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Achike F I - - 1991
1. Blood pressure and pulse rate responses to intravenously (i.v.) administered nifedipine were studied in chloralose-anaesthetized rats subjected to hypoxaemia, hyperoxaemia, alkalosis, acidosis, hypocarbia with alkalosis, or hypercarbia with acidosis. 2. Ventilation with a gas mixture of 17% O2, 28% O2, or 23% O2 with 5% CO2 at a fixed ...
Triadafilopoulos G - - 1991
Calcium channel blockers have been previously shown to decrease lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and improve symptoms in achalasia. We performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study to assess the effects of oral nifedipine and verapamil on LES pressure, amplitude of esophageal body contraction, and clinical symptomatology in eight patients with ...
Havinga T K - - 1991
After screening a local population in the northern part of The Netherlands for hypertension, 125 patients (116 of whom had not previously used antihypertensive drugs) with a five times elevated diastolic pressure (DP) of between 95 and 130 mmHg were randomized and treated daily either with atenolol 50 mg o.d. ...
Salvetti A - - 1991
To evaluate whether the combination of nifedipine with chlorthalidone exerts an additive antihypertensive effect when compared to single-drug treatment, 66 uncomplicated essential hypertensives, whose diastolic blood pressure was greater than 100 and less than 115 mm Hg at the end of a 1-month washout placebo period, received, according to a ...
Lindgren L - - 1991
We have studied the effect of verapamil on the incidence of ECG changes and right ventricular pressures (RVP) in 25 male patients (aged 62 (SD 9) yr) undergoing thoracotomy in a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Verapamil 0.01 mg kg-1 h-1 (n = 12) or saline (n = 13) i.v. was started ...
Jolly S R - - 1991
Three patients with systemic hypotension and sinus bradycardia that were initially refractory to conventional therapy responded well to intravenous calcium administration. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed immediate reversal of severe left ventricular dysfunction after intravenous administration of calcium in two instances. Common factors were hyperkalemia and verapamil therapy. This interaction was examined ...
- - 1991
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition with calcium antagonism in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. DESIGN: Randomised study of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria treated with perindopril or nifedipine for 12 months and monitored for one or three months after stopping treatment depending on whether they were hypertensive ...
Smith D H DH Department of Cardiology, Institute for Aviation Medicine, Verwoerdburg, - - 1991
The antihypertensive effects, as assessed by clinical and ambulatory blood pressure measurement, of nifedipine slow-release (SR), atenolol and the two in combination were evaluated in 28 known hypertensives in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised cross-over trial. Clinical blood pressure was significantly lower on combination therapy (P less than 0.025) than on ...
Levin R M - - 1991
In anesthetized rabbits, we can induce a significant degree of spontaneous activity in the urinary bladder by placing a ligature around the proximal portion of the external urethra. Previous studies characterized the activity as primarily reflex in nature, since intravesical hexamethonium selectively inhibited the hyperreflexia. In this current study we ...
Konrad-Dalhoff I - - 1991
Nifedipine has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of primary oesophageal motility disorders which can cause angina-like chest pain and/or dysphagia. The effects of the calcium channel blockers nifedipine, nitrendipine, nimodipine and nisoldipine on oesophageal smooth muscle function in healthy male volunteers were studied by oesophageal ...
Rocha-Gonçalves F - - 1991
The efficacy and safety of isradipine and nifedipine retard were compared in 51 patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. A 4-week placebo run-in period was followed by an 8-week course of treatment. Patients were randomly allocated to either isradipine 1.25 mg twice daily (n = 24) or nifedipine 20 mg twice ...
Buser P T - - 1991
The aim of the present study was to define the protective effects of verapamil and nifedipine on mechanical performance and energy and substrate metabolism of the postischemically reperfused myocardium in a chronic pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy model. The isolated beating rat heart preparation was used and left ventricular pressures and ...
Gurgenian S V - - 1991
Intravenous verapamil infusion reduced the arterial pressure (AP) in 13 out of 71 (76.5%) patients with severe arterial hypertension (AH) refractory to a two-week, three-step oral antihypertensive medication. Investigations including echo- and radio-cardiography were performed: in the control period before starting the three-step treatment; after two weeks before intravenous verapamil ...
Higuchi M - - 1991
1. Nitroglycerin caused dose-dependent increases in regional myocardial contractile force (MCF) in open-chest dogs, along with dose-dependent decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic (LVEDP) and arterial pressures and an increase in plasma catecholamines level. 2. The increase in MCF could not be completely prevented by propranolol along with a slight decrease ...
Muntaner C - - 1991
The effects of oral nifedipine pretreatment on subjective and cardiovascular responses to intravenous cocaine infusions were studied in cocaine-using volunteers. Nifedipine, 10 mg or placebo, was administered 20-25 min before placebo, 20 mg, or 40 mg cocaine, using a repeated measures randomized double-blind design. The variables measured were self-reported subjective ...
Höfling B - - 1991
Compliance with antihypertensive treatment can be increased by using medications that are taken only once daily. There is, however, concern as to whether the efficacy of such drugs is sufficient to cover 24 h. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is an ideal technique to assess the effect of this kind ...
Lemmer B - - 1991
Circadian phase dependency in pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects on blood pressure and heart rate of different galenic formulations of nifedipine (immediate-release, sustained-release, and i.v. solution) were studied in healthy subjects or in hypertensive patients. Pharmacokinetics of immediate-release but not sustained-release and i.v. nifedipine were dependent on time of day: immediate-release ...
Hall S - - 1991
Carvedilol is a novel treatment for hypertension, having a balanced pharmacology of vasodilation and beta-receptor blockade. We present here the results of a three-way, multicenter, comparative study on the use of carvedilol, slow-release nifedipine, and atenolol in the management of essential hypertension. A total of 311 patients was entered into ...
Moretti M M - - 1990
Twenty patients with preeclampsia at a gestational age of 26 to 35 weeks were treated with oral nifedipine until delivery. The mean oral daily dose was 45.1 +/- 11 mg/day (range, 40 to 80 mg/day). Fetal aorta, internal carotid artery, umbilical artery, and uteroplacental Doppler flow velocity waveforms were recorded ...
Krakoff L R - - 1990
Nifedipine, in the gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) formulation, a controlled-release formulation for once-a-day administration, was evaluated in the Modern Approach to the Treatment of Hypertension (MATH) trial. In this study conducted at 127 centers, 1155 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension representative of the spectrum seen in practice were included in the ...
Prokopiw I - - 1990
In the present study we have compared the effect of intravenous infusion of a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine (1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 20 min), with that of isoproterenol (0.1 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 20 min) on the hemodynamic parameters and the vascular response of different locations and tissue layers of the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Bravo E L - - 1990
The Modern Approach to the Treatment of Hypertension (MATH) trial was conducted to determine the therapeutic safety and efficacy of the once-a-day nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) formulation in a large and diverse cohort of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. One of the goals of the MATH study was to evaluate ...
Littler W A - - 1990
1. This multicentre hospital study compared the antihypertensive efficacy and the tolerability of once daily felodipine extended release (ER) with twice daily nifedipine retard (R) in hypertensive patients inadequately controlled on metoprolol monotherapy. 2. One hundred patients, aged 20-70 years, whose seated diastolic blood pressure was 100-115 mmHg after 4 ...
Zachariah P K - - 1990
The blood pressure response to a new sustained-release formulation of nifedipine was evaluated in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-nine patients with mild essential hypertension were randomized to receive placebo (N = 9), 30 mg nifedipine (N = 10), or 60 mg nifedipine (N = 10). During treatment, 30-mg and ...
Singh R B - - 1990
Calcium is important in the maintenance of arterial smooth muscle function and its alteration from normal may predispose to atherogenesis and hypertension. Slow channel inhibitors such as nifedipine and calcium salts have been used separately to modulate arterial calcium in patients with hypertension. This study included 41 patients with essential ...
Traub Y M - - 1990
The acute effects of single doses of captopril (C) 12.5 mg, of nifedipine (N) 10 mg, or of their combination (C + N) on parameters of left ventricular (LV) function were assessed in 18 elderly hypertensive subjects using radionuclide ventriculography. Blood pressure (BP) was lowered by C from 177/100 to ...
Burger W - - 1990
In a double-blind cross-over study, 10 patients with stable angina pectoris owing to coronary heart disease were investigated in supine position during rest and bicycle exercise for the effect of 0.4 mg of intravenous (i.v.) isradipine in comparison to 2 mg i.v. nifedipine on cardiac hemodynamics and myocardial ischemia. At ...
Pirhonen J P - - 1990
The short-term effect of 20 mg of oral nifedipine on maternal and fetal hemodynamics was investigated in ten healthy, normotensive women at 38 weeks' gestation admitted to the hospital for elective cesarean delivery. Within 1 hour after nifedipine administration, mean arterial pressure had decreased by 10% and a slight increase ...
Liu T F - - 1990
The effects of ryanodine on the action potential and induction of early afterdepolarization (EAD) were studied in the atrial fibers of mouse heart. Under treatment with ryanodine, the duration of the action potential (ADP) was prolonged. The percentage of the prolongation of ADP25, APD50 and ADP100 were 83, 49 and ...
Fish F A - - 1990
Marked prolongation of cardiac action potentials and of QT intervals has been associated with early afterdepolarizations and triggered activity in vitro and with ventricular tachycardia in vivo. Because the antihypertensive potassium channel activators pinacidil and cromakalim are known to accelerate repolarization in cardiac tissues, we performed in vitro and in ...
Kahn D - - 1990
Dipyridamole has liberalized referrals for stress TI-201 chloride (thallium) studies at the Iowa City Veterans Administration Medical Center. Seventy-five percent of referrals now receive dipyridamole and, unlike patients who tolerate conventional exercise testing, these patients are often quite debilitated. Therefore, the hemodynamic consequences of dipyridamole were reviewed in 120 consecutive, ...
Clamp M - - 1990
Forty-one elderly patients with mild to moderate hypertension (resting diastolic blood pressure 100-130 mmHg after an eight week placebo run-in phase) were randomised to a double-blind parallel group comparison of nifedipine retard 10 mg twice daily or atenolol 50 mg once daily. If the resting diastolic pressure exceeded 95 mmHg ...
Pevahouse J B - - 1990
OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes in sodium excretion and sodium balance after withdrawal of long term nifedipine. DESIGN: Single blind, placebo controlled study in patients receiving fixed sodium and potassium intakes. SETTING: Blood pressure unit of a teaching hospital in south London. PATIENTS: Eight patients with mild to moderate uncomplicated ...
Palmer A - - 1990
1. Aspects of quality of life (symptoms, psychological well-being and activity) were evaluated by self-administered questionnaires in a 4 month randomised double-blind trial of titrated doses of verapamil slow release (n = 41) compared with nifedipine retard (n = 40). An untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95-115 mm Hg was ...
Steinberger R E - - 1990
Ten spinal-cord-injured males who exhibited autonomic dysreflexia during electroejaculation were given sublingual calcium channel blocker nifedipine pretreatment to prevent this complication. Nifedipine was successful in decreasing peak systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures during the procedure. The use of nifedipine resulted in fewer aborted trials and allowed higher energy delivery ...
Chang K C - - 1990
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was (1) to determine the difference in aortic input impedance and derived parameters between hypertensives and normotensives; and (2) to assess the acute effects of nifedipine on the aortic impedance, compliance, and resistance in patients with hypertension. DESIGN: A high fidelity multisensor catheter ...
Duty S - - 1990
The regional haemodynamic profiles of Ro 31-6930, cromakalim and nifedipine were compared using pulsed Doppler flowmetry in the anaesthetised rat. In order of potency, Ro 31-6930 (0.1-300 micrograms/kg), cromakalim (1-300 micrograms/kg) and nifedipine (1-1000 micrograms/kg) produced dose related falls in mean arterial pressure. The hypotensive effects of Ro 31-6930 and ...
Maclean D - - 1990
1. In a double-blind, randomised, parallel group study, 128 patients with sitting diastolic blood pressure between 95 and 125 mm Hg (Phase V) after 2-4 weeks run-in on placebo, received enalapril 10-40 mg once daily (65 patients) or nifedipine retard 10-40 mg twice daily (63 patients), utilising a double dummy ...
Brunelli C - - 1990
Twelve of 40 consecutive patients with effort angina, documented coronary artery disease, and a positive exercise stress test had a positive ergonovine test. ST-segment depression (0.1 mV) occurred in ten and ST elevation (0.1 mV) in two patients. During the ergonovine maleate test the rate-pressure product recorded at the onset ...
Porchet H C - - 1990
The dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (+/-)-nicardipine shares some of the pharmacologic properties of the dihydropyridine prototype nifedipine. To compare them, serum concentrations and cardiovascular effects of 10 mg nifedipine and 20 mg (+/-)-nicardipine were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 hours after oral intake in a randomized, crossover, single-blind study involving ...
Haynes B E - - 1990
IV verapamil is the preferred drug for the acute management of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (SVTs) in the absence of contraindications to its use. SVT complicated by hypotension has been considered a relative contraindication for the use of IV verapamil. However, the efficacy of IV verapamil in the management of "rate-related" hypotension ...
Kirsten R - - 1990
This randomised, parallel group study was designed to compare the efficacy of nifedipine (40 mg once daily) combined with either the dopamine agonist, co-dergocrine mesilate (4 mg once daily) or the diuretic mefruside (25 mg once daily) in 40 patients with essential arterial hypertension and a diastolic blood pressure greater ...
Dubiel J P - - 1990
The acute hypotensive effect of nifedipine was evaluated, and the possibility of its long-term use in hypertensives over 60 years of age was studied. Sublingual nifedipine in a dose of 20 mg was given to 28 patients, mean age 73.1 yrs, and blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma drug concentration ...
Kiowski W - - 1990
The reduction of transmembranous calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells by calcium antagonists leads to a reduction of tension development and vascular tone. Nifedipine reduces forearm vascular resistance dose-dependently when infused into the brachial artery in patients with essential hypertension, attesting to its potent arterial vasodilator effects. This effect ...
Weselcouch E O - - 1990
In this article a new model of peripheral occlusive arterial disease is described. The lower hindlimb of an anesthetized ferret was fixed to a holder, the distal end of the Achilles tendon attached to an isometric force transducer, and a passive preload of 100 g was applied to the muscle ...
Heller M B - - 1990
The prehospital management of severe hypertension is limited by a paucity of pharmacologic agents suitable for field use. This prospective study was designed to test the safety and efficacy of intraoral nifedipine therapy in 50 patients with severe hypertension being transported by an urban emergency medical service system. Ten milligrams ...
Marmor A - - 1990
The magnitude and time course of the hemodynamic effect of a new formulation of an aqueous solution of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) spray were compared with those of sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) tablets in 12 patients with chronic congestive heart failure. The patients received, in a random order, ISDN spray, 2.5 mg, ...
Belfort M A - - 1990
The calcium antagonist verapamil was intravenously infused after plasma volume expansion with dextran-70 in nine patients with severe gestational proteinuric hypertension. The hemodynamic response of these patients was monitored using a flow-directed pulmonary artery catheter. Verapamil produced a statistically significant reduction in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance without ...
Chellingsworth M C - - 1990
It is known that calcium antagonists may produce a natriuresis and diuresis but the mechanisms are unknown and there have been few studies of the relative potencies of different drugs. This paper reports a study designed to measure the effect of nifedipine and nitrendipine on urine volume, sodium and potassium ...
Waite R P - - 1990
Representative calcium antagonists from proposed class I (nifedipine), class II (verapamil) and class III (flunarizine) have been examined for effects on blood pressure, heart rate, ventricular pressures, ECG, cardiac output and regional blood flow in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rats. Flow was measured by the microsphere technique. Low and high infusion rates of ...
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