NYHA II-III), the 24-h blood pressure rhythm was examined before and after the titration period of two ACE inhibitors. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method using the blood pressure monitor 90202 from SpaceLabs, Inc. The measurements were taken from 06:00 to 22:00 ...
Zucker I H - - 1991
The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril has been shown to cause resetting of the arterial baroreflex to a lower pressure without a change in gain. The present study was conducted to determine whether captopril altered the relationship between arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity in conscious quietly ...
van den Buuse M - - 1991
1. The interaction between bradykinin (BK) and the renin-angiotensin system was studied in conscious, catheterized rats. 2. Intravenous injection of BK induced dose-dependent decreases in blood pressure in normotensive Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pretreatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril markedly enhanced the effect of ...
Szucs T - - 1991
Cilazapril is a new nonthiol group containing angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which was designed by a computer-modelling technique in order to obtain a compound with high specificity and selectivity for the target enzyme. Cilazapril has been investigated in more than 4000 patients with all degrees of hypertension, as well ...
Mulvany M J - - 1991
This paper reviews previous work done by my laboratory to investigate the effect of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on blood pressure and small artery structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). First, the data confirm that ACE inhibitors have a persistent effect on blood pressure in SHRs when treatment ...
Arnolda L - - 1991
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Vasopressin, like angiotensin, has both vasoconstrictor and fluid retaining properties and therefore may make an important contribution to the pathogenesis of low output congestive heart failure. The study aimed to examine the relative importance of the renin-angiotensin system and vasopressin in an animal model of heart failure. DESIGN: ...
Pals D T - - 1991
Additive combination studies of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, and a renin inhibitor, ditekiren (U-71038), were carried out in conscious sodium-depleted and sodium replete cynomolgus monkeys. The agents elicited dose-additive hypotensive responses regardless of the order of drug administration in sodium-depleted monkeys. A dose-additive blood pressure response was ...
Antonutto G - - 1991
A system consisting of two mechanically coupled counter rotating bicycles, moving on the inner wall of a cylindrical space module, is proposed to prevent microgravity deconditioning. The two pedalling subjects generate a centrifugal acceleration vector (ac) simulating gravity. This last depends on the peripheral velocity (v) and on the radius ...
Whelton A - - 1990
This multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study compared the antihypertensive effects of two angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, lisinopril and captopril, in 70 patients (35 lisinopril, 35 captopril) with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg once-daily lisinopril or 25, 50, and 100 mg bid captopril were increased at biweekly intervals ...
Mabie W C - - 1990
The chronic effects of captopril on maternal hemodynamics and organ perfusion were investigated in 10 untreated and 10 captopril-treated pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats by means of the radioactive-labeled microsphere technique. The normal decrease in blood pressure during gestation was prevented by reduction of litter size to two conceptuses on day ...
Mirvis D M - - 1990
Benazepril HCl is an orally effective angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor previously shown to have significant acute hemodynamic benefits in patients with congestive heart failure. In this study, 21 patients with New York Heart Association Class III or IV congestive heart failure were treated with 2 to 15 mg of ...
Lees K R - - 1990
Accumulating data indicate that tissue and systemic renin-angiotensin systems may coexist. Evidence supporting the existence of local regulatory systems derives from several sources. Firstly, it has been clearly demonstrated that all components of the renin-angiotensin system are detectable in the tissues of organs such as the brain, heart, lung, kidney, ...
Salzer-Muhar U - - 1990
Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was determined in 46 children with congenital heart disease with normal and abnormal lung perfusion: (1) congenital heart disease with normal pulmonary blood flow (12 patients); (2) congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow (18 patients); (3) congenital heart disease with decreased pulmonary ...
Laragh J H - - 1990
The introduction of orally active angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors has revolutionized the treatment of hypertensive disorders and provided an effective alternative for the management of congestive heart failure (CHF). By interfering with the formation of angiotensin II, the active agent of the renin system, ACE inhibitors block the system's ...
Cowie R L RL Department of Medicine, Ernest Oppenheimer Hospital, Welkom, - - 1990
A group of 55 black men with mild or moderate hypertension who were being treated with methyldopa, prazosin, and a thiazide diuretic in combination with sotalol, were studied before and after changing their treatment to captopril and a thiazide diuretic. The level of blood pressure control was similar in the ...
Lacourcière Y - - 1990
We compared the effects of sustained-release diltiazem and captopril on blood pressure control and lipid profile. Forty-eight patients with primary hypertension were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study and 43 completed the trial. Following a two-to four-week placebo run-in period, each patient initially received either diltiazem (60-180 mg twice ...
Fitzpatrick M A - - 1990
Results of uncontrolled studies suggest that the duration of action of an ACE inhibitor may be an important determinant of renal impairment when using these agents to treat patients with heart failure. To determine whether there is experimental evidence for this hypothesis, we compared the effects of intermittent (captopril, 25 ...
Schneider R - - 1990
Oxygen-free radical intermediates/scavengers were measured in 43 patients with essential hypertension who, although under antihypertensive therapy (without angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), still had high blood pressure values. Measurements were taken before and 30, 60 and 120 min after sublingual administration of 25 mg captopril. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were ...
Kelly J G - - 1990
The orally active angiotensin-converting inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) such as captopril and enalapril represent a significant therapeutic advance in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. Enalapril differs from captopril in several respects. It is a prodrug converted by hepatic esterolysis to the active (but more poorly absorbed) diacid, enalaprilat. ...
Hansen P B - - 1990
To develop a screening test for identification of renovascular hypertension, the blood pressure and plasma renin concentration responses to an oral test dose of captopril (6.25 mg) were studied in 47 hypertensive patients of mean age 61 years (range 34-85 years). Blood pressure was measured at 15-min intervals for 90 ...
Christen Y - - 1990
The study of vasoactive agents in man often requires accurate measurement of short-lasting changes in blood pressure. Using a noninvasive photoplethysmographic device (Finapres), the authors investigated in normotensive subjects whether rapid increases in blood pressure can be assessed precisely by monitoring finger blood pressure continuously. Six volunteers were studied on ...
Julien J - - 1990
In a double-blind 6 month trial, the cardiac effects of captopril and minoxidil, administered as third step treatments, were compared in 34 men with essential hypertension and diastolic blood pressure greater than 95 mm Hg who were taking 200 mg/day of metoprolol and 80 mg/day of furosemide. Average daily doses ...
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