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Baumgardner James E JE Department of Anesthesia, School of Veterinary Medicine, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-4283, USA. - - 2002
One of the proposed mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury is cyclic recruitment of atelectasis. Collapse of dependent lung regions with every breath should lead to large oscillations in PaO2 as shunt varies throughout the respiratory cycle. We placed a fluorescence-quenching PO2 probe in the brachiocephalic artery of six anesthetized rabbits ...
Johnston William E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Acute aortic occlusion in vascular surgery patients abruptly increases arterial resistance and blood pressure, which, in turn, makes subsequent volume expansion during cross-clamp application difficult. The use of vasodilatory drugs or volatile anesthetic agents to attenuate this response may have persistent detrimental effects after clamp removal. Another potential therapy ...
Cakar Nahit - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: High peak airway opening pressures (Pao) are used routinely during recruitment maneuvers to open collapsed lung units. High peak Pao, however, can cause lung injury as evidenced by translocation of intratracheally inoculated bacteria. In this study we explored whether recruitment maneuvers that used high Pao could cause translocation of ...
Huynh Toan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Optimizing intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is important in the management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In trauma patients with TBI and respiratory dysfunction, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is often required to support oxygenation. Increases in PEEP may lead to reduced CPP. We hypothesized that ...
Xu Haifang - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the possibility of using arterial pressure waveform or pulse oximetry plethysmographic waveform variation to estimate the pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP). METHODS: Fourteen American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I - II patients aged 33 - 69 years and weighing 62.0 +/- 9.5 kg scheduled for elective abdominal ...
Koutsoukou Antonia - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels (0, 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O) on tidal expiratory flow limitation (FL), regional intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) inhomogeneity, alveolar recruited volume (Vrec), respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gases in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2002
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the respective effects of position and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the distribution of regional pulmonary blood flow (PBF). DESIGN: Prospective randomized animal study. SETTING: Animal research facility in a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Normal pigs that were tracheostomized, anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated. INTERVENTIONS: PBF was measured ...
Jones J H - - 2002
We determined whether the caudodorsal region of the intrapleural space in exercising horses experiences larger pressure fluctuations than other regions and whether systematic phase-shifting of peak intrapleural pressures along the length of the thorax suggests the existence of locomotor-induced intrapleural pressure waves. We utilised percutaneous introducers and solid-state pressure-tip transducers ...
Takeuchi Muneyuki - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The most appropriate method of determining positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level during a lung protective ventilatory strategy has not been established. METHODS: In a lavage-injured sheep acute respiratory distress syndrome model, the authors compared the effects of three approaches to determining PEEP level after a recruitment maneuver: (1) 2 ...
Baun Mara M - - 2002
An open system of delivery of supplemental oxygen was compared with a closed system during endotracheal suction (ETS) at zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) and 10 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Four protocols in a 2 x 2 design were administered in random order to 12 anesthetized and oleic acid-injured ...
Suh Gee Young - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to test the hypothesis that derecruitment itself might accentuate lung injury during mechanical ventilation. SETTING: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Experimental laboratory. SUBJECTS: New Zealand White rabbits (2.8-3.5 kg). INTERVENTION: Twenty-four rabbits were ventilated in pressure-controlled mode with constant tidal volume (10 mL/kg). After lung injury ...
Frerichs Inéz - - 2002
The aim of the study was to validate the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to detect local changes in air content, resulting from modified ventilator settings, by comparing EIT findings with electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) scans obtained under identical steady-state conditions. The experiments were carried out on six ...
Beydon L - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: A large tidal volume (VT) and lung collapse and re-expansion may cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in acute lung injury (ALI). A low VT and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can prevent VILI, but the more VT is reduced, the more dead space (VD) compromises gas exchange. We investigated ...
Dyhr Thomas - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is needed to maintain the improved oxygenation and lung volume achieved after a lung recruitment maneuver in patients ventilated after cardiac surgery performed in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled study in a university hospital intensive care unit. ...
Mygdalou A - - 2002
This study was designed to compare the end-expiratory pressure (EEP) during mechanical ventilation (MV) measured dynamically (EEPdyn), by multiple linear regression (MLR) of the airway pressure (Pao) vs volume (V) and flow (V') and after Fourier analysis (FA) of the Pao and V'. Pao and V' were recorded from 32 ...
Hermle Gerd - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Repeated collapse and reopening of alveoli have been shown to aggravate lung injury, which could be prevented by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Yet, how to adjust optimum PEEP is a matter of debate. We suggest a new strategy to adjust PEEP, which is based on the analysis of the ...
Mols Georg - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Atelectatic alveoli can be recruited or kept open either by sustained inflation maneuvers or by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Little is known about potential interactions between both approaches. Especially, it is not known whether the recruiting effect of sustained inflation maneuvers is maintained in combination with a low PEEP, ...
McLellan S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the M-COVX and the Deltatrac II metabolic monitors under clinical conditions. DESIGN: Prospective clinical comparison. SETTING: A general Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. INTERVENTIONS: The monitors were compared at FiO(2) 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 in each patient where ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Reduction in tidal volume (Vt) associated with increase in respiratory rate to limit hypercapnia is now proposed in patients with acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of this study was to test whether a high respiratory rate induces significant intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) in these patients. DESIGN: Prospective ...
Blanc Quentin - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the inspiratory volume pressure (VP) curves of the respiratory system (rs) produced by static occlusion (OCC) and dynamic low constant flow inflation (LCFI) methods using a new device in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. SETTING: A multidisciplinary 24-bed ICU in a tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS: Eleven ...
van Genderingen Huibert R - - 2002
We tested the hypothesis that during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, the oscillatory pressure ratio (OPR) is minimal at the optimal mean airway pressure (Paw). OPR is defined as the ratio of pressure swings at the distal end and the proximal opening of the endotracheal tube. Optimal Paw was assumed to be ...
Blanch Lluis - - 2002
Maintaining optimal lung recruitment has a marked effect on the outcome of patients who suffer from ARDS. RMs superimposed on mechanical ventilation have the potential to recruit atelectatic lungs in the course of general anesthesia; however, the physiologic benefits are less evident in ARDS patients who are ventilated at low ...
Ward Nicholas S - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the ease and efficacy of two commonly used methods for choosing optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a static pressure-volume curve to determine the lower inflection point (P(flex)) and the "best PEEP" (PEEP(best)) as determined by the maximal compliance curve. DESIGN: ...
Kondili E - - 2002
The pattern of lung emptying was studied in 10 mechanically-ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. At four levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (0, 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O) tracheal (Ptr) and airway pressures (Paw), flow (V') and volume (V) were continuously recorded. Tidal volume was set between 0.5-0.6 ...
Vieillard-Baron Antoine - - 2002
The presence of an initial segment with a low compliance on the static pressure-volume (PV) curve in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) indicates that some lung compartments do not initially receive insufflated gas. We tested the hypothesis that an uneven distribution of time constants, producing a "slow compartment," ...
Scheeren Thomas W L - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of dopamine and dopexamine on gastric mucosal oxygenation during mechanical ventilation without and with positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) and after compensation of the PEEP-induced hemodynamic suppression. DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study. SETTING: University research department of experimental anesthesiology. SUBJECTS: Ten anesthetized dogs with chronically ...
Patroniti Nicoló - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to assess the effect of periodic hyperinflations (sighs) during pressure support ventilation (PSV) on lung volume, gas exchange, and respiratory pattern in patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Thirteen patients undergoing PSV were enrolled. The study comprised 3 steps: baseline ...
Grasso Salvatore - - 2002
BACKGROUND: A lung-protective ventilatory strategy with low tidal volume (VT) has been proposed for use in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar derecruitment may occur during the use of a lung-protective ventilatory strategy and may be prevented by recruiting maneuvers. This study examined the hypothesis that the effectiveness of a ...
Renò Filippo - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To investigate induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during mechanical compression of hypertrophic scars. Mechanical pressure blocks hypertrophy inducted on extracellular matrix in scars by a mechanism that involves MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B). DESIGN: We assayed conditioned media obtained from normotrophic and hypertrophic scars during 24 hours ...
Benini Annalisa A Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, S. Gerardo Hospital, Monza, - - 2002
To prevent gas exchange deterioration during translaryngeal tracheostomy (TLT) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ventilation is maintained through a small diameter endotracheal tube (ETT; 4.0 mm i.d.) advanced beyond the tracheostoma. We report on the feasibility of uninterrupted ventilation delivered through a high-resistance ETT in ARDS patients, ...
MacIntyre Neil R - - 2002
Alveolar (and thus arterial) P(O2) and P(CO2) clearly depend on minute ventilation. However, we need to balance gas exchange goals against the risk of overstretching, especially of the healthier regions of the lung. The plateau pressure is probably the best easily-obtained marker of the risk of stretch in the lung, ...
Saura Pilar - - 2002
Application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute lung injury patients under mechanical ventilation improves oxygenation and increases lung volume. The effect of PEEP is to recruit lung tissue in patients with diffuse lung edema. This effect is particularly important in patients ventilated with low tidal volumes. Measurement of respiratory ...
D'Angelo Edgardo - - 2002
Lung mechanics and morphometry of 10 normal open-chest rabbits (group A), mechanically ventilated (MV) with physiological tidal volumes (8-12 ml/kg), at zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP), for 3-4 h, were compared with those of five rabbits (group B) after 3-4 h of MV with a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 2.3 ...
Al-Khafaji Ali - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine the phenomenon of inappropriate triggering caused by an in-line suction catheter. DESIGN: We used a test lung to assess inappropriate triggering in four ventilators with both pressure and flow triggering. RESULTS: With pressure triggering, inappropriate triggering occurred only in the presence of PEEP. However, with flow triggering, ...
Soncini Monica - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Intrathoracic pressure variation during mechanical ventilation has different effects on cardiac preload and stroke volume in both ventricles. Changes in left ventricle stroke volume are reflected by fluctuations of the arterial pressure waveform or Systolic Pressure Variation (SPV). SPV has been proposed as a way to evaluate vascular volume ...
Carter Christopher - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) reduces PaCO(2) by flushing the tracheal and mechanical deadspace, and may have its maximum benefit when TGI gas is unopposed by significant expiratory gas flow. Thus, limiting TGI to the late expiratory period may diminish tracheal exposure to TGI gas while preserving the efficacy of ...
Wang Shu-Hui - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PC-IRV) was used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after failed volume-cycled conventional ratio ventilation (VC-CRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of early PC-IRV in severe ARDS. METHODS: Twenty patients with severe ARDS were switched from VC-CRV to ...
de Abreu Marcelo Gama - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of a new device for noninvasive measurement of nonshunted pulmonary capillary blood flow (PCBF) by partial CO2 rebreathing. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective clinical trial in an intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. INTERVENTIONS: ...
Schmitt Hubert J - - 2002
We studied the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) release and positioning on the occurrence of venous air embolism (VAE). Eighteen consecutive patients (8 women, 10 men; ASA grade I-III) undergoing neurosurgery in the sitting position were studied. After induction of anesthesia ventilation was controlled with a PEEP of 5 ...
Villagrá Ana - - 2002
The objective was to analyze the physiologic effects of recruitment maneuvers (RM) in 17 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ventilated with a lung protective strategy. RM consisted of 2 min of pressure-controlled ventilation at a peak pressure of 50 cm H(2)O and a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) above ...
Videtta W - - 2002
The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been reported by several investigators, without any consensus being reached. Acute neurological and neurosurgical patients suffer intracranial hypertension and acute lung injury with hypoxemia. Since PEEP may improve hypoxemia but elevate ICP and ...
Levy Mitchell M - - 2002
From many recently performed studies, it is clear that a criterion standard for determining the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level in patients with acquired respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) does not exist. What is evident and consistent, however, are several points such the optimal PEEP level ultimately represents a balance ...
Esplugas Enrique - - 2002
Radiographic contrast media (CM) are necessary to provide x-ray absorption of the bloodstream; all other observed effects need to be regarded as adverse. Four types of CM are currently used in diagnostic and interventional cardiology: ionic high-osmolar CM (HOCM), either ionic or non-ionic low-osmolar CM (LOCM), and non-ionic iso-osmolar CM ...
Reickert Craig A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To examine the isolated and combined effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and partial liquid ventilation (PLV) on the development of ventilator-induced lung injury in an ovine model. DESIGN: Prospective controlled animal study. SETTING: University-based cardiovascular animal physiology laboratory. SUBJECTS: Thirty-eight anesthetized supine sheep weighing 22.3 +/- 2.2 kg. ...
Nakamura Tomohiko - - 2002
To demonstrate the efficacy of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with a low dose of perflubron (PFB), severe lung injury model followed surfactant-depleted rabbits underwent PLV with either moderate tidal volume (V(T)) and high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high V(T) and low PEEP. PLV with low-dose PFB was effective in ...
Konen Osnat - - 2002
The increasing use of sonography for evaluating acute abdomen has brought greater recognition of appendicular abnormalities. We present an incidental finding of an appendiceal diverticulum during a sonographic examination of a 4-year-old child with acute appendicitis. Abdominal sonography showed an enlarged, swollen appendix with a diameter of 1.1 cm and ...
Hazebroek E J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery usually requires a pneumoperitoneum by insufflating the abdominal cavity with carbon dioxide (CO2). Increased intraabdominal pressure causes diaphragmatic displacement resulting in compressed lung areas, which leads to formation of atelectasis, especially during mechanical ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can maintain pulmonary gas exchange. The objective ...
Sandbu R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: A combined thoraco-laparoscopic technique for esophageal resection is technically possible, but it requires special attention to ventilation. The positive insufflation pressure normally used in laparoscopy will, when communication between thorax and abdomen is established, create a pneumothorax. METHODS: We performed an experimental study of differential lung ventilation with different ...
Polis I - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary influences of sevoflurane in oxygen at two anaesthetic concentrations (1.5 and 2 MAC) during spontaneous and controlled ventilation in dogs. After premedication with fentany-droperidol (5 microg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg intramuscularly) and induction with propofol (6 mg/kg intravenously) six dogs were ...
Burns D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Protective ventilation, in general, includes low tidal volume ventilation and maintaining end-inspiratory plateau pressures less than 35 cmH2O. Recent clinical studies have determined that such an approach results in improved survival in patients with moderate to severe acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, experimental evidence suggests ...
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