Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1427
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >
Maitland Kathryn - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether hypovolemia is an important cause of the acidosis in children with severe malaria. DESIGN: Prospective phase 1 study examining the safety of volume expansion using detailed hemodynamic monitoring. SETTING: High-dependency unit of Kilifi District Hospital on the coast of Kenya. PATIENTS: Kenyan children admitted with clinical ...
Seoudi Hani M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Assessment of cardiac volumes and cardiac output (CO) using a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) in mechanically ventilated patients can be inconsistent and difficult. The esophageal Doppler monitor (EDM) is emerging as a potential alternative to the PAC. This prospective study evaluated the comparative accuracy between the PAC and EDM ...
Bach John R - - 2003
To demonstrate the elimination of pectus excavatum and promotion of more normal lung growth and chest wall development by the use of high-span positive inspiratory pressure plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PIP+PEEP), patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with paradoxical breathing were placed on high-span PIP+PEEP when sleeping from the ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: (1) To assess the impact of high intrathoracic pressure on left ventricular volume and function. (2) To test the hypothesis that right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) and intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV) represent cardiac preload and are superior to central venous pressure (CVP) or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). The ...
Seddon Paul C - - 2003
Previous research suggested that esophageal pressure changes (DeltaP(es)) may not reflect pleural pressure changes (DeltaP(pl)) in the presence of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), making assessments of dynamic lung mechanics invalid in these circumstances. To test this hypothesis, we measured DeltaP(es) using a water-filled catheter in 18 preterm infants with lung ...
Mascotto G - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This prospective, randomized, controlled study evaluated the effects on oxygenation by applying a selective and patient-specific value of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the dependent lung during one-lung ventilation. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thoracic surgery under combined epidural/general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive zero PEEP (Group ...
Vieillard-Baron Antoine - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of low-flow pressure-volume loop at the bedside in ARDS, as an aid to assess recruitment produced by PEEP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Low-flow pressure-volume loop at the bedside were obtained on the first day of respiratory support in 54 successive pulmonary ARDS patients (49 of whom had pneumonia) treated ...
Perilli V - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Anesthetized morbidly obese patients often exhibit impaired pulmonary gas exchanges, mostly because of a reduction in functional residual capacity. At present, several approaches are suggested to ventilate these patients. METHODS: The efficiency of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and reverse Trendelenburg position (RTP) were compared in order to improve oxygenation ...
Bredenoord A J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The pressure inversion point (PIP) is defined as the point at which, during stationary pull-through manometry of the oesophago-gastric junction, the polarity of the respiratory-associated pressure variations changes. Traditionally, the PIP is ascribed to transition of the pressure sensor from the abdominal to the thoracic cavity. We used high-resolution ...
Terragni P P - - 2003
The main supportive therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients is mechanical ventilation. As with any therapy, mechanical ventilation has side-effects, and may induce lung injury (ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI)/ventilator-associated lung injury). The mechanical factors responsible for VILI are thought to be related to tidal recruitment/derecruitment of previously collapsed alveoli ...
Baum K - - 2003
The increase in blood pressure during training is a disadvantage of strength training in the elderly. To reduce this effect it is generally recommended to apply lower levels of relative muscle strength with longer contraction durations or higher number of repetitions (continuous mode (CM), e. g. 50% of maximal strength, ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on extravascular lung water (EVLW), lung tissue, and lung volume. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental animal study at a university research facility. SUBJECTS: Fifteen adult sheep. INTERVENTIONS: All animals were studied before and after saline washout-induced lung injury while ventilated with ...
Jolliet Philippe - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of He/O(2) and external PEEP (PEEPe) on intrinsic PEEP (PEEPi), respiratory mechanics, gas exchange, and ventilation/perfusion (V(A)/Q) in mechanically ventilated COPD patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, interventional study in the intensive care unit of a university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Ten intubated, sedated, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated COPD ...
Yoshino J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In obese patients, arterial oxygenation can be greatly impaired during general anesthesia. Both avoidance of denitrogenation and application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during mechanical ventilation may be effective in preventing such impairment of arterial oxygenation. METHODS: We studied 28 obese/overweight and seven non-obese (BMI < 25 kg x ...
Heulitt Mark J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)/positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on work of breathing (WOB). METHODS: With 13 anesthetized lambs we measured WOB with an esophageal balloon and flow signals. All the animals were sedated, intubated, and ventilated, using 2 pediatric ventilators ...
Valenza Franco - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have investigated the protective role of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on ventilator-induced lung injury. Most assessed lung injury in protocols involving different ventilation strategies applied for the same length of time. This study, however, set out to investigate the protective role of PEEP with respect to the ...
Suh Gee Young - - 2003
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a practical protocol for titrating positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) involving recruitment maneuver (RM) and decremental PEEP. Seventeen consecutive patients with acute lung injury who underwent PEEP titration were included in the analysis. After baseline ventilation, RM (continuous positive airway ...
Wong W P - - 2003
Chest clapping, vibration, and shaking were studied in 10 physiotherapists who applied these techniques on an anesthetized animal model. Hemodynamic variables (such as heart rate, blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and right atrial pressure) were measured during the application of these techniques to verify claims of adverse events. In addition, ...
Herrera María Teresa - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Previous animal studies have shown that certain modes of mechanical ventilation (MV) can injure the lungs. Most of those studies were performed with models that differ from clinical causes of respiratory failure. We examined the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in the setting of a clinically relevant, in ...
Marini J J - - 2003
Alveolar recruitment represents a challenging issue in ALI/ARDS patients. Multiple techniques have been compared: intermittent sighs, sustained application of high pressure in single or multiple episodes, use of progressive higher PEEP and lower tidal volumes (VT), with a fixed upper limit, and increase of PEEP, without modifying VT. Encouraging results ...
Zobel Gerfried - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to improve oxygenation and lung mechanics in different models of acute lung injury. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 2 gas ventilatory strategies during PLV on gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and hemodynamics in acute lung injury in piglets. METHODS: ...
Valente Barbas Carmen Sílvia - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the possible ways that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) lungs can be recruited and to present the experimental and clinical results of these maneuvers, along with the possible effects on patient outcome. DATA SOURCES: Selected published medical literature from 1972 to 2002 and personal observations. DATA SUMMARY: ...
Akinci Ibrahim Ozkan - - 2003
Optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is an important component of adequate mechanical ventilation in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the present study we tested the effect on gastric intramucosal pH of incremental increases in PEEP level (i.e. PEEP titration) to improve oxygenation in ARDS. Seventeen ...
Dosman Cara F - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and mean oscillated volume (V(osc)) during high frequency chest compression (HFCC). DESIGN: A clinic-based prospective intervention study. SETTING: Pulmonary function laboratory, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. POPULATION: Nine children with cystic fibrosis with little or ...
Tugrul Simru - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the response to sustained inflation and postinflation positive end-expiratory pressure varies between acute respiratory distress syndrome with pulmonary (ARDS(exp)) and extrapulmonary origin (ARDS(exp)). DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 11 patients with ARDS and 13 ...
Monkman Shelley - - 2003
Mechanical ventilation is a complex therapy with several different parameters which can be altered. In preterm and term infants, more attention has been paid to the levels of peak inspiratory pressure than to the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). An awareness that lung protection can be conferred by an appropriate level ...
Pestaña D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients implies the selection of the adequate ventilatory parameters, essentially PEEP and tidal volume (Vt), to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury. These parameters should be reset as the lung injury evolves. Among the different methods proposed for the adjustment of the ventilator, the ...
Halter Jeffrey M - - 2003
We tested the hypothesis that collapsed alveoli opened by a recruitment maneuver would be unstable or recollapse without adequate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) after recruitment. Surfactant deactivation was induced in pigs by Tween instillation. An in vivo microscope was placed on a lung area with significant atelectasis and the following ...
Kawamae, Kaneyuki
The mortality rate of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been still high. A many kinds of strategies for ARDS are being tried in the world. The important factors which influence for pathological-physiology of ARDS during the mechanical ventilation are gravity consolidation, atelectasis, and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). VILI is ...
Beiderlinden Martin - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of bronchoscopically guided percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) on oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory failure ventilated with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Anaesthesiological ICU, referral centre for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) therapy, university hospital. PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated patients with ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2003
Reduction of tidal volume to limit plateau pressure currently is recommended for the ventilatory management of acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, sufficient evidence now exists to support the fact that excessive reduction in tidal volume may result in harmful alveolar derecruitment depending on the level at which positive end-expiratory pressure ...
Frantzeskaki F - - 2003
The purpose of the present study was to assess the mechanical behavior of the respiratory system separately during inspiration and expiration in adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the influence of PEEP on any phasic variations ofthe mechanical respiratory parameters. Airways pressure (P), flow (V), and volume (V) signals were ...
Claxton B A - - 2003
Atelectasis occurs during general anaesthesia. This is partly responsible for the impairment of gas exchange that occurs peri-operatively. During cardiopulmonary bypass, this atelectasis is exacerbated by the physical collapse of the lungs. As a result, poor arterial oxygenation is often seen postoperatively. We tested the effect of an 'alveolar recruitment ...
Johannigman Jay A - - 2003
BACKGROUND Use of a low tidal volume (V(T)) strategy in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome can lead to a decrease in oxygenation. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a recruitment maneuver (RM) in this setting. METHODS: Twelve patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were studied within ...
Uttman L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether computer simulation predicts airway pressures after increments of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute respiratory failure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, nonrandomized comparative trial in an intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twelve consecutive acute respiratory failure patients. INTERVENTIONS. PEEP increments from 0 to 2.5, ...
Hammerschmidt Stefan - - 2003
Ventilator settings influence the development and outcome of acute lung injury. This study investigates the influence of low versus high tidal volume (V(t)) on oxidative stress-induced lung injury. Isolated rabbit lungs were subjected to one of three ventilation patterns (V(t)-positive end-expiratory pressure, PEEP): LVZP (6 ml/kg-0 cm H(2)O), HVZP (12 ...
O'Donnell Colm P F - - 2003
Neonatal resuscitation is based on experience with little evidence to support the methods advocated. Current guidelines make no distinction between the techniques for term and very premature infants. The guidelines support the use of 100%, cold, dry oxygen delivered with devices that provide variable peak inspiratory pressures and tidal volumes ...
Richard Jean-Christophe - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A low tidal volume can induce alveolar derecruitment in patients with acute lung injury. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether this resulted mainly from the decrease in tidal volume or from the reduction in end-inspiratory plateau pressure and whether there is any benefit in raising the level of ...
Collier Dawn C - - 2003
The purpose of this work is to estimate the uncertainty in the manual contouring of normal anatomical structures. The heart, esophagus, and spinal cord were contoured manually on six sets of computed tomography images by six dosimetrists whose experience ranged from 1 year to over 15 years. To determine the ...
Trevisanuto D - - 2003
To study the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level on perfluorochemical (PFC) elimination profiles (E(L)), 6 ml/kg of perflubron were instilled into healthy anesthetized rabbits. The ventilation strategy was to maintain constant minute ventilation (300 ml/kg/min) and mean airway pressure (7-8 cm H(2)O) while randomly changing the PEEP levels ...
Tusman Gerardo - - 2003
BACKGROUND: General anesthesia is known to promote atelectasis formation. High inspiratory pressures are required to reexpand healthy but collapsed alveoli. However, in the absence of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), reexpanded alveoli collapse again. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the impact of an alveolar recruitment strategy on the amount and distribution of ...
Jayroe Jason B - - 2003
Arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal (AVCO2R) as an alternative treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome uses a low resistance gas exchanger in a simple arteriovenous shunt to achieve total CO2 removal and allow lung rest. We have previously shown in our clinically relevant LD40 ovine model of smoke/burn induced acute respiratory ...
Fujino Yuji - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Automatic tube compensation (ATC), a new ventilation mode that compensates for the work of breathing imposed by endotracheal tube resistance, recently became commercially available. METHODS: We conducted a laboratory study with a lung model and a Nellcor Puritan Bennett 840 ventilator to compare ATC and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). A ...
Uribe Natalia - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on residual vascularization in gastric tubes for oesophageal replacement. DESIGN: Experimental open study. MATERIALS: Eleven mongrel dogs. METHODS: Intestinal parietal blood flow was evaluated by photoplethysmography (PPG) and measurement of surface oxygen (PsO(2)) and carbon dioxide (PsCO(2)) tensions under basal ...
Allen Gilman - - 2002
The lasting effects of a recruitment maneuver (RM) in the injured lung are not well characterized. We speculated that the reduction in respiratory elastance (H) after a deep inflation (DI) is transient in nature and should be sustained longer at higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Thirteen ventilated mice were given ...
Lellouche François - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Heat and moisture exchangers (HME) increase circuitry deadspace compared to heated humidifiers (HH). This study compared the effect of HH and HME during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on arterial blood gases and patient's effort assessed by respiratory muscles pressure-time product and by work of breathing (WOB). DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized ...
Baumgardner James E JE Department of Anesthesia, School of Veterinary Medicine, and Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-4283, USA. - - 2002
One of the proposed mechanisms of ventilator-associated lung injury is cyclic recruitment of atelectasis. Collapse of dependent lung regions with every breath should lead to large oscillations in PaO2 as shunt varies throughout the respiratory cycle. We placed a fluorescence-quenching PO2 probe in the brachiocephalic artery of six anesthetized rabbits ...
Johnston William E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Acute aortic occlusion in vascular surgery patients abruptly increases arterial resistance and blood pressure, which, in turn, makes subsequent volume expansion during cross-clamp application difficult. The use of vasodilatory drugs or volatile anesthetic agents to attenuate this response may have persistent detrimental effects after clamp removal. Another potential therapy ...
Cakar Nahit - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: High peak airway opening pressures (Pao) are used routinely during recruitment maneuvers to open collapsed lung units. High peak Pao, however, can cause lung injury as evidenced by translocation of intratracheally inoculated bacteria. In this study we explored whether recruitment maneuvers that used high Pao could cause translocation of ...
Huynh Toan - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Optimizing intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is important in the management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In trauma patients with TBI and respiratory dysfunction, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is often required to support oxygenation. Increases in PEEP may lead to reduced CPP. We hypothesized that ...
< 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 >