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Results 601 - 650 of 1229
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Pennock G D - - 1993
BACKGROUND: An agent that improves left ventricular (LV) performance by non-cAMP-mediated mechanisms would be valuable in the treatment of chronic heart failure. We have shown earlier that the thyroid hormone analogue 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA) binds to nuclear receptors, alters transcription of T3-responsive genes, and increases +dP/dtmax in hypothyroid rats with ...
Hasford J - - 1993
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are established drugs for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Cases of symptomatic hypotension, especially on the first day of treatment, have been reported occasionally. The database we analysed consisted of 1,177 patients, mean age approximately 70 yrs, with congestive heart failure NYHA functional class ...
Seymour A A - - 1993
The systemic hemodynamic, renal and hormonal responses to SQ 28,603 (N-[2-(mercaptomethyl)-1-oxo-3-phenylpropyl]-beta-alanine) the selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase 3.4.24.11, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril and their combination were determined in conscious dogs after 1 or 3 weeks of rapid ventricular pacing. Coadministration of captopril (100 or 10 mumol/kg i.v.) and SQ ...
Kiowski W - - 1993
Hypertension in animal models and in humans is associated with a decreased vasodilator response to acetylcholine which causes vascular relaxation by release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from the endothelium. Since lowering of blood pressure, particularly with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, improved the response to acetylcholine we investigated the effects of ...
Dessì-Fulgheri P - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the hypotensive effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in comparison with those of calcium antagonist might be predicted by urinary kallikrein activity, a marker of the activity of the renal kallikrein-kinin system. DESIGN: Seventy-five essential hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to treatment with ACE inhibitors ...
Levy B I - - 1993
The effects of long-term angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment with perindopril 2 mg/kg/day, by gavage, for 3 months on the mechanical function and structure of large arteries were studied in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats with established hypertension. Hemodynamic parameters, including instantaneous aortic blood flow and pressure, were recorded under anesthesia ...
Gohlke P - - 1993
It is now well accepted that treatment of hypertension must extend beyond the mere control of blood pressure. Among the objectives "beyond blood pressure control" is the remodeling of resistance and compliance vessels that have usually undergone a process of hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia. Salutary vascular remodeling by antihypertensive treatment not ...
Preuss H G - - 1993
Hypertension, more prevalent with aging, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Accordingly, it is important to decrease blood pressure and maintain it in an acceptable range to lessen morbidity and mortality. When nonpharmacological therapy fails, drug therapy should be instituted. The ideal drugs lower blood pressure, have few ...
Eng C - - 1993
The effects of captopril on systolic function and diastolic myocardial expansion were assessed in an open-chest multiple occlusion model of myocardial stunning. Captopril was given as a 0.25 mg/kg bolus followed by a continuous infusion at 0.25 mg/kg/h for the duration of the stunning protocol, which was initiated 30 min ...
Dahlöf B - - 1993
The renin-angiotensin system has an important effect on the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the regulation of left ventricular function, in particular by promoting cardiac interstitial fibrosis. In both experimental and human studies, ACE inhibitors have shown a clear tendency to perform better than other types of antihypertensive therapy in ...
Fitzgibbon W R - - 1993
During the past year, a number of significant publications have provided data that clearly establish the basis for the important role of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system in cardiovascular control and renal function. These publications include a report of advances in techniques for system component measurement, reports of the localization of ...
Sambhi M P - - 1993
Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system is being applied with considerable success to the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are the only currently available agents that can achieve this objective. In general, the major therapeutic effects of these agents in the treatment of mild to moderate ...
Gardiner S M - - 1993
1. Conscious, Long Evans rats were chronically instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes and intravascular catheters to allow regional haemodynamic (coeliac, mesenteric and hindquarters vascular beds) responses to i.v. bradykinin to be assessed in the absence and presence of captopril and of ganglion blockade (with mecamylamine). 2. Bradykinin (3 nmol ...
Reid J L - - 1993
Drug induced modification of the renin-angiotensin system is of established benefit in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. The responses to the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril (CAS 75847-73-3) have been studied in essential hypertension and normotensive controls. The kinetics and dynamics of enalapril have been characterised in ...
Rump A F - - 1993
The endogenous activity of the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the anti-ischaemic properties of captopril were investigated in electrically driven rabbit Langendorff hearts (constant pressure: 70 cmH2O, Tyrode solution, Ca2+ 1.8 mmol.l-1). Cumulative concentration-response curves showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the reduction of the global coronary flow ...
Ferrara L A - - 1993
The evidence linking hypertension and hypercholesterolemia is strong and has fueled research into possible adverse effects of some antihypertensive agents on serum lipid profile. This multicenter, open, parallel study compares the effects of doxazosin and captopril on blood pressure, serum lipid levels, and quality of life in 224 hypercholesterolemic hypertensive ...
Clozel M - - 1993
Both the function and the morphology of the vascular intima are altered during hypertension. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, endothelium-dependent relaxation is decreased, and the subendothelium becomes infiltrated with monocyte macrophages. It is not known if these two features are secondary to high blood pressure and what their consequences are; however, ...
Tranchesi Júnior B - - 1993
The combination of captopril and nitroglycerin early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) could lead to a dangerous decrease in blood pressure coronary perfusion. To evaluate the safety aspects and haemodynamic effects of this combination, we studied 36 first 'Q wave' thrombolysed anterior wall AMI patients during the 24 h following ...
Flack J R - - 1993
Our aim was to assess the effect of blood pressure treatment on albumin excretion rate (AER) in diabetic patients using two antihypertensive agents with different modes of action: indapamide and captopril. Patients with persistent microalbuminuria on two occasions (AER 20-200 micrograms/min) entered a randomized crossover study of 12 weeks of ...
Bieck P R - - 1993
Traditional monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) have long been associated with tyramine-related hypertension--the cheese effect. Despite their undoubted clinical efficacy, this problem has restricted their use. New, selective, and reversible MAO-A inhibitors--which act only on the A isoenzyme--appear not to have this effect. Our investigations of these drugs, exemplified by brofaromine, ...
Lund-Johansen P - - 1993
Hypertension frequently is associated with a number of changes in heart structure and function, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, disturbed diastolic function, and subnormal stroke volume during exercise. Most of these changes probably are related to myocardial fibrosis. Antihypertensive agents reverse the structural and functional changes to different degrees. The ...
Mills P J - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term captopril therapy during sodium restriction on several markers of the sympathetic nervous system, including plasma norepinephrine, neuropeptide Y, beta-adrenergic receptors and cortisol. BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that the therapeutic effects of converting enzyme inhibitors involve not only ...
Safar M E - - 1993
Alterations in the structure and function of large arteries could be a major factor in the mortality and morbidity of hypertensive patients. This paper summarises the effects of various pharmacological treatments on the mechanical (functional) properties of large arterial walls and on the structure and composition of these vessels. Firstly, ...
Morisco C - - 1993
It is well known that, in patients with essential hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, it has been demonstrated that normalisation of arterial pressure, by therapy with antihypertensive drugs, is associated with regression of LVH, although the extent and time-course of this ...
Zannad F - - 1993
Among the physicochemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties that differentiate trandolapril from other angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, the most clinically relevant ones are those that contribute to the long duration of action of the drug. The long elimination half-life of trandolapril and its strong lipophilicity, high ACE inhibitor potency and ...
Jenkins D A - - 1993
The effects of nifedipine retard and captopril on renal haemodynamic parameters have been examined in a double blind randomised cross-over trial in 10 insulin-dependent diabetic males with hypertension (systolic pressure > 150 mmHg or diastolic pressure > 90 mmHg). The acute renal haemodynamic response to nifedipine retard 20 mg and ...
Zakzewski C A - - 1992
Both conventional direct current (DC) and pulsed-mode DC constant-current iontophoresis were used to investigate enhanced transdermal delivery of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril to rabbits with acutely induced hypertension. Passive transdermal captopril administration and pulsed DC constant-current iontophoresis of the vehicle were studied as control experimentation. Mean arterial pressure ...
Dyer S M - - 1992
The current experiments were designed to explore the relationship between the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and prostanoid formation in aortic ring preparations from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A further aim was to examine the mechanisms responsible for the reversal of the impaired acetylcholine (ACh) mediated relaxation induced by chronic administration ...
Volpe M - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition exerts a favorable effect on the response to exercise in heart failure. This study was planned to define the influence of ACE inhibition on the adaptation to volume overload. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the hemodynamic, hormonal, and renal responses to acute volume expansion ...
Hall D - - 1992
OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to determine if a standard dose of aspirin interacts relevantly with the circulatory effects of enalapril in severe heart failure. BACKGROUND: The frequent association of heart failure with coronary artery disease confers potential for combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and the prostaglandin synthesis ...
Messerli F H - - 1992
In patients in whom monotherapy does not control blood pressure a second agent is required. Common combinations in clinical practice are a beta-blocker plus a diuretic, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor plus a diuretic, a beta-blocker plus a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, and an ACE inhibitor plus a calcium antagonist. ...
Mehra A - - 1992
To evaluate the therapeutic potential of organic nitrates in patients with chronic congestive heart (CHF) failure already treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, the temporal hemodynamic effects of oral isosorbide dinitrate, 40 to 120 mg administered every 6 hours to 11 nitrate responders who had been treated with captopril 89 ...
Ingenito E P - - 1992
Paralyzed mechanically ventilated guinea pigs constricted to a similar degree by either isocapnic hyperpnea or antigen challenge display significantly different lung resistance (RL) volume history responses to a deep breath. We compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) mediator profiles, BAL total protein concentrations, and tissue histopathology of antigen-constricted (AC), hyperpnea-constricted (HC), and ...
Dondi M - - 1992
This study evaluates the prognostic value of captopril renal scintigraphy in hypertensive patients undergoing renal artery revascularization. Preoperative studies of 51 patients were correlated with blood pressure results at 6- and 12-mo follow-up. Captopril-renal scintigraphy was carried out 1 hr after oral administration of 50 mg of captopril, using either ...
Alpert M A - - 1992
To assess the pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic effects of oral captopril in patients with connective tissue disease and pulmonary hypertension, we performed right heart catheterization in eight patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis, the CREST syndrome, or mixed connective tissue diseases prior to and immediately following administration of captopril (dose range ...
Chillon J M - - 1992
1. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were given captopril plus hydrochlorothiazide mixed in the diet for 10 weeks. Calculated daily doses were 44 mg kg-1 per day for captopril, and 22 mg kg-1 per day for hydrochlorothiazide. Separate groups received captopril or hydrochlorothiazide alone, at similar doses, or no ...
Griesbacher T - - 1992
1. The novel bradykinin antagonist, HOE 140, completely blocked the fall in rabbit blood pressure caused, not only by i.v. bradykinin, but also by i.v. kallikrein. This shows that both the effects of exogenously administered bradykinin and those of endogenously released kinins are antagonized by HOE 140. 2. Acute pancreatitis ...
Cusson J R - - 1992
The effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the blood pressure and renal function of essential hypertensive patients depend on the specific type of NSAID and antihypertensive drug administered. Twelve patients with essential hypertension, aged 35 to 59 years, stabilized (blood pressure less than 140/90 mmHg) with captopril, received ketoprofen ...
Jordan J M - - 1992
Pressure sores are common in the debilitated elderly. Causal factors are unrelieved pressure, shearing forces, friction, and moisture. Preventive measures should be used for all high-risk patients, defined by general condition, mental status, degree of incontinence, amount of activity, and mobility. Principles of treating ulcers include pressure relief, reducing bacterial ...
Tsuchihashi T - - 1992
To compare the effects of enalapril and captopril on blood pressure, serum creatinine (S-Cr), and potassium (S-K) levels, patients with malignant hypertension treated with either 5-10 mg of enalapril (eight cases) or 75-400 mg of captopril (eight cases) were investigated retrospectively. After 2 weeks of treatment, the average blood pressure ...
Gilbert B W - - 1992
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common condition and a powerful independent risk factor for coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and other cardiac morbidity. It is associated with the male sex and advancing age. Its most common cause is hypertension, and many antihypertensive agents induce regression of LVH. Angiotensin-converting ...
Palatini P - - 1992
To assess whether timing of administration can influence the antihypertensive effect of quinapril, 18 patients with hypertension were studied with noninvasive ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Quinapril, 20 mg, was given at 8 AM or 10 PM for 4 weeks in a double-blind crossover fashion. To study the pattern of angiotensin ...
Kanzik I - - 1992
Effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors of digoxin-induced arrhythmias and haemodynamics were studied in guinea-pigs. ECG, mean arterial blood pressure heart rate, pressure rate index and arrhythmias were recorded, starting 15 min before digoxin administration and continuing for 30 min afterwards. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor aspirin (50 mg kg-1) and the ...
Li Kam Wa T C - - 1992
A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study was carried out to determine the extent and duration of potentiation of the action of bradykinin introduced intradermally by a long-acting novel angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, trandolapril. The investigations were performed in a temperature and humidity-controlled laboratory. Intradermal injections of 1 microgram, 2.5 ...
Nicholas W C - - 1992
A 26-year-old woman with regularly documented normal blood pressure had sudden onset of severe hypertension. Investigation revealed an intrarenal artery aneurysm involving the upper pole of the left kidney, as well as elevated levels of both renin and aldosterone. With ACE inhibitor therapy, blood pressure promptly returned to normal, and ...
Hirooka Y - - 1992
Animal studies suggest that some angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors augment endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. We aimed to determine if captopril augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation in middle-aged hypertensive patients. By using strain-gauge plethysmography, forearm vasodilation evoked with intra-arterial acetylcholine (4, 8, 16, and 24 micrograms/min) or nitroprusside (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 micrograms/min) was ...
Novo S - - 1992
In order to investigate whether hypertension-related structural vascular changes may be influenced by antihypertensive treatment, 10 patients were studied suffering from essential arterial hypertension, five males and five females, aged between 34 and 61 years (mean age: 46.9 +/- 8.13 years). All patients received a placebo for 1 week and ...
Shiota N - - 1992
To investigate the possible role of vascular angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the development and maintenance of hypertension, we examined aortic ACE messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. The blood pressure was increased remarkably at 4 weeks (early stage) after clipping and remained elevated at ...
Dimsdale J E - - 1992
There is considerable interest in blood pressure reactivity to psychological stressors. Because the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system are so responsive to stressors and are themselves the targets of many antihypertensive medications, many investigators have wondered if such medications decrease the blood pressure response to stressful stimuli. We ...
Mason T - - 1992
Hypertension in the neonate is commonly related to renal disease. More specifically, renovascular hypertension in neonates is often associated with the placement of a umbilical artery catheter. Many medications, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, have been used in the treatment of neonatal hypertension. Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, is an oral ...
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