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Mason T - - 1992
Hypertension in the neonate is commonly related to renal disease. More specifically, renovascular hypertension in neonates is often associated with the placement of a umbilical artery catheter. Many medications, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, have been used in the treatment of neonatal hypertension. Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, is an oral ...
Asmar R G - - 1992
In treating hypertension the optimal dose of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is derived from dose-response curves that relate the quantity of drug taken to the resulting fall in blood pressure; the blood pressure fall reflects a decrease in vascular resistance and hence, a degree of arteriolar vasodilation. However, ACE ...
Nakashima Y - - 1992
1. The direct cardiac effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in 22 hypertensive patients were investigated. Radionuclide ventriculography and echocardiography were performed to measure left ventricular function before and 60 min after administration of a subdepressor dose of captopril. 2. Since the response to ACE inhibitor is not uniform, patients ...
Colson P - - 1992
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are increasingly used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, but recent reports have warned of some hemodynamic risk (hypotension and bradycardia) when associated with anesthesia. To assess the hemodynamic effects of induction of anesthesia in patients chronically treated with ACEIs, 16 hypertensive patients scheduled for coronary ...
Paolisso G - - 1992
We have compared the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to five different ACE inhibitors in 86 patients matched for age, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, randomised trial. In the active drug treatment phase the patients were randomly assigned to one ...
Minatoguchi S - - 1992
1. The effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril on the responses of blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels to the cold pressor test in human hypertensives were examined. 2. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly after treatment with enalapril (5 mg/day for 4 weeks) as did the ...
Morton J J - - 1992
The persistent effects on blood pressure of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan and the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril were compared in the young spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Losartan (DuP753/MK954, 15 mg/kg/day) and captopril (100 mg/kg/day) were given in the drinking water of 3-week-old SHRs for 4- and 10-week durations. ...
Westenend P J - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (CEI) upon renal function and the incidence of glomerulosclerosis in spontaneously hypertensive Fawn Hooded rats (FHR). DESIGN: Male FHR were treated with captopril from the age of 5 months when mild hypertension, proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis are present, and sacrificed at ...
Kjeldsen S E - - 1992
Clinical studies indicate that the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril is an effective antihypertensive agent when administered once daily. At the end of a 4-week, double-blind crossover trial comparing quinapril and placebo, patients were admitted for a hemodynamic profile study 12 hours after taking the previous dose. A final 20 mg ...
Muller C A CA MRC Ischaemic Heart Disease Research Unit, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South - - 1992
Previous studies on the possible antiarrhythmic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors during early ischemia in pigs have been inconclusive or negative; however, proof of adequate ACE inhibition was not provided. Perindoprilat, 0.06 mg/kg, i.v., was administered 30 min prior to ligation of the anterior descending coronary artery (CAL) ...
Hermans M P - - 1992
We studied the long-term effects of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril, administered for 36 months on glycemic control, creatinine clearance, and albuminuria in hypertensive insulin-treated diabetics. After 1 month treatment with placebo, 39 patients entered the study and received 4-8 mg perindopril/day. Within the first 3 months, diastolic blood ...
Reams G P - - 1992
In addition to the classic circulating renin-angiotensin system, increasing evidence supports the existence of local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (vascular, cardiac, kidney, and brain) that appear to participate in cardiovascular homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders via multiple autocrine and paracrine functions. Components of local systems have been detected ...
Proietti-Franceschilli G - - 1992
In 10 severe hypertensives the effects of intravenous administration of scalar doses of captopril were evaluated. The behaviour of blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiographic pattern and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function, in basal condition (T0) and after 60 min of captopril infusion (T60), were analysed. Diastolic performance was assessed by ...
Lam J Y - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Cilazapril, a converting enzyme inhibitor, has been shown to significantly decrease the extent of intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation after arterial injury in a normotensive rat model. METHODS AND RESULTS: To assess the influence of cilazapril on myofibrotic changes after balloon injury, control (n = 7) or cilazapril-treated (n ...
Tan L B - - 1992
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of hypertension on the heart culminate in congestive heart failure. The underlying causes are contractile impairment due to myocyte loss and reduced compliance due to myocardial fibrosis. Newer strategies in antihypertensive therapy must, therefore, focus on prevention of myocardial damage ('cardioprotection') or, if an abnormality has ...
Yagi A - - 1992
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors decrease blood pressure without causing reflex tachycardia in hypertensives, but do not always do so in normotensives. To investigate this phenomenon, hemodynamic changes in normotensive rabbits receiving a subpressor dose of norepinephrine were studied following captopril or diltiazem treatment. We also investigated the effect of captopril ...
Zusman R M - - 1992
Numerous pharmacologic agents are capable of lowering the blood pressure of hypertensive patients; however, each drug has a characteristic side effect profile and effect on cardiac performance. In this study, the hemodynamic effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor fosinopril were assessed at rest and at peak upright bicycle exercise ...
Giannattasio C - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: In essential hypertension, captopril attenuates forearm vasoconstriction reflexly induced by deactivation of cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptors, thus exerting a sympathomoderating effect. We investigated whether this is a common effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. METHODS AND DESIGN: Cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptors were deactivated by progressively reducing central venous ...
Tsuda T - - 1992
Acute hemodynamics of pimobendan were compared to captopril in a crossover trial in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA II-III). Heart failure had been stabilized by conventional therapy with diuretics and digitalis for more than 2 weeks. Patients receiving vasodilators were excluded. The hemodynamics were analyzed using a Swan-Ganz catheter ...
Villarreal D - - 1992
The systemic hemodynamic, hormonal, and renal effects of chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (CEI) with captopril and the responses to synthetic atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) infusions in the presence and absence of captopril were examined in normal dogs (n = 6) and in dogs with an arteriovenous (AV) fistula and compensated ...
Salgado M C - - 1992
Bradykinin is a potent vasodilator peptide; however, its half-life in vivo is very short because of various plasma and tissue peptidases that hydrolyze bradykinin to inactive fragments. We studied the role of kininase II (angiotensin converting enzyme) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (enkephalinase) in the catabolism of bradykinin in vascular tissue ...
Fitzpatrick M A - - 1992
The acute hemodynamic and hormonal effects of incremental doses of a specific ovine renin inhibitor (RI: EMD 52 297) and captopril were compared in an ovine model of heart failure. Both RI and captopril inhibited the renin-angiotensin II (ANG II) system, although the decrease in plasma aldosterone (ALDO) was significant ...
Wisenbaugh T - - 1992
For comparable decreases in systemic resistance, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors produce a lesser increase in cardiac output than do previously used vasodilators. Although the reason for this is not yet clear, the possibility of a negative inotropic effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was demonstrated by intracoronary injection. The effects of an ...
Di Somma S - - 1992
In order to investigate the antihypertensive effects of verapamil (CAS 52-53-9) and captopril (CAS 62571-86-2), administered alone or in combination therapy, the blood pressure and heart rate effects of these two drugs at rest and during dynamic exercise were evaluated in a double blind study in 30 moderate or severe ...
Ibarra F R - - 1992
The acute effects of captopril in cirrhosis are well known but there are few descriptions of the pattern of response to chronic administration of captopril in this disease. Nine nonuraemic cirrhotic patients with ascites and portal hypertension were studied after 1 week on fixed sodium and water intake (balance diet) ...
Hamed R M - - 1992
We studied the plasma renin activity (PRA) and blood pressure (BP) responses to a single oral dose of captopril in children with renal scarring due to vesicoureteral reflux. The test was performed on 19 children, of whom 13 were normotensive and 6 hypertensive. Basal PRA was within the normal range ...
Kiowski W - - 1992
BACKGROUND: The participation of the renin-angiotensin system in the control of blood pressure in normal, sodium-replete subjects is not clear. The use of a specific inhibitor of human renin should allow a better delineation of the importance of this system. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure responses were measured 1 hour ...
Ferrari R - - 1992
We assessed whether local inhibition of myocardial converting enzyme by captopril and zofenopril reduces the functional and metabolic damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion. First we investigated the effects of zofenopril and captopril on the mechanical function, cellular redox state, and norepinephrine (NE) content of isolated and aerobically perfused rabbit ...
Asmar R G - - 1992
Common carotid blood flow and cold pressor test were evaluated in 16 patients with sustained essential hypertension before and after 30 days treatment with the converting enzyme inhibitor Enalapril (20 mg). Enalapril decreased blood pressure and carotid vascular resistance with no significant change in heart rate. After treatment, despite a ...
Bönner G - - 1992
Bradykinin is a potent vasodilating and natriuretic peptide, which is potentiated by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In our investigations we studied the effect of bradykinin on systemic and pulmonary circulation as well as on dorsal hand vein tone. The effects of bradykinin on systemic and pulmonary circulation were tested by ...
de Mey C - - 1992
The chronic oral administration of 0.07 mg digitoxin o.d. for up to 58 days to 12 healthy volunteers caused a small drop in mean heart rate HR (95% CI: -7.9 to -1.6 beats.min-1), in mean diastolic blood pressure (95% CI: -8.3 to -0.4 mmHg), shortening of the QTc-interval (95% CI: ...
Safar M E - - 1992
1. Large artery dilatation may be produced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in hypertensive subjects independently of blood pressure reduction. The resulting increase in arterial compliance may be due to both blood pressure reduction and to arterial smooth muscle relaxation. 2. In healthy volunteers and in hypertensive subjects, dosages producing large ...
Docci D - - 1992
A 65-year-old man presented proteinuria in the nephrotic range that occurs in the setting of high renin hypertension. Proteinuria persisted after normalizing blood pressure by nifedipine. In contrast, treatment with an ACE-inhibitor (enalapril) resulted in the prompt resolution of the proteinuria. Interestingly, proteinuria relapsed after removing the ACE-inhibition. These observations ...
Mancini M - - 1991
This randomized, double-blind, crossover study was aimed at detecting efficacy differences in blood pressure control and peripheral circulation in cerebral aortic and femoral districts of slow-release nicardipine, 40 mg, and captopril, 50 mg, given twice daily to 20 primary hypertensive patients (9 male, 11 female; age range 33-60 years) for ...
de Zeeuw D - - 1991
The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the sensitivity of radionuclide renography in the diagnosis of a unilateral renal artery stenosis was tested both in a conscious dog model and in the human situation. ACE inhibition (10 mg enalaprilic acid, intravenously) markedly improved the sensitivity of [123I]hippuran renography ...
Corsano S - - 1991
Since the introduction of theophylline (1) as the first PDE-inhibitor used in the treatment of asthma, there has been intense activity in this area of therapy to design drugs with improved potency and efficacy. Derivatives of theophylline and other purine analogs were prepared and tested as PDE-inhibitors and cardiac stimulants, ...
Kureya P - - 1991
Hypertension, a condition characterized by narrowing of the arteriolar lumen, is related in part to vasoconstriction and in part to vascular hypertrophy. Complex and interlocking mechanisms involving the autonomic nervous system and both circulating and local vasoconstrictor and vasodilator hormones contribute to this narrowing. Endothelin, 5-HT (serotonin), the kinins and ...
Lacourcière Y - - 1991
The effects of long-term reduction in blood pressure by the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, as single therapy or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), were compared with those of metoprolol and/or hydrochlorothiazide in 91 hypertensive non insulin-dependent diabetics with normal renal function. Following a single-blind placebo run-in period of 4 ...
Dutrey-Dupagne C - - 1991
Short-term fluctuations in blood pressure and heart rate were analysed in a group of eight males with essential hypertension. Indirect finger blood pressure was measured by a non-invasive device (Finapres). Analogue-to-digital conversion of the blood pressure was used to determine systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate every second. ...
Ohara N - - 1991
The effects of (S)-1[6-amino-2[[hydrozy(4- phenylbutyl)phosphinyl]oxy]-1-oxohexyl]-L-proline (SQ 29 852), a phosphorus-containing novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), which is synthesized aiming an ACEI with long-lasting activity and with few side effects, were studied using anesthetized dogs. SQ 29 852 was equipotent with captopril to modify blood pressure response of the animals ...
Akhras F - - 1991
Eighteen hypertensive patients with a resting diastolic blood pressure between 100 and 120 mmHg who also had angina and proven coronary arterial disease entered a dose titration study to evaluate the efficacy of captopril as a single therapy in hypertension and coexisting stable angina. Captopril was administered for 2 weeks ...
Yoneda S - - 1991
Thirty-four patients with essential hypertension at WHO stage I or II were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of 22 cases who displayed normal renin activity (NR) or low renin activity (LR) and who received a single administration of captopril. Group II consisted of 6 cases given beta-blockers after ...
Wisenbaugh T - - 1991
BACKGROUND: Few data exist regarding the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with regurgitant valvular lesions. We postulated an immediate improvement in cardiac performance with captopril in mitral regurgitation, which, in a hemodynamically compensated group of patients, might be mediated through parasympathetic vasodilation rather than through blockade of ...
Ferrier C - - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerance of a diuretic-free antihypertensive therapy with a Ca2+ antagonist and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: After a 2-wk washout and a 4-wk placebo phase, 47 hypertensive patients with NIDDM randomly received verapamil ...
Clarke P F - - 1991
The combination of captopril and hydrochlorthiazide was assessed in 15 hypertensive patients in a general practice setting. The first aim was to determine whether the fall in blood pressure, noted after the first dose of an ACE inhibitor given alone, became unacceptable when the drug was given with a diuretic. ...
Sybertz E J - - 1991
Our studies with the prototypical NEP inhibitor SCH 34826 indicate the potential role of this class of compounds in cardiovascular modulation. The data assembled to date indicate that NEP inhibition elicits significant ANF-like effects in animals and man. The early data generated to date on SCH 34826, when considered with ...
Rosenberg M E - - 1991
Control of hypertension improves the course of renal disease. We compared the renal hemodynamic and permselective responses to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) (enalapril) and an alpha 1-antagonist (prazosin) in 14 patients with established glomerular disease. A single-blinded, randomized, cross-over design was used consisting of a 3-week baseline period followed ...
Rosendorff C C Department of Physiology, University of the - - 1991
Arteriosclerosis is the hallmark of hypertension and of its complications, namely stroke, coronary artery disease and ischaemic renal failure. The earliest morphological change in the arteriosclerotic process is vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Angiotensin II is an important growth factor in vascular smooth muscle cells. The chronic administration of ...
Genden E M - - 1991
The potent vasodilatory peptide bradykinin is cleaved at the Phe5-Ser6 bond in vitro by the metalloenzyme endopeptidase-24.15 (E.C.3.4.24.15). We now report that intravenous infusion of N-[1-(R,S)-carboxy-3-phenylpropyl]-Ala-Ala-Phe-p-aminobenzoate, a specific active site-directed inhibitor of endopeptidase-24.15, produces an immediate drop in mean arterial pressure of as much as 50 mm Hg in pentobarbital-anesthetized, ...
Carretero O A - - 1991
Inhibitors of two zinc metallopeptidases, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral metalloendopeptidase-24.11 (EP-24.11), are antihypertensive agents. In this issue of Hypertension, Genden and Molineaux report that yet another peptidase inhibitor, metalloendopeptidase-24.15, EC 3.4.24.15 (EP-24.15), lowers blood pressure in normotensive rats. In this editorial we discuss the possible role of ...
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