Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1430
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >
Barbas Carmen Sílvia Valente - - 2005
Recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)/tidal ventilation titration in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are the cornerstone of mechanical ventilatory support. The net result of these possible adjustments in ventilatory parameters is the interaction of the pressure applied in the respiratory system (airway pressure/end expiratory pressure) counterbalanced ...
Albaiceta Guillermo M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of two levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), 2 cm H(2)O above the lower inflection point of the inspiratory limb and equal to the point of maximum curvature on the expiratory limb of the pressure-volume curve, in gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and lung aeration. DESIGN ...
Oda Jun - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) can become fatal; however, it has rarely been described as a complication of burn injury. This study clarified the physiologic results of abdominal decompression (AD) for ACS in patients with burn injury in detail. METHODS: Extensively burned patients admitted to our burn unit between January ...
Buscher H - - 2005
The objective of this study was to evaluate a non-volitional measurement to assess diaphragmatic function in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in a prospective pilot interventional clinical trial. The study was conducted in an 18-bed postoperative intensive care unit based at a university hospital. Patients were prospectively assigned to two ...
Halbertsma F J J - - 2005
A literature review was conducted to assess the evidence for recruitment manoeuvres used in conventional mechanical positive pressure ventilation. A total of 61 studies on recruitment manoeuvres were identified: 13 experimental, 31 ICU, 6 PICU and 12 anaesthesia studies. Recruitment appears to be a continuous process during inspiration and expiration ...
Meininger D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery usually requires the use of a pneumoperitoneum by insufflating gas in the peritoneal space. The gas most commonly used for insufflation is carbon dioxide. Increased intra-abdominal pressure causes cephalad displacement of the diaphragm resulting in compressed lung areas, which leads to formation of atelectasis, especially during mechanical ...
Caramez Maria Paula MP Respiratory and Emergency Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department, Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, - - 2005
To reevaluate the clinical impact of external positive end-expiratory pressure (external-PEEP) application in patients with severe airway obstruction during controlled mechanical ventilation. The controversial occurrence of a paradoxic lung deflation promoted by PEEP was scrutinized. External-PEEP was applied stepwise (2 cm H(2)O, 5-min steps) from zero-PEEP to 150% of intrinsic-PEEP ...
Michelet P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation-related hypoxaemia (OLV-RH) can occur in patients with healthy lungs. In this case, PEEP frequently improves oxygenation. The aim of this study was to determine, in a healthy lung model of OLV, whether the increase in PEEP improved oxygenation and whether the mechanisms involved include both inspiratory lung ...
Haberthür Christoph - - 2005
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is used in mechanically ventilated patients to increase pulmonary volume and improve gas exchange. However, in clinical practice and with respect to adult, ventilator-dependent patients, little is known about the short-term effects of PEEP on breathing patterns. In 30 tracheally intubated, spontaneously breathing patients, we sequentially ...
Reddy Venu Gopal - - 2005
Auto-positive end expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP) is a physiologic event that is common to mechanically ventilated patients. Auto-PEEP is commonly found in acute severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or patients receiving inverse ratio ventilation. Factors predisposing to auto-PEEP include a reduction in expiratory time by increasing the respiratory rate, tidal ...
Villar J - - 2005
Clinical and experimental research on the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has produced a plethora of information during the last two decades. The application of PEEP is expected to increase PaO2; however, it is generally agreed that simply using increased PaO2 as the end point is inappropriate. Four mechanisms ...
Villar J - - 2005
One of the most challenging problems in critical care medicine is the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the most severe form of acute lung injury (ALI). Evidence from experimental studies suggests that mechanical ventilation can cause or aggravate lung injury. Referred to as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), this condition resembles ...
Polglase Graeme R - - 2005
In mature lungs, elevated positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) reduces pulmonary blood flow (PBF) and increases pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). However, the effect of PEEP on PBF in preterm infants with immature lungs and a patent ductus arteriosus is unknown. Fetal sheep were catheterized at 124 days of gestation (term approximately ...
Adam Dan - - 2005
Noninvasive measurement of pressure within the heart cavities and other internal organs (e.g., kidney, liver) has significant clinical value, but currently is not feasible. Noninvasive pressure estimation using encapsulated ultrasound (US) contrast agents (UCA) as sensors is a challenge because they supposedly respond to their ambient pressure, but they are ...
Tugrul Simru - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the time course of Pao2 change following the setting of optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-five consecutive patients with ARDS. INTERVENTIONS: ARDS was diagnosed during ...
Koh Won-Jung - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Repeated derecruitments of previously recruited lungs can exacerbate lung injuries during mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study was to assess lung injury associated with repeated derecruitments and to assess whether this type of injury could be attenuated by recruitment maneuvers. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, experimental animal study. SETTING: University ...
Kardos A - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Positive-pressure ventilation may alter cardiac function. Our objective was to determine with the use of impedance cardiography (ICG) whether altering airway pressure modifies the central haemodynamics in mechanically ventilated children with no pulmonary pathology. Central venous saturation (S(cv)O(2)) was measured as an indicator of tissue perfusion. METHODS: Twelve children ...
Glérant J-Ch - - 2005
The intrinsic positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) increases the inspiratory load, the cost of breathing and thus oxygen consumption (V(O2)). It has been shown that applying an extrinsic positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEPe) reduces the inspiratory threshold load but the optimal PEEPe level is still in debate. We hypothesize that the best level of ...
Savian Camila - - 2005
Including positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in the manual resuscitation bag (MRB) may render manual hyperinflation (MHI) ineffective as a secretion maneuver technique in mechanically ventilated patients. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of increased PEEP or decreased compliance on peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) during MHI. A ...
Salari P - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a serious, often fatal, condition, despite progress in modern critical care treatment. Cytokines play important roles in the pathogenesis of the syndrome, although their roles in the evaluation and outcome have not been clearly elucidated yet. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether serum concentration of ...
Walther Sten M - - 2005
The classic four-zone model of lung blood flow distribution has been questioned. We asked whether the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is different between the prone and supine position for lung tissue in the same zonal condition. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated prone (n = 6) and supine (n = ...
Akinci Ozkan I - - 2005
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of body temperature on ventilator-induced lung injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 6 groups based on their body temperature (normothermia, 37 +/- 1 degrees C; hypothermia, 31 +/- 1 degrees C; hyperthermia, 41 +/- 1 degrees C). Ventilator-induced lung injury ...
Pellett Andrew A - - 2005
It is not clear if low end-expiratory pressures contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury in large animals. We sought to determine whether ventilation with a low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) worsens preexisting permeability lung injury in dogs. Lung injury was initiated in 20 mongrel dogs by ventilating with nebulized ...
Caricato Anselmo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can be effective in improving oxygenation, but it may worsen or induce intracranial hypertension. The authors hypothesized that the intracranial effects of PEEP could be related to the changes in respiratory system compliance (Crs). METHODS: A prospective study investigated 21 comatose patients with severe head ...
Mentzelopoulos S D - - 2005
The present authors hypothesised that in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pronation may reduce ventilator-induced overall stress (i.e. transpulmonary pressure (P(L))) and strain of lung parenchyma (i.e. tidal volume (V(T))/end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) ratio), which constitute major ventilator-induced lung injury determinants. The authors sought to determine whether potential pronation ...
Sentürk N Mert - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of PEEP on oxygenation and airway pressures during PCV-OLV. DESIGN: Randomized, crossover, clinical study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients undergoing thoracotomy. INTERVENTIONS: During the first 5 minutes of OLV, all patients were ventilated with VCV (PEEP: 0) (VCV-ZEEP). ...
Gander Sylvain - - 2005
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) applied during induction of anesthesia prevents atelectasis formation and increases the duration of nonhypoxic apnea in nonobese patients. PEEP also prevents atelectasis formation in morbidly obese patients. Because morbidly obese patients have difficult airway management more often and because arterial desaturation develops rapidly, we studied the ...
Barbas Carmen Sílvia Valente - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review as best the critical care clinicians can recruit the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) lungs and keep the lungs opened, assuring homogeneous ventilation, and to present the experimental and clinical results of these mechanical ventilation strategies, along with possible improvements in patient outcome based on ...
Mascia Luciana - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In patients with severe brain injury and acute lung injury the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is limited by conflicting results on its effect on intracranial pressure. We hypothesised that the occurrence of alveolar hyperinflation during the application of PEEP would lead to an increase in PaCO(2) responsible ...
Grasso Salvatore - - 2005
A recent study by the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network compared the traditional lower end-expiratory pressure strategy with a higher end-expiratory pressure strategy in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome ventilated with low tidal volumes. Clinical outcomes were similar whether lower or higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels were ...
Kirchner E A EA Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Hospital, Hugstetterstrasse 55, 79106 Freiburg, Germany. - - 2005
Repeated alveolar collapse and cyclic alveolar overdistension with associated activation of inflammatory signalling cascades contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The appropriate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) which prevents or ameliorates VILI is unknown. In the isolated perfused lung, repeated adjustments of PEEP based on the continuously analysed intratidal compliance-volume curve ...
Wolf S - - 2005
Recently, we showed the feasibility of ventilating neurosurgical patients with acute intracranial pathology and concomitant acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) according the so-called Open Lung approach. This technique consists of low tidal volume, elevated positive expiratory pressure (PEEP) level and initial recruitment maneuvers to open up collapsed alveoli. In this ...
Blanch Lluís - - 2005
Severe airflow obstruction is a common cause of acute respiratory failure. Dynamic hyperinflation affects tidal ventilation, increases airways resistance, and causes intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP). Most patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have dynamic hyperinflation and auto-PEEP during mechanical ventilation, which can cause hemodynamic compromise and barotrauma. ...
Ferguson Niall D - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the usual practice for setting tidal volume and other ventilatory parameters in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the late 1990s and to determine the independent effects of these practices on intensive care unit mortality. DESIGN: Subanalysis of a prospective observational study. Multivariable logistic regression ...
Ntoumenopoulos G - - 2005
Manual lung hyperinflation (MHI) can enhance secretion clearance, improve total lung/thorax compliance and assist in the resolution of acute atelectasis. To enhance secretion clearance in the intubated patient, the evidence highlights the need to maximize expiratory flow. Chronic pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have often been ...
Luecke Thomas - - 2005
In patients with acute lung injury, high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) may be necessary to maintain or restore oxygenation, despite the fact that 'aggressive' mechanical ventilation can markedly affect cardiac function in a complex and often unpredictable fashion. As heart rate usually does not change with PEEP, the ...
Odenstedt Helena - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess acute cardiorespiratory effects of recruitment manoeuvres in experimental acute lung injury. DESIGN: Experimental study in animal models of acute lung injury. SETTING: Experimental laboratory at a University Medical Centre. ANIMALS: Ten pigs with bronchoalveolar lavage and eight pigs with endotoxin-induced ALI. INTERVENTIONS: Two kinds of recruitment manoeuvres ...
Henzler Dietrich - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Measurements from the pulmonary pressure-volume (PV) curve have been proposed to adjust ventilator settings. We investigated the effects of repeated construction of an inflation PV curve implemented in a standard ventilator on recruitment or derecruitment in acutely injured lungs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective experimental animal study in eight anesthetized ...
von Goedecke A - - 2004
We compared positive pressure ventilation with pressure support ventilation at different levels of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) using the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA). Forty-two anaesthetized adults (ASA 1-2, aged 19 to 63 years) underwent positive pressure ventilation and then pressure support ventilation each with PEEP set at 0, ...
Lim Sung-Chul - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Elevated lung volumes and increased pleural pressures associated with recruitment maneuvers (RM) may adversely affect pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac filling or performance. We investigated the hemodynamic consequences of three RM techniques after inducing acute lung injury. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study. SETTING: Hospital research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Thirteen ...
Monkman Shelley L - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of low vs. high tidal volume (Vt) with three positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) strategies on activated neutrophil influx into the lung. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled animal study. SETTING: Animal laboratory in a university hospital. SUBJECTS: Newborn piglets. INTERVENTIONS: Surfactant-depleted piglets were randomized in littermate pairs; ...
Valenza F - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to the dependent lung during one-lung ventilation, taking into consideration underlying lung function in order to select responders to PEEP. METHODS: Forty-six patients undergoing open-chest thoracic surgical procedures were studied in an ...
Charles Pierre Emmanuel - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Ventilatory strategies combining low tidal volume (V(T)) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are considered to be lung protective. The influence of the PEEP level was investigated on bacteriology and histology in a model of ventilator-associated pneumonia. SUBJECTS: Nineteen New Zealand rabbits. INTERVENTIONS: The animals were mechanically ventilated with a ...
Yamaya Yoshiki - - 2004
Two of 26 anesthetized dogs given the cardiac echo-enhancing agent Optison showed anaphylactoid responses (AR) related to the human albumin component of this agent. The episodes of AR were self-limited, and could be reproduced by human albumin injection alone. Gas exchange was maintained by mechanical ventilation and 5 cm H(2)O ...
Johansson Mats J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To examine interactions between positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and posture on regional distribution of ventilation and to compare measurements of regional ventilation with two aerosols: a wet fluorescent microsphere aerosol (FMS, median mass aerodynamic diameter 1.1 microm) and a dry Tc-labeled carbon particle aerosol (Technegas, TG, median mass aerodynamic ...
Rylander C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The oleic acid-induced lung injury (OAI) model is considered to represent the early phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Its inherent properties are important for the design and the interpretation of interventional studies. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution of morphometric lung changes during ...
Farias Luciana L - - 2005
This study tests the hypotheses that a recruitment maneuver per se yields and/or intensifies lung mechanical stress. Recruitment maneuver was applied to a model of paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and to healthy rats with (ATEL) or without (CTRL) previous atelectasis. Recruitment was done by using 40-cmH(2)O continuous positive airway ...
Martínez-Pérez Melcior - - 2004
This study analyzed the effect of phasic tracheal gas insufflation at mid- to end-expiration in patients with severe head trauma and acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A prospective interventional study in a 16-bed intensive care unit. Seven patients with severe head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale <9) and ...
Bayle Frederique - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To describe inflation and deflation volume-pressure (V-P) curves of the respiratory system by the sigmoidal equation at different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute lung injury. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Physiological laboratory in a university setting. SUBJECTS: Six pigs of 25 kg each. INTERVENTIONS: Acute lung injury ...
Wald M - - 2004
AIM: A central respiratory regulation disturbance--triggered by impaired oxygen supply to the brainstem--is being discussed as an aetiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome. In this experimental study, further insight was sought into how far cervical spine movements may induce critical narrowing of the vertebral arteries. METHODS: In 10 infant ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 >